APPENDIX The important dates and e v e n t s of Mahatma Gandhi's life 1869 October 2: B o r n at Porbandar, Kathiawar, India, son of Karamchand and Putlibai G a n d h i . 1883: Married Kasturba. 1888: Sailed from Bombay for England to study law. t o I n d i a after being called to 1891 Summer: R e t u r n e d Began to Bar. 1893 April: practise law i n Bombay and Rajkot. Sailed for South Africa to become lawyer I n d i a n firm. an the Found himself subjected to for colour .+ discrimir~ation 1894 May: Oryanised the Natal I n d i a n Congress. Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for t h e B r i t i s h in 1899: the Boer war. 1901 : W i t h t h e family embakked f o r India. 1901-02: Travelled extensively in India, attended Indian National Congress meeting in Calcutta a n d opened law office i r l Bombay. 1902: Returned to South ~ f r i c aat the request of the Indian community. 1904: Established t h e weekly journal Organised Phoenix Farm near Durban. 'Indian Opinion', in protest proposed ~ s i a t i co r d i n a n c e directed against 1906 September: against F i r s t 'satyagraha' campaign I n d i a n immigrants in Transvaal. 1907 June: Orjanised 'satyagraha' against compulsory registration of Asiatics (The Black A c t ) . 1908 January: and Stood t r i a l for sentenced was 'satyagraha' instigating to two months imprisonment Johannesburg j a i l (his first imprisonment). to consu1.t General Smuts at in Summoned compromise Pretoria; reached; was released from jail. Attacked a n d wounded by 1908 February: extremist Indian for settlement with Smuts. 1908 August: After 'satyagraha ' Smuts broke agreement, campaign began with second of bonfire r e g i s t r a t i o n c e r l i f icates. S e n t e n c e d to t h r e e months imprisonment 1909 February: in Volksrust and Pretoria j a i l s . 1909 June: S a i l e d for England to present Indians' case. 1910 May: Established Tolstoy Farm near J o h a n n e s b u r g . 1913 September: marriages Helped campaign against n u l l i f i c a t i o n not rites. Third Indian n,.iners celeberated according 'satyagraha' from New to campaign. Castle across Christian Led 2,000 Transvaal border. 1913 November: of Arrested for third time in four d a y s . Released unconditionally in expectation of 1913 December: a compromise. 1914 July: t o India, leaving S o u t h Returned for Africa ever. 1915 May: 1917: Established S a t y a g r a h a A s h r a m near Ahmedabad. Ashram to new site on Sabarrnati River, Moved 'satyagraha' successf u3. campaign rights for peasants on indigo plantations in Champaran. order leave to in area of Defied arrested was April, Led at Motihari and t r i e d , but case was withdrawn. 1918 February: strike of millworkers Led at Ahmedabad. Millowners agreed to arbitration a f t e r his three-day f a s t ( h i s f i r s t fast i n India). Led 'satyagraha' for peasants in Kheda. 1918 March: Organised n a t i o n w i d e 1918 A p r i l : of hartal--suspension 3 activity for a day against the Rowlatt ~ills. at Sabarmati for three days i n penitence Fasted for violence and suspended 'satyagraha' campaign which he called were a 'Himalayan miscalculation' not English disciplined weekly because Became enough. 'Young India' and people of Editor Gujarati weekly 'Navajivan'. 1920 April: League. Elected president of All Successfully urged India Home resolutions 'satyagraha' campaign of non-cooperation. Rule for a 1921: R e s o l v e d homespun to wear only a l o i n and to signify cotton his Gandhi invested with propagate identification Mass civil disobedience, with the people. went to jaal. to cloth 'sole thousands executive authority' on behalf of Indian Congress. mass disobedience because of violence 1922: Suspended Chdwri Chawra and undertook five-day fast of Bardoli. at seditiion Arrested at Sabarmati articles i n ' Y o u n g for penance charge on India'. of Pleaded guilty in a famous statement at t h e 'great t r i a l ' Ahmedabad before Judge Broomfield. at in Sentenced to six ArresteC for burning foreign cloth in Calcutta and years' imprisonment in Yervada jail. 1929: fined one r u p e e . 1929 December: complete Concgess - Lahore a boycott 26 proposed for voted of the Independence as . Set out historic 1930 April 6: up January at Third all-India ' s a t y a g r a h a ' campaign. 