3EPTEMBER 1942 58th YEAR OF * What Causes Cancer? * How to Choose a Doctor * Artificial Teeth * Corns * Eye Troubles * Why Your Body Needs Iron It's a Patriotic Duty to Keep Healthy SOY CHEESE, Soy curd (Tofu) seasoned for croquettes, salads, sandwich spreads, etc.: 5 oz. 10c; 14 or. 25c: 30 oz. 50c. вЂў -Dr. P. A. Webber in the Madison Laboratory NOT-MEAT, a meatless loaf for cutlets, roasts, patties, croquettes, salads. etc. 5 oz. 10c; 14 oz. 25c: 30 oz. 50c. YUM, a mild bologna flavor. Contains soy beans, wheat gluten. and seasonings. 5 oz. 10c; 14 oz. 25c; 30 oz. 50c. KREME O'SOY for those allergic to cow's milk and for special diets. A liquid not concentrated. 15 oz. 15c: 29 oz. 25c, 7.0YBURGER, excellent for sandwich spreads or served like a steak with onions. Recipes on the can. 14 oz. 25c: 30 oz. 50c. A, YIGOROST, a vegetable steak to be prepared like meat, also for sandwiches and salads. 5 oz. 10c; 14 oz. 25c; 30 oz. 50c. %When, soots SOY BEANS IN TOMATO SAUCE, or in plain soy sauce. Prepared by exclusive process. 30 oz. 30c. A A FOOD FOOD ST A K EвЂўL ET S, a combination of gluten and soy beans. They are already sliced in the can. Serve in the place of a meat portion. 14 or. 25c: 30 oz. 50c. WHEA "ZOY- KOFF TSISOY AD $50lвЂў ;C.; вЂў WHEATASOY, an alkaline breaklast food, ready to eat. Contains rich grain malt, whole wheat. and soy-bean flour. 130 pkg. Devoted to the PROTECTION of Your Health In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH. ZOY-KOFF, not a trace of caffein. No nerve stimulants. Two grinds вЂ”regular and fine. Prepare like coffee. 25c pkg.вЂ”makes 35 cups. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Articles What Causes Cancer? Warren G. Harding, M D. Corns Henry H. Hazen, M. D. Why You Need Iron in Your Diet James A. Tobey, Dr. P. H., LL. D. Eye Troubles J. E. Heald, M. D. Diet Habits in the Forbidden Land of Tibet Harold E. James, M. D. Those Artificial Teeth D. S. Teters, D. D. S. The Virtues of Lady Nicotine Challenged Lieutenant Commander James J. Short, M. D. Cooking School Lessons, No. 4 Myrtle V. Barker, Dietitian How to Choose a Doctor W. W. Bauer, M. D. I) why NABISCO 100%-BRAN is worth remembering if you suffer from constipation due to insufficient bulk 9 10 12 13 14 17 MILD IN ACTION вЂ” Nabisco 100% Bran brings gentle relief to persons suffering from constipation caused by lack of bulk in the diet. This is due in great part to double-milling ...a process which further breaks down bran fibers, making them less likely to irritate intestinal membranes. 18 Departments News in Small Doses The Dietitian Says Your Mental Attitude The Housewife's Corner The Family Physician The Mother's Counselor For Boys and Girls The Health of Your Pets Gardening for Health 5 16 20 22 24 26 28 29 30 V "CAN my daughter safely marry that Mr. B with the record his family has for tuberculosis?" This and other questions will be answered in the article, "Are Diseases Inherited?" . . . Ten Questions asked to determine your health score. . . "It must be my glands," says Mrs. J. An explanation of the function of the ductless glands. . . . We are all, at times anyway, beset by fears, perhaps especially in these days that demand high courage. An article on how to banish fears from your mind. . . . Breathing exercises may be extremely beneficial. An article tells why this is so, and gives some deep-breathing exercises. . . . Are you troubled with so-called heartburn or sour stomach, and other little digestive disturbances? An article warns what not to do for these complaints, and advises you what to do. . . . Another "Highway of Life" article, this time, "Watch Your Curves and Corners." Fat folk and thin folk will read this. . . . Cooking Lesson No. 5 gives more suggestions for good things to eat. . . . Vegetarianism measured by the new yardstick of good nutrition. Vol. 57, No. 9, September, 1942. Issued monthly. Printed and published by Review and Herald Publishing Association, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C. U. S. A. Subscription rate, $1.20. Canada and Foreign higher. When change of address is desired, both old and new addresses must be given. Entered as second-class matter June 14, 1904, at the post office at Washington, D. C., under act of Congress, March 3, 1879. Member Audit Bureau of Circulation. tastes good. Even persons who never liked bran now enjoy making Nabisco 100% Bran a regular part of their daily diets. HIGH IN FOOD VALUE вЂ”Nabisco 100% Bran contains sig- V Coming Next Month SEPTEMBER. 1942 DELICIOUS TO TASTEвЂ”Here, at last, is bran that really nificant amounts of phosphorus and iron ... is also a good source of Vitamin B1. INEXPENSIVE BULK FOOD вЂ” Almost everyone can afford moderately-priced Nabisco 100% Bran. It's one of the most economical bulk foods available. Packed in both one pound and half-pound sizes ... it is sold at food stores everywhere. Eat Nabisco 100% Bran regularly. If your constipation is not helped in this simple manner, consult a competent physician. AMERICAN 1, MEDICAL ASSN. Accepted by the Council on Foods of the American Medical Association EN 10010 1.6.A. 10 JUKt t1tlwMlul fn./41110 FIVJAE DOUBLE MILLED 6.01/NCB FOR CONSTIPATION DUE TO INSUFFICIENT BULK I li NOY MUM INN TWI FlOSICIAN NDATIONAL BISCUIT COM BAKED BY NABISCO вЂў NATIONAL BISCUIT COMPANY 449 WEST 14th STREET, NEW YORK CITY In replying to adrer!isements, please mention LIFE AND HEAL! II. PAGE 3 CANCER may have a variety of causes. You'll want to read what has been found to date on the question of cancer research. Read "What Causes Cancer?" Page 6. FAULTY footwear is the cause of corns. What kind of shoes should we insist on when buying shoes, and what can we do for corns already formed? Page 8. THE head of a pin could carry the amount of iron that is contained in the human body, and yet this infinitesimal amount is vital to life and health. Why is iron so important, and how can we get sufficient iron in our diet? Page 9. IN the article "Eye Troubles" the doctor explains what is meant by such terms as farsightedness, nearsightedness, cross-eye, and astigmatism, and what conditions may be found in our bodily health when we suffer from any of these defects of vision, or from eyestrain. Page 10. AVE take a peep into the forbidden land of Tibet and study Tibetan diet, simple in the extreme, perhaps not as tasty as our American way of eating, but effective, and holding perhaps in its very simplicity the key to robust health. Page 12. Muck' advancement has been made in the making of dentures, so much so that no one who must have his teeth extracted, need fear that "store-teeth" look. Read "Those Artificial Teeth." Page 13. DOES tobacco really give you a lift, or does it let you down? A devotee of Lady Nicotine came to her defense in one of the picture magazines in answer to Lieutenant Commander Tunney's count against her. In this issue we have the third round in the fight that began with Gene Tunney's article. See page 14. You are a newcomer in a community. You wish to choose your family doctor, the right doctor for your family. How to do this and also how and when to call him in an emergency are found in the article on page 18. EDITOR Francis D. Nichol CONSULTING EDITORS Harold M. Walton, M. D., F. A. C. P. Robert A. Hare, M. D., F. A. C. P. Arthur E. Coyne, M. D., L. R. C. P. & S. (Edin.), F. A. C. S. CONTRIBUTING EDITORS George K. Abbott, M. D., F. A. C. S. John F. Brownsberger, M. D., F. A. C. S. D. Lois Burnett, R. N. Alton D. Butterfield, M. D. Belle Wood-Comstock, M. D. Leroy E. Coolidge, M. D., F. A. C. S. George T. Harding, M. D., F. A. C. P. Martin A. Hollister Daniel H. Kress, M. D. Carl J. Larsen, M. D. J. Russell Mitchell, D. D. S., F. A. C. D. Arlie L. Moon, M. D. Clarence E. Nelson, M. D., F. A. C. S., L. R. C. P. & S. (Edin.), F. R. C. S. (Edin.) Alfred B. Olsen, M. D., L. R. C. P. (London), M. R. C. S. (Eng.), D. P. H. (Cambridge) Orlyn B. Pratt, M. D., F. A. G. P. Charles C. Prince, M. D. Wells A. Ruble, M. D., L. R. C. P. & S. (Edin.) Edward A. Sutherland, M. D. Archibald W. Truman, M. D., F. A. C. S. Henry W. Vollmer, M. D., F. A. C. S. PAGE 4 THE NATIONAL HEALTH JOURNAL Clearing Away the Smoke OMETHING of a furore was created by Gene Tunney's article against tobacco in the Reader's Digest some months ago. In the July issue of Click appeared a reply to Tunney's article from the pen of a physician. We have often been curious to know just how a doctor would proceed to give a general defense of tobacco smoking. Up to the time of reading this article we do not recall having read such a defense from the pen of an M. D. Our curiosity is now satisfied, even satiated. The article opens