1930 March 12: on and independence legislature. day. session at from Sabarmati with 79 Salt March 2 0 0 miles to sea volunteers at Dandi. Broke salt law by picking a h a n d f u l of salt seashore. Arrested by armed policemen Karadi and imprisoned in Yervada jail without at trial. One hundred thousand persons arrested. 1931 January: Released Congress leaders. unconditionally with 30 other and hi-Irwin 1931 March: ( V i c e r o y ) Pact signed, which e n d e d c i v l ~ ldisobedience. 1931 August: S e i l e d from Bombay for the Second Round Table C o n f e r e n c e in London. R e t u r n e d t o I n d i a . Authorised by 1 9 3 1 December: to renew ' s a t y a g r a h a ' campaign (fourth Congress nation-wide effort). 1932 January: Pate1 A r r e s t e d in Bombay with S a r d a r and d e t a i n e d . ~ i t h o u tt r i a l at Yervada prison. Began 1932 September 2 0 : prison in protest 'fast against death' unto while in giving ~ r i t i s h action separate electorate to untouchables. 1932 September 2 6 : "fast" i n the Concluded Tagore Rabindranath after the presence British of accepted 'Yervada T a c t ' . . 1933: weekly p u b l i c a t i o n of 'Harijan' i n place Began 'Young I n d i a ' 3.933 J u l y : of . Disbanded Sabarmati Ashram w h i c h then . became centre f o ~ removal of untouchability. 1933 November: Began ten-month tour of India to help end untouchability. 1934 October: Launched A11 India Village Industries Associati:m. 1940 October: Launched disobedience allow Indians limited, individual civil campaign against ~ r i t i a n ' s r e f u s a l to express their opinions to regarding World War 11. 23,000 persons imprisoned within a year. 1942: Met with Sir S t a f f o r d Cripps i n New Delhi but called h i s proposals ' a postdated cheque'; these were ultimately rejected by the C o n g r e s s . ' Q u i t India R e s o l u t i o n ' Congress passed ( 8 August)--the f i n a l nation- wide 'satyagraha campaign' with andh hi a s the l e a d e r . Arrested with o t h e r Congress leaders and K a s t u r b a and imprisoned i n Aga Khan Palace, n e a r Poona. 1943 February 10: Began fast at Aga Khan Palace to end deadlock between V i c e r o y a n d I n d i a n leaders. 1 9 4 4 February 22: Kasturba died i n detention at Aga Khan P a l a c e at the age of 7 4 . After 1 9 4 4 M a y 6: in decline unconditionally+ from health, released was detention (this w a s his i m p r i s o n n ~ e n t ; h e had spent 2 , 3 3 8 days i n j a i l last during his life-time). 1946: B e g a n f - o u r - m o n t h tour of 4 9 villages in East Bengal I to quell c o m m u n a l rioting over M u s l i m representation i n provisional g o v e r n m e n t . 1947: Toured Bihar to lessen Hindu-Muslim Began coriferences i n N e w Delhi with Lord tensions. Mountbatten and J i n n a h . 1 9 4 7 May: O p l - ~ o s e dCongress decision t o accept d i v i s i o n of country i n t o I n d i a and ~ a k i s t a n . F a s t e d and t o combat r i o t s i n C a l c u t t a a s India w a s prayed partitioned g r a n L e d independence. and and Visited Delhi other neighbouring areas to stop rioting and to visit camps for r e f u g e e s . 1946 onwards: Gandhiji's effecting efforts were Hindu-Muslim accord. had broken o u t a l l over India, President concentrated riots Hindu-Muslim ever s i n c e the L e a g u e Jinnah, rejected the Cabinet ~ i s s i o n Plan and p r o c h i m e d August 16, 1946 a s Direct Action It never c l a r i f i e d w h a t was involved. with Direct vengeance. The great Calcutta killings 16/18 were the first. bitter harvest Direct Action Day, Gandhiji visited many instance--to call this August for Day. ~ c t i o n really the Muslims responded to But areas--Noakhali 1948: on restore of of of the these communal Gandhiji undertook a fast for 5 d a y s t o bring about communal prayer unity. On 30 J a n u a r y , while m e e t i n g a t B i r f a House, Delhi, holding Gandhiji shot d e a d by a H i n d u fanatic N a t h u r a r n V i n a y a k a was Godse, who was d e a d l y opposed to Gandhiji's efforts to bring about Hindu-Muslim a m i t y . T h u s e n d e d the life of the greatest Indian since the B u d d h a .
© Copyright 2021 Paperzz