thus: "Smoking has been maligned long enough! It's been the whipping boy of health fanatics for years. It is high time somebody took up cudgels in its defense!" Our emotions are not stirred. We thought that movie stars and other celebrities rhapsodized in "its defense" "long enough" at so much per testimonial until the Federal Trade Commission put a ban on it. We do know as a current fact that the tobacco companies are spending huge sums in advertising their waresвЂ”which it is their lawful right to doвЂ”and thus providing a "defense." S Strange Situation Develops But right here is where a strange situation develops. This Click contributor, moving forward in the same tempo as his introduction, seeks to assure his readers that there is really nothing at all to the charges against tobacco, even the longstanding charge against nicotine. Yet certain great tobacco companies of recent years have been spending large sums to stress the claim that their respective brands of cigarettes contain less nicotine than the average, or less of certain irritating substances. Now if only some poor, deluded "health fanatics" 'have been cruelly "whipping" smoking through the years, and medical men can provide clear-cut proof that tobacco is really a "boon," nicotine and all, then the advertising counselors to some great tobacco companies have made a capital blunder. Since when has it become good psychology to give billboard publicity, by inference, to the groundless attacks of "fanatics"? Or since when did it become good strategy in an economic fight to use a poor defensive weaponвЂ”there's less nicotine in our brandвЂ”if it is possible to use a devastating offensive weapon-.-medical science proves smoking in general and nicotine in particular are quite harmless, really a "boon"? But advertising counselors are intelligent and astute, good students of human nature, and as honest as the rest of us. They would not be guilty of committing any such foolish blunder in strategy. They have simply done the best they could in view of the facts. They have canvassed this subject more fully than most people, and they know that medical and other scientific literature is replete with indictments of tobacco on numerous counts. Hence the complete silence of tobacco advertisements about the sweet harmlessness of smoking, and the logical emphasis on the relative amount of nicotine, etc., in the particular brand advertised. A Humorous Touch Incidentally, a humorous touch has just been given to this whole subject of cigarette ads. In July the Reader's Digest published certain independently secured laboratory findings on the relative amount of nicotine and other substances in popular brands. These findings contradicted the much-advertised claims of a great tobacco company. And as we write these lines there confronts us a very large display ad of a competing company blazoning the heartening news to smokers that it is their brand of cigarette that has the least nicotine and irritating tarry substances. This Click contributor is a Daniel come to judgment for the tobacco companies. He should write their advertising copy on the "boon" theme, the happily harmless theme he develops at length in his article. But will they discharge their present copy writers and hire him? We think not! And until they do hire him, and so long as they continue on the defensive theme of "less nicotine in our brand," we hardly feel that we should be asked to give further consideration to this ecstatic "defense" of smoking. But because many of our readers do not have access to scientific literature and might be confused by certain dogmatic claims in the Click article, we are publishing on page 14 of this issue a somewhat detailed reply from the pen of Lieutenant Commander J. J. Short, Medical Corps, U. S. Naval Reserve; and associate clinical professor of medicine, New York Post-Graduate School of Medicine, Columbia University. LIFE AND HEALTH inet _)ma ll i"oiei в–є SACCHARIN, the coal-tar product with the very sweet taste, cannot be used as a sweetening agent in canning foods, for when heated it becomes bitter. 00 IN diet experiments with rats, wheat-germ protein has been found to rival that of casein, the main protein in milk and cheese, for the maintenance of growth. O' IF you or your children suffer from frequent colds, this tendency may be due to a nasal allergy to food, and a different method of treatment may be required. IP. THE treatment for athlete's foot that consists of the phenol-camphor mixture, should not be self-administered, but given under the direction of a qualified physician. O. EVER hear of "Carter spread"? This is a dairy butter fortified with hydrogenated cottonseed-oil flakes to make it heat resistant. The inventor is Lieutenant Colonel Robert F. Carter of the Quartermaster Corps. The new butter is being shipped to United States troops stationed overseas. 0. Two Mayo physicians, after examining the organs of thirty patients who had suffered from chronic infectious arthritis, believe there is evidence that this type of arthritis may have come about as a result of rheumatic fever during childhood. 0. NEW support for the theory that cancer is caused by a germ comes from research conducted by Duke University scientists on a type of virus-caused cancer in rabbits. 11. MELANIN is the dark pigment in the hair that gives color to hair. It is produced in the process of body oxidation and is deposited in the hair by the blood. As one grows older and the fires of life burn lower, less of this substance is formed; so the hair gradually turns gray and may become pure white. In view of this fact, Doctor Hrdlicka of the Smithsonian Institution believes that the vitamin treatment offers little hope for those with gray hair. EDRICHED BREAD A Law in One State . . . A Good Rule Everywhere Effective August 1, 1942, all white bread in South Carolina is required by law to be enriched with vitamins (thiamine, niacin) and iron. By this significant official action, to which local bakers interposed no objections, a legislative body has emphasized the great importance of this "nutritionally modernized" bread to the "health and well-being of the consumer." By equally significant voluntary action, American bakers are now enriching about two-thirds of all white bread produced in this country. Six months ago only about one-third of our bread was enriched. The daily use of Enriched White Bread is a thrifty, satisfactory, and simple way to add to the nutritive value of the diet. As the scientific organization of the great American baking industry, working closely with the national nutrition program, we suggestвЂў that you provide your family with this better, more nourishing Enriched White BreadвЂ”and suggest it to mothers who look to you for advice. 10. TRYВЈTOPHAN is one of the ten essential amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. A lack of this essential may cause baldness, poor teeth, cataracts, and destruction of sex glands. 10. A FIVE-DAY cure for gonorrhea, a disease which affects several millions in this country, has been perfected and proved in largescale tests. This announcement comes from Surgeon General Thomas Parran of the United States Public Health Service. 0. PAUL D. WATSON, associate chemist of the Bureau of Dairy Industry, has developed a lacquer substitute from cow's milk and a small amount of vegetable oil for the tin coating on cans used for evaporated and condensed milk, as well as on those used for shipping fluid milk and cream. Thus bossy herself helps furnish the material needed for packaging and transporting her products. 01. THE American Red Cross will not serve beer to members of the armed forces. This statement was given to the president of the national Woman's Christian Temperance Union by Chairman Norman H. Davis. SEPTEMBER. 1942 Department of Nutrition AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF BAKING 10 ROCKEFELLER PLAZA NEW YORK, N. Y. SEND THIS COUPON Please send me your new free booklet entitled, "Enriched Bread вЂ”What Leading Authorities Say About It." Name Street City In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH. State LH8 PAGE 5 `What Cce,e,a Caii,ce HE most common question asked a a medical practitioner by his patients is undoubtedly, "Doctor, just what causes cancer?" The frequency of this question is not its only claim to fame, for it involves a problem of fundamental interest and importance both to the physician and to the educated layman. Without hesitation we can assert that the hope of cancer treatment today lies in an intelligent co-operation between the medical profession and the general public. If this is to be effective, the public must become reasonably informed upon the subject. Once again we are forced to define our terms. Just what do we mean by the term, "cause of cancer"? The relationship of cause and effect may be either simple or complex. For example, we know that the organism of tuberculosis excites a certain disease which we recognize by the wasting, emaciation, fever, and coughing that .is so characteristic of its advanced stage when it affects the lungs. Rarely do we pause to ask how the organism causes tuberculosis. Why does it produce a rapidly progressive and ulcerative lesion in young people, while so often in the adult the lesion is of a fibrous type? When the organism invades the body of primitive people such as South Sea Islanders, it seems to spread like the proverbial "prairie fire." While we know much about the disease called tuberculosis, yet there are many gaps in our knowledge. We cannot alter the course of the disease, but we give good hygiene and food in an effort to build up the resistance that the body is able to offer. When we consider cancer in its many aspects we find a similar situation. The relationship between the presence of rough teeth and cancer of the tongue is equally well known, but we cannot in our present state of knowledge explain the method by which the irritation of the jagged tooth excites the covering cells of the tongue to a new relentless and uncontrolled reproduction. The same perplexity faces us if we consider the curious fact that a proportion of ulcers of the stomach lead to cancer, whereas a similar ulcer an inch farther down in the duodenum has never been known to produce a new growth. Because of the deadly nature of cancer, we are inclined to demand greater details in the elaboration of its problems than we expect in the cases of the so-called acute infectious diseases. T PA GE 6 Part IVвЂ”What Science Knows About Cancer WARREN G. HARDING, M. D. There is much to be learned about the cancer process, just as there is about all other diseases; yet science has obtained a magnificent array of facts from which certain general concepts may be drawn. The protean nature of tumors and the variety of their known causes make it highly improbable that any one specific factor causes the disease. We have seen cancer produced as a result of the irritation from rough teeth, from tar applied locally, from an oversecretion of glandular principles, and from many other influences. If a bacterial organism were discovered to be the exciting cause of cancer, we would still be at a loss to fit together all the known facts concerning the disease. In view of this situation, it is perhaps easier to view cancer in comparison with the process of inflammation as a whole, rather than to contrast it with some specific infectious disease such as tuberculosis or diphtheria. The body's reaction of inflammation may be stimulated by bacterial invasion or by injury due to heat, cold, electricity, or chemical -action; but in each case the type of reaction on the part of the tissues is the same. Likewise, in cancer the exciting cause may be a parasite, injury in the form of chronic irritation, abnormal secretions, or lack of growth restraints; and still the II . n. rr0 SRI? Tc Modern Science Comes to the Aid of the Doctor in Making Diagnosis reaction of the tissues which we call cancer is similar in all of them. This does not in any way deny the possibility of some underlying bacterial parasite, operating in a manner wholly unknown to us at the present stage, controlling the general growth reaction of the body to the external forces which have been briefly mentioned. With these possibilities in mind, it will be illuminating to review briefly the various theories that have been advanced by competent students to explain cancer. As a matter of historical interest, we may refer to the Middle Ages, when cancer was attributed to a wide variety of causes. Some souls of a religious nature could see only the punishment for wick- H. . I<OBERTS "Henry Has Cancer! What Causes Cancer Anyway?" edness as its source. Others believed tumors to result from an accumulation of bile or one of the body fluids. None of the theories presented were satisfactory until the results of microscopic investigations were brought into the picture. Among the earlier hypotheses was one promulgated by Cohnhem. As has been mentioned previously, the tissues of the body are constructed of tiny cells which are related to the whole as bricks are related to the wall of which they form a part. These cells are so minute that we require the magnification of the microscope to see them. Despite their size, however, they have a characteristic appearance by which they can be identified. In the study of tissue Cohnhem discovered groups of cells scattered in various tissues which did not belong to the normal architecture of the region. These cells had not developed to the adult stage, and so he called them embryonal SEPTEMBER, 1942 cell rests which were misplaced. Since these cells were out of their normal environment he conceived the idea that they were probably out from under the normal controls for cellular growth. These abnormally placed cells would be subject to injury and irritation to a much greater extent than normal cells. Such a structure would make a perfect site of origin for cancer. Further careful study of the anatomy of the body revealed abnormal cell nests in maldeveloped organs, atrophic organs, remnants of organs which functioned in embryonic life, and in other locations which at times furnished the origin for growths. Although this theory explains the origin of many tumors, its scope is not universal. Unfortunately, it has distracted attention from the easily proved fact that normal tissue cells under the action of a variety of irritants are capable of giving rise to new growths. This cell-rest theory was unable to exвЂў plain why these misplaced cells began to grow. To be sure, it assumed that irritation set the process in motion, but such a stimulus in many locations merely resulted in some benign defensive reaction and certainly not in the unrestrained growth and spread of cancer. Some other factor was called for. This agent was called "growth restraint." The question was asked, "Why do cells stop growing?" Analysis of the process showed four phases in the control of cellular growth. First, was the problem of food or nutrition. If sufficient food was not present, the cells would cease growing. If the food material were unequally distributed, the growth would be unequal. Such a situation is seen in the rapid emaciation of the cancer patient while the tumor continues its rapid multiplication. Second, tumor cells may be restrained by mechanical pressure. The breaking of a capsule or limiting membrane would permit the rapid growth and dissemination of the tumor. Third, cells grow because in the economy of the organism they have a function to accomplish. They have received an impetus from the embryo which will carry them to a certain stage of development, and when their work is finished they gradually lose their activity. Some students believe that when cells fail to do their work the dynamic urge is transposed from work to growth, thus leading to overgrowth without function. The fourth and main factor in normal growth restraint is the general organization pattern of the body tissues. We inherit a pattern from our forebears which determines to a large extent the limits of our body growth. The second theory concerned itself with the removal of these growth restraints, but helpful as it is in understanding some phases of new growths, it fails miserably to explain why the cells should assume such an irregular and abnormal method of growth. The question of "growth restraint" was so intimately bound up ,with the organization of the species that a third theory which considered the hereditary pattern soon gathered its advocates. The inheritance of body form and size lent itself to the theory that we inherited the factor without which we developed cancer. This aspect of the problem will be dealt with at length in a later article. In the discussion thus far we have dealt with inherent forces over which we have little or no control. Certain researches have thrown considerable light upon the cause of cancer by means of the experimental production of cancer in animals. This work has been limited to the lower animals and does not rightly come into the scope of this article, but will be discussed in detail in a subsequent chapter. We will now turn our attention to some of the clinical and, for the most part, preventable, causes of new growths. (Continued on page 28) PAGE 7 When It's Corns, Faulty Footwear Is the Culprit. Choose a Really Good Shoe CORNS What Causes Them? How Shall We Treat Them? HENRY H. HAZEN, M. D. O I: \ S are probably the most frequent continuous ailment known to men and women. At the outset it should be clearly understood that all corns are due to faulty footwearвЂ”this despite the fact that the author never yet has seen a woman, who, according to her own statement, ever wore tight shoes. If time and space permitted, a goodly description could be given of the glaring faults of footwear manufacturers and salesmen. Briefly these faults may be C PAGE 8 enumerated as follows: (1) faulty size or faulty shape which cramps the toes; (2) too little space "between decks," that is between the inner sole and the top of the shoe; (3) the hard, firm caps over the toes; (4) too stiff and unyielding leather; and (5) marking of shoes by sizes. Shoe numbers should be in a code of some kind, so that a woman does not know whether she is getting a number three or a number six shoe; this, to some extent, would obviate the difficulty of the shoe clerk in suggesting the proper size that should be worn. At this point it must be mentioned that shoe salesmen usually follow the line of least resistance and sell too small and pointed a shoe because the customer thinks it looks well. In dealing further with the problem of shoes, it should be noted that when a man is inducted into the army he is always given a pair of shoes a size or two larger than he is accustomed to wearing. The moderately sensible shoes for children do not cause corns upon the tender skin of their wearers. The woodsmen, or others wearing moccasins (the oldfashioned type of moccasin which is not nine tenths shoe) likewise do not have corns. An illness of several months in bed will cause any existing corns to disappear. These simple facts should be proof that shoes are the cause of corns. Corns begin from a combination of pressure and friction. Pressure alone will cause necrosis of the skin, and friction will produce a blister. A corn starts with a small, thickened area upon the exposed part of the toe, most commonly on the little toes, but sometimes on top of a so-called hammertoe where the joint of the toe is at a level higher than that of the surrounding digits. This thickened central area becomes covered with another layer of thickened tissue that is a little broader, and this process goes on until eventually there is a peg-shaped area, the centermost and lowest portion of which is the hardest. Pressure from above forces this hard portion into the toe structures and gives rise to much pain. A corn is always much more painful in damp or hot weather than at other times. Some believe that this is because the feet swell with such weather, and some believe that the leather of shoes shrinks in such weather; the latter is the more probable explanation. At all events, many persons are sure that their corns are very reliable barometers. A corn is subject to certain complications; probably the commonest is the development of a wart upon the top of it. This is often due to trimming with a knife or razor blade that has at some time been in contact with a wart on some other portion of the body. Careful inspection will reveal a small growth of a slightly different color from the rest of the corn, and usually there are a number of small dark spots in it. Pain is always much increased by this complication. Warts may also become infected; this is usually due to too deep trimming with an unclean instrument. Treatment of corns is various. Chiropodists are very successful at trimming out a corn so that it will give no pain for several weeks. The disadvantage of this method is that the little operation must be performed very frequently. The ordinary corn plaster, which consists of (Continued on page 29) LIFE AND HEALTH Why You Need IRO in Your Diet GOOD FOOD SOURCES DESCRIBED By JAMES A. TOBEY, Dr. P. H., LL. D. T HE amount of iron in the human body could be put on the head of a pin, but this small quantity is of vital importance to life and health. Although iron comprises only 0.004 per cent of the human machine, any appreciable reduction in its amount causes anemia and other serious ills. Iron is a necessary part of every human cell, but most of our iron (about 70 per cent) is concentrated in the blood, which in itself represents only about 7 per cent of the weight of the body. The function of iron in the blood is to help form hemoglobin, the principal solid part of the red blood cells. This hemoglobin not only acts as the carrier of oxygen to our tissues, but also aids in the oxidation, or burning up, of the foods which serve as fuel for the human mechanism. The great importance of iron in nutrition has been recognized for many centuries, although only recently has science explained precisely how it acts. As early as 1664 Doctor Sydenham, the celebrated English physician, observed that a ruddy glow could be restored to the pallid cheeks of anemic persons merely by giving them salts of iron or by feeding them hard waters rich in iron and calcium. Somewhat later the ashes of certain plants were employed for the same purpose. In more recent years, many expensive "iron tonics" were sold in bottles and vials to gullible buyers.вЂў Today it is recognized that the best and most economical way to get the daily iron needed by the body is through the consumption of nourishing foods. Since the body is constantly using up its store of iron, it must be replenished with this necessary mineral every day. [he average amount required daily 'has been set by scientists at 0.4 milligrams per 100 calories of food, or about 12 milligrams of iron a day as a minimum for the normal person. Since a milligram is one thousandth of a gram, and a gram is about one thirtieth of an ounce, it is obvious that an extremely small quantity of iron will suffice for the ordinary needs of the body. Unless foods are selected with some care, however, this amount may not be obtained. When a person is deprived of sufficient iron, the usual result is the malady known as anemia, which means literally "without iron." This condition is generally characterized by pallor, lassitude, disturbances of the heart, poor appetite and digestion, and other symptoms, which can be readily diagnosed and treated by a competent physician. It should be pointed out, however, that lack of iron in the diet is not the only cause of anemia, which is really a symptom rather than a specific disease. The anemic state may occur as the result of hemorrhage or severe loss of blood, as the consequence of infections and certain wasting diseases, and also in some inEWING GALLOWAY Though Milk Contains Little Iron, Yet All of It Is Used by the Body SEPTEMBER, 1942 stances because of inability of the body to manufacture its own redвЂў blood cells. This last condition, which fortunately is somewhat rare, is known as pernicious' anemia. Formerly it was cured or alleviated only with difficulty, but modern medical science has devised effective means of coping with this malady. Even if some types of anemia are not due directly to lack of iron in the foods we eat, all types can be relieved or helped by the administration of foods or other substances which are rich in the right kind of iron. There is, furthermore, no danger of getting too much iron in the diet. Most foods contain iron, but some are, of course, much better sources of this necessary mineral than are others. The kind of iron in a food is also as important as the amount, and the nature of the remainder of the diet has an effect on the utilization of iron by the body. Spinach, for example, contains an abundance of iron, but only a very small fraction of it actually can be assimilated. Milk, on the other hand, has very little iron, but all of it is utilized to advantage in the human system. The combination of bread and milk is, moreover, an efficient and economical source of food iron. The best all-round food supplies of the proper kind of iron are eggs, wholegrain breads and cereals, oatmeal, molasses, and certain vegetables, such as dried beans and peas. Egg yolk is particularly high in iron, being exceeded only by dried beans. This yellow part of the egg has about eighty times as much iron as the white, a proportion about two and a half times as great as that in the whole egg. Mashed egg yolk is often used in the feeding of infants, who are born with a good store of iron, but who may soon become iron depleted unless they secure an adequate supply from appropriate foods other than milk. Among other good food sources of iron are dried fruits such as prunes, apricots, currants, and raisins; most nuts; and some of the green leafy vegetables, like kale, chard, and parsley, the last being properly a food rather than a garnish or decoration. Because old-fashioned molasses is an excellent source of food iron, it was this product in the famous mixture of sulphur and molasses that actually helped to overcome the so-called "spring fever," for which this pungent combina(Continued on page 23) PAGE 9 14,1ch 'Vas a "Oil" 15 nie't They ecl Ryes' tieed Rest tst HE term "strain," as applied to the way our eyes adjust themselves to the task at hand means simply the unnatural effort or exertion which all the tissues of the eyes undergo to perform a natural, normal function. A series of acts takes place in order to accomplish this: first, the attempt to see a given object perfectly; second, the placing or fixing of that object satisfactorily on memory's wall; third, the reproduction of that object from one's memory at a later date; fourth, the reception of the stereoscopic impression of height, width, and depth. Kodaks or cameras furnish the nearest comparison perhaps to the human eye. They, however, usually must be adjusted externally by hand to meet the conditions required of them. The associated complex mechanism Of the eye is selfadjust:ng and self-accommodating under normal conditions, and is able almost instantly to change the focusing point from inches to as far as one can see. An individual who can do this and at the same time be unaware of any discomfort or imperfection in vision should be content and very happy. From actual experience 95 per cent of the people hi every walk of life know what eyestrain does for them; the other 5 per cent could truthfully boast that there isn't such a thing because their eyes are perfect and they can use them all they wish without any trouble whatsoever. PAGE 10 A J. E. HEALD, M. D. Eyestrain manifests itself in many different w4ys, several of which conditions are more or less familiar to the general public. Farsightedness (hyperopia) is a condition in which the eyeball may be too short, or the refractive power may be deficient, or the crystalline lens may be absent. All of these are instances in which the rays from any object in front of the eye fall behind the retina (the seeing part of the eye). They are corrected only by convex or plus lenses, either spheres or cylinders or combinations of the two. Farsightedness is quite often hereditary, especially the high-grade types. This condition makes it difficult to maintain a distinct image of small objects like fine print for prolonged periods of time, and if one persists in an effort to read, his accommodation becomes exhausted and eyestrain follows, with accompanying eye ache, headache, redness of eyes, and tiredness. Sudden failure of accommodation, with blurring of vision, is not uncommon, and more often appears when one's vitality is weakened, as following some illness. Farsightedness sometimes gives rise to "spasm of accommodation" and then may simulate nearsightedness (myopia) in which the distant vision would blur. In such a case the refractionist would pre- scribe concave lenses, much to the detriment of the patient if he did not resort to the use of medicine (a mydriatic) commonly called "drops." This same condition may also occur in myopic eyes and cause them to appear to be more myopic than they really are. Some people may tell us that the use of medicine or "drops" is dangerous, unnecessary, or even "old-fashioned," but this is absolutely false. Cross-eye (convergent strabismus) is often one of the first-recognized symptoms of farsightedness. Persons thus afflicted often acquire the bad habit of squinting and holding their books too close to their eyes in order to see better, thus again simulating nearsightedness, when in reality they are very farsighted. If this condition is allowed to,go uncorrected too long, one or the other of the eyes may have very. poor vision throughout life. Frequent complications, such as inflammation of the coats of the eyes sties, and even congestion of the retina and chorioid may occur if this farsightedness is not corrected. Persistent headache, aggravated by using the eyes, and various nervous symptoms, reflex in their nature, as well as visual disturbances, are common results of farsightedness. Children, or even older persons, with eyestrain will cast their books aside and seek other things to do in which the use of their eyes is unimportant. There are intelligent children who may be backLIFE AND HEALTH ward students and may bring home poor grades on their report cards simply because of poor eyesight. Parents, usually there is some good reason for these backward students, and you should make every effort to find the cause as early as possible. Nearsightedness (myopia) is a condition just the opposite of farsightedness, in which the eyeball is too long, and the rays from an object in front of the eye fall short of the retina. Distance vision is always blurred, and a close-up range is necessary to see well. Symptoms of distress are more often absent in such persons than in farsighted ones, unless the trouble is accompanied by astigmatism. In this case "eyestrain" will manifest itself in the form of eye ache, headache, tired frontal feeling, redness of eyeballs; and sandy feeling of lids, also general tired and stupid feeling of entire body, and other reflex disturbances such as nausea and loss of appetite. Children and young people with nearsightedness often like to seek an occupation in which they can see at close range, such as reading or drawing, rather than outdoor sports, in which longer-range vision is required. In the higher degrees of nearsightedness, which is usually progressive, we may find definite changes in the framework or supporting tissues of the eye, wherein the eyeball becomes longer. The inner parts of the eye called the retina and the chorioid, which lie against the white part of the eye, must also give way. Hence, we get a stretching of the retina which tears and pulls away from the nerve head, just as a thin piece of gauze would tear if stretched too tightly. These diseased conditions of the eyeball are very serious from the standpoint of loss of vision. They more often occur in the "teen" or eye ache at night, which disturbs the years of life, and hence may affect the sleep, along with visual disturbances, like whole educational career of an individual flashes or rings of light, may be suggestive of a serious disease, which eventually proand occasionally. produce blindness. Astigmatism is a condition in which duces blindness, known as "glaucoma," or the rays of light coming from an object stony eye. Muscle unbalance often manifests itin front of the eye are unevenly focused on the retina, which produces a blurring self early in life, first in children from effect. The sources of this astigmatism one to ten years old, usually following are principally from the cornea and the some illness, like whooping cough, meascrystalline lens. The cornea may be a les, scarlet fever, or pneumonia, when the little flat or not quite perfect in contour child's resistance is lowered and there is in all meridians; likewise the lens. Hence a basis for eyestrain in the form of a high the poorly formed images in the eye. In degree of farsightedness. Then we get a general, we may say that astigmatism is turning in of the eyes. The opposite of due to the slight flattening of one side this condition is a turning out of the of the eyeball compared to another side, eyeballs. These may be corrected largely which makes it a little irregular in shape. by the use of glasses, if taken very early, You may ask, "How can a little thing preferably between two and five years of like that give one such a headache?" It age; otherwise the child may have one is due to the action or work thrown upon poor eye the remainder of his life. This the several muscles connected with the handicap, if taken in hand early, might eye, both external and internal. There have been avoided. are six external muscles of each eye. The A muscle unbalance in the vertical internal muscles of the eye are the ciliary meridian (hyperphoria) is very common muscles controlling the iris or the little and very annoying. This is sometimes curtain forming the pupil or window of overlooked and neglected when a refracthe eye, also the circular and vertical tion, or eye examination, is made for muscles controlling the lens. In addition, glasses. A very small deviation from northere is the complex nerve supply of all mal prevents proper co-ordination of the these muscles, which when brought into two eyes, and they are helpless to adjust action is called the power of accommoda- themselves. Glasses may be correct in tion. Under perfect conditions this every other respect, but if this condition mechanism works automatically, unless remains uncorrected, the patient still has some defect may be encountered in its a feeling that something is wrong, and makeup. If so, the usual symptoms of rightly so. Fitting of glasses means much eyestrain previously mentioned in this more than securing the best vision possiarticle will manifest themselves, and, in ble with each individual eye. The eyes addition, one may have a drawing sensa- must work together in harmony, or the tion in the back of the neck, as well as a results are not complete. Fully 25 per feeling of pressure back of the eyeball. cent of all people who need glasses reMorning headache may come especially quire this particular correction. after using the eyes strenuously the day At about forty-five years of age the or evening before. Constant headache crystalline lens loses its elasticity. This prevents the normal process of accommodation, making necessary assistance in the form of glasses (usually bifocals), for reading and seeing near objects. This is a normal result of growing old, and is known as presbyopia. This slow change taking place in the lens of the eye lasts for about five years and then becomes more or less stationary. The reading strength of our glasses remains about the same, provided the distance vision does not change. There are several things, however, that may affect our vision aside from these natural phenomena. Contributory causes of eyestrain involve the type of work which calls for artificial light that may be too little or too great; or if in correct amount, may be in the wrong poi ion in relation to the eye. A visit to the movies, night driving where one constantly looks at bright (Continued on page 21) SOIFIELMAN In Case of Frequent Headaches, Have Your Eyes Checked. You May Be Surprised at the Relief in Store for You. Bad Eyes Often Cause Severe Headaches PAGE 11 Doctor James Treating a Young Tibetan Patient The dietetic habits of these people are simple in the extreme. The high altitude of the Tibetan plateau and the long, severe winters make it impossible to grow a variety of foodstuffs. The tremendous mountain ranges and lack of any roads or transport facilities except pack animals make importation impractical, indeed well-nigh impossible. Our Tibetan friends, therefore, must content themselves with those things which they can obtain locally. The Tibetan diet is built around a substance called tsampa, a flour made from parched barley or oats. The natural, unprocessed grain is toasted and then ground between stones to produce this very palatable food. This is the staple food, and with it the Tibetans consume a so-called tea which is really nothing more than an infusion made' from the dried leaf of our well-known camellia leaf. Tsampa and tea are mixed to form a stiff mixture of about the consistency of modeling clay, which is then rolled into small balls and eaten. In addition to this, they use some sour cheese, considerable quantities of rancid butter, and occasionally a bit of raw beef. Sometimes there will be corn meal, from which simple cakes will be made, and, if the weather has been favorable, a few tiny potatoes and perhaps a few turnips. These products are all eaten in the nat- DIET HABITS HE quest for food is a universal one. It has been rewarded in various ways. Diet and dietetic habits and customs are necessarily guided by the available food as well as by other limiting factors. In our so-called civilized countries the development of transportation, processing, and preserving facilities have provided the inhabitants with a tremendous variety of foodstuffs. Modern methods of milling have produced cereal products which can be stored, or shipped to any distance. The processes of preserving and canning have been elaborated to a point where foods so processed have become universally available. Commercial processing has produced tinned foods which are very reasonable in price, and American people have turned to the can as the source of a large portion of their food supply. The old jokes about America's living out of a can seem almost justified. Fortunately for those of us who still prefer our food in the fresh state, the process of quick freezing, coupled with improved transportation facilities, now makes it possible for all of us to enjoy these fresh foods, out of season as well as in. It is T PAGE 12 in the Forbidden Land of With a Moral A for Americans indeed interesting to note that quick freezing promises to preserve for us those essential food elements which were so often destroyed, at least in part, by the older processing methods. The other peoples of the world are not, however, so fortunate as are those of us who live here in America. In spite of the widespread adoption of modern methods, there still remain a few places where these facilities are not available and where geographical barriers and climatic conditions have limited the available food supply. In these places the diets of the inhabitants have necessarily been reduced to very simple terms. It has been my privilege to live for some years in close contact with the primitive people of eastern Tibet and to observe their habits of living and eating. TIBET HAROLD E. JAMES, M. D. ural, unrefined state. They are truly natural foods, unchanged by processing, with no vital elements removed. It is interesting to note and compare the health conditions, both good and ill, of these people with similar conditions in our own land. Generally speaking, the average Tibetan enjoys a buoyantly healthy existence. It is, of course, an exciting and dangerous one, and he is regularly rubbing elbows with sudden death. Barring fatal encounters, however, he is likely to live out his years untouched by those degenerative diseases which are the scourge of civilized middle life and old age. Idle indeed would be the dentist who depended upon these people for his practice, for dental decay and pyorrhea (Continued on page 32) LIFE AND HEALTH better colors, density, and strength than rubber material, which, while it is still in use and has its place in dentistry, is rapidly being replaced by the acrylic materials in construction of artificial sets of teeth. Keeping step with acrylic manufacturers, the leading manufacturers of artificial teeth have developed in the last three years new types of teeth to use, which when properly selected for size, By D. S. TETERS, D. D. S. mold, and shade, and set up aesthetically in the denture material, really defy detection as artificial teeth. So, today, when the teeth nature gave American manufacturers of dental mateLOT of water has gone under the dental bridge since George Wash- rials and teeth bent their energy to pro- us have reached the place where they are ington rode into Boston in the lat- duce improved products in all lines, that no longer useful and their retention ter part of the eighteenth century and the dentist might have something still might even bring systemic disease, we can go to the dentist and have them removed left an order with Paul Revere for a set better to offer his patients. Improvements were made in celluloid with confidence that the new ones we of artificial teeth; and as one looks at the set, now on display after nearly one hun- materials used as bases for plates, but will get will give greater satisfaction than dred seventy-five years, he will realize after five or ten years these were found artificial teeth gave in days gone by. We that they were wonderfully and fearfully to be faulty, and in many mouths they can be glad that we are living in an age madeвЂ”with emphasis on the fearfully. did not hold up satisfactorily. Many in which inventive knowledge has inThe stern look on Washington's face in dentists began to feel that they still had creased along dental lines as well as in Stuart's portrait of him was, no doubt, nothing better than the rubber plate. other fields of endeavor. When a few teeth can be retained in caused by his biting down on the teeth Rubber had been improved to keep pace with other advancements in the arts, but the mouth in a healthy condition, they held in articulation by springs. Various improvements were made in all admitted that it was not the ideal often serve a useful purpose in helping to hold dentures in place. This is especonstructing teeth of gold, silver, and dental-plate material. cially true in the lower jaw, where denporcelain in the first sixty years of the About ten years ago, American chemcentury just past. About the time of ical laboratories began extensive research tures are harder to hold in place. These the Civil War the process of vulcanizing in materials first designed for commercial partial dentures, which are reinforced rubber into a hard form was invented by use, such as paints, varnishes, and sub- and clasped to the remaining teeth with Charles Goodyear. This was soon adapted stitutes for rubber, silk, celluloid, and gold and other metals, will probably cost to plaster models of the mouth, and from cotton. We all know how thrilled we more and may not last indefinitely. But then on there has been a steady improve- were when the first cellophane (for wrap- they are to be recommended in many ment, both in the materials of which the ping purposes) came on the market, and cases, and the patient can be assured that plates are made, and in the porcelain unbreakable watch crystals of a new ma- even though they last only a few years, terial appeared; then the glass in auto- they are worth while. teeth that are used on them. When the time comes when you will To secure aesthetic appearance, the mobiles received a hard, tough layer porcelain teeth were fused in blocks, with between two glasses to make them shatter- need artificial teeth, select a dentist in the pink gums fused to the teeth. These proof. From experiments like the above, whom you have confidence, follow his inwere held in place on the rubber with a new substance was developed which structions to the letter; in a 'short time small platinum pins baked into the por- could be molded in plaster and stone you will be forgetting your dental worcelain. As time passed, the rubber was molds and cured under heat. When this ries. Remember, there are four things to be improved until a pink rubber was material was adapted to dentistry a new brought out for the front part of the day opened in plate material for dental considered regarding the problem of wearing new dentures: plates. Then real advancement was use. made by making the teeth separately, The acrylic resins are still in the exFirst, your own mouth condition, which which has enabled the dentist to set them perimental stages, but in the last few is always different from any other perso that they look more natural and also years a great step forward has been son's, as some mouths are easy to fit and give greater masticating ability. taken in this new material which has some are very difficult. Various materials were brought Second, the kind of teeth you get. out to take the place of rubber, the Your dentist will be in a position to appearance of which, at the very recommend to you the type of denbest, was none too good. Celluloid tures that would be best for your was used quite extensively about mouth condition. A few additional forty years ago, and while it made a dollars can be well spent at this beautiful plate when first compoint, and will ensure greater satispleted, it soon disintegrated under faction in the future. You had use in the mouth, the teeth dropbetter sacrifice somewhere else than ping off and the color changing. get too cheap dental work. Thirty years ago the manufacThird are the plates the dentist turers of the artificial teeth to be builds for you. This is his respon-, used on the plates began to carve sibility, and a conscientious dentist the teeth into more natural molds will do everything he can to give and gave greater care to shading (Continued on page 27) and blending the colors used in SOIR81.51AN them, until they began to defy detection in the mouth. Modern Dentistry Makes It Possible for One Shortly after the World War. to Obtain Really Natural-Looking Dentures Those Artificial TEETH A SEPTEMBER, 1942 PAGE 13 The VIRTUES of THIRD ROUND in a Fight That Began With Gene Tunney's Article in "Reader's Digest" 46. LIEUTENANT COMMANDER JAMES J. SHORT, M. D.* Gene Tunney, Lieutenant Commander, U. S. N. R. His Article in "Reader's Digest" Started the Fight R. LOUIS E. BISCH, in the July, 1942, issue of Click magazine, lauds tobacco as "one of the greatest boons ever given to mankind." His article is profusely illustrated with pictures of him in every conceivable pose of the smoker's art! This "contribution" to public health obviously was prepared in reply to a well-written antitobacco article in the Reader's Digest from the pen of Lieutenant Commander Gene Tunney. Tunney's case is made to appear quite completely demolished, and the erstwhile champion is supposed to find himself down for the count. Since Doctor Bisch speaks as a physician than whom "no doctor is better fitted to comment 'on Commander Tunney's stand on smoking," it is only fair to ask whether Doctor Bisch's views really do represent the general concensus of opinion of the medical profession. Is вЂў he thoroughly conversant with medicil literature and research on tobacco? Has he the calm, critical objective viewpoint of the scientific worker? A careful reading of the article itself betrays a highly emotional approach to the problem, more in keeping with the propagandist than with вЂўthe scientist. Notice the language: "Smoking has been maligned long enough! It's been the whipping boy of health fanatics for years. It is high time somebody took up cudgels in its defense!" Evidently one of his pet idols has been attacked, and he forgets his psychiatric training so far as to react like any other human being. Nor are Doctor Bisch's statements wholly consistent throughout. There is much backing and filling with attempts to detour stubborn facts by the well-known process of rationalization. Like most D * Medical Corps, U. S. N. R., U. S. Naval Hospital, Parris Island, South Carolina, and Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, New York PostGraduate School of Medicine, Columbia University. PAGE 14 вЂў вЂў PNOTO In the Armed Forces Today Physical as Well as Mental Vigor Is Needed. The Use of Tobacco Serves Only to Reduce Vitality and Stamina tobacco advertising, his promotion of smoking takes a defensive turn. "If a person is fool enough to keep on when his system warns him to go slow or stopвЂ”well, that's his own lookout." So! "One of the greatest boons ever given to mankind" (sic) may prove to be a menace, after all! But don't take my word for it. Let Doctor Bisch himself point the dangers. He does not attempt to deny Tunney's argument that smoking impairs athletic form. "The facts are," he rationalizes, "that the boys in uniform and in the factories are not there to train for football, baseball, or the prize ring." Tobacco, we may conclude from this, does impair physical efficiency. In other words, it slows you down. Round one to Mr. Tunney. "In the last analysis," proceeds Doctor Bisch, "what the fighting men of today need even more than physical perfection is an alert mentality.... The war will not be won by physical supermen, but by the preponderance and superiority of equipment and the brains to use it effectively. . . . The biggest and bravest things are often done, not by muscular 'giants, but by small, or even weak, people." Now if I can understand the English language, what Doctor Bisch is trying to tell Mr. Tunney and the world is that tobacco sharpens the intellect while at the same time it may weaken the body. If that is not strongly implied, words have no meaning. So, Mr. Tunney, your attempts to build sound physical conditioning into the marines is just so much wasted effort, anyway. Your product is not essential to the war program. Let 'em smoke; let 'em loaf. Wars are not won by brawn. As to the inference that tobacco sharpens intellect, Doctor Bisch lets it go at that. But I think that, too, should be scrutinized. An extensive report bearing directly upon this question is found in a book entitled, "Tobacco and Mental EfLIFE AND HEALTH LADY NICOTINE CHALLENGED ficiency," by M. V. O'Shea, professor of education, University of Wisconsin, published in 1923. Professor O'Shea found so much bias and prejudice in current literature that he decided to make an attempt "to secure data on this subject which would not be colored by prejudice or propaganda." His investigations are extensive and well controlled, his conclusions fair to both sides. Nevertheless, he is forced to the conclusion that "it is significant that in every one of the foregoing reports, smokers are shown to be inferior to nonsmokers in the work of school and college" and "tobacco in school and college . . . is always associated with poor scholarship." -Page 133. Farther on he states that high-school principals "could not overlook the fact that the records of the smokers in their schools were conclusive in showing that the use of tobacco by pupils is detrimental to intellectual effort, and in extreme instances it paralyzes mental activity."Page 147. "The smokers among highschool pupils were not as a rule inferior in scholarship before they began smoking. All the evidence indicates that tobacco exerts a retarding and disturbing influence upon the intellectual processes of highschool pupils."-Page 233. As to mature persons, the results of laboratory tests show "that tobacco tends to retard and to disturb intellectual processes . . . of the majority of them." -Pages 220, 221. The direct testimony of mature smokers in various walks of life was conflicting, and Professor O'Shea felt that no final conclusions could be drawn from their opinions. "Tobacco is habit forming-granted. The habitual smoker feels ill at ease when deprived of his weed," admits Doctor Bisch. And then he cites the case of the shell-shocked soldiers whose invariable cry was, "Nurse! Please, nurse, give me a cigarette," to prove the beneficial effect of tobacco. However, the pattern is typical not only of the tobacco addict, but also of the opium smoker "when deprived of his weed." No one has proved that the smoker possesses greater fortitude than the nonsmoker, however. Doctor Bisch states that "no one could, to be sure, criticize Doctor Pearl's findings as such." But he rejects the conclusions Mr. Tunney draws from them. Evidently Doctor Bisch has never read the original work of Dr. Raymond Pearl, late professor of biology at Johns Hopkins University. SEPTEMBER. 1942 for he erroneously assumes that Doctor Pearl's observations on smokers were not scientifically controlled. I happen to have a copy of Doctor Pearl's studies in my files, and will outline briefly Pearl's observations on smokers for Doctor Bisch's enlightenment. Pearl decided to note. the effect of tobacco smoking on length of life by the study of large groups of people. For this purpose he selected 1,905 heavy smokers, 2,814 moderate smokers, and as a control group 2,094 nonsmokers, a total of 6,813 men entirely unselected except on the basis of their tobacco habits. This number is considered adequate for the actuarial studies of life-insurance mathematicians. From his studies he concluded that survival rates for 100,000 men in each category beginning at age thirty would be as follows: Nonusers Moderate Heavy of Tobacco Smokers Smokers Beginning at 30 years 100,000 100,000 100,000 Surviving at 35 years 95,883 " " 40 " 91,546 " " 45 " 86,730 " 50 " 81,160 " 55 " 74,538 " 60 " 66,584 4, 65 57,018 CC " 70 " 45,919 95,804 90,883 85,129 78,436 70,712 61,911 52,082 41,431 90,943 81,191 71,665 62,699 54,277 46,226 38,328 30,393 Study of this table will show that there were fifty per cent more survivors at age seventy among the nonsmokers than among the heavy smokers. Since the 100 TOBACCO Aro Lava-wry J.U.PkritlfSII/A. a. 114ftrz Nicer .00 a. der "fereA. вЂў fccatawa roSnrree/X4a.r.s 110 t 70 J 60 (*) 4 5. f0 вЂ�) .вЂћ 45 JO Vt 20 /0 0 JO f0 50 60 70 BO ...fag .90 /00 IA, YEARS REPROM CEO IIV SPECIAL PERMISSION This Graph Shows the Results of Dr. Raymond Pearl's Statistical Study of Tobacco Smoking and Longevity. These Lines Tell Their Own Story groups were sufficiently large for statistical study, the influence of "other diseases," which Doctor Bisch would blame for the difference in mortality, is eliminated. No, differences in mortality rates in Doctor Pearl's studies are due to tobacco and to tobacco only, despite Doctor Bisch's gallant attempts to prove otherwise. Having disposed of Pearl's conclusions to his satisfaction, Doctor Bisch delivers himself of this gem: "Smoking results in no apparent physical injury to any person who is in sound health." I like his word "apparent." One of the outstanding characteristics of diseases induced by tobacco smoking is that they are insidious and not always "apparent" until well advanced. As to his statement quoted above, it is like saying that disease germs don't hurt you until you become diseased, or perhaps he means- Well, I'll let you figure it out. The statement is slightly puzzling to me. The following admission, which comes from the candid pen of Doctor Bisch, casts further aspersions on the fair name of his mistress, the lovely Lady Nicotine: "Smoking to excess produces .. . increased heart and breathing rate, palpitation, shortness of breath, indigestion," Other mistresses have been known to produce similar symptoms, but they are adverse symptoms nevertheless. Doctor Bisch does warn against overindulgence in the next sentence. If I knew nothing more of the subject than Doctor Bisch has so freely admitted concerning the evil effects of the unvirtuous lady, I should feel constrained to counsel a complete break with her. Doctor Bisch further justifies the use of tobacco by citing the fact that certain prominent men, including many leaders of the Allied Nations, are over sixty, and yet they smoke. I can only respond that in order to determine the possible detrimental effect of any agent we cannot deal with exceptions or minorities, but with averages. Pearl's figures in the foregoing table provide us the scientifically secured averages that reveal the strongly adverse effect of tobacco on longevity. Even though some people apparently are not greatly affected by smoking, the fact remains that for huge groups smoking is a life-shortening practice. As to Doctor Bisch's attempt to absolve tobacco from any adverse role in such diseases as angina pectoris, peptic ulcers, thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease), disturbances of the peripheral circulation, and general nervousness, I wish to enter a flat contradiction. Tobacco's adverse influence in these conditions is too firmly established in medical literature from the clinical and scientific studies of the last twenty years to be overthrown by the mere dictum of an obviously prejudiced writer. Space will not permit a detailed account (Continued on page 20) PAGE 15 nSAY BV 110UCTED C0 DIETITIAll LUCILLE J. GOTH This department serves as an aid to our readers in their dietetic problems. For information regarding some particular food or diet, address: The Dietitian, LIFE AND HEALTH, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C. Enclose stamped, addressed envelope for reply. This service is available only to subscribers. Water With Meals Is it good to drink water with your meals? Many physicians advise against drinking at mealtime, as liquids at meals slow up the digestion. They are especially to be avoided at the heavy meals, and by those who are not vigorous. Persons who have heart trouble are generally advised to be careful about drinking at meals, as it crowds the heart. A hot drink at breakfast or supper may increase vitality if taken in connection with only two or three simple foods. Cold drinks are quite objectionable except when taken alone and slowly. Usually the best time to drink is from two or more hours after eating until half an hour before the next meal. Evidence of Good Nutrition How can I tell whether my family is well nourished? Some of the evidences of good nutrition are straight, sturdy bones, sound, well-built teeth, a well-proportioned body, the proper weight for the body build and height, good posture, stable nerves, a happy, cheerful disposition, self-control, resistance to diseases, vigor, and the ability to work efficiently. You may feel that you have done all in your power to achieve these desired results for each member of the family if you supply them with an adequate diet every day. This means that each person should have a pint to a quart of milk a day; or egg at least three or four times a week; citrus fruit such as oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and tangerines, or tomatoes; and frequent servings of other fruits either fresh, canned, or dried. Also, potatoes, which are best baked or cooked in the skins; two other vegetables, one a yellow or green colored, and the other a raw vegetable; a protein food such as cottage or cream cheese, eggs, nuts, special meat substitutes, legumesвЂ” such as the very valuable soybean or black-eyed peaвЂ”cereal, and breadвЂ”one or both at every meal unless the person is overweight. The cereals and bread should be varied for best nutrition, using whole wheat, natural rice, whole corn, rye, and oats. Fat is best supplied in the diet by using cream, mayonnaise, ripe olives, avocadoes, PAGE 16 and nuts. Pure, sterilized sweet butter and oil of the olive or soybean may be used in moderate amounts. Some extra energy-supplying dishes may be needed for very active adults and children. These may be in the form of simple desserts such as dried fruits, honey-sweetened puddings, and molasses cookies. Water is correctly part of the diet, as the body is composed of about 70 per cent water. It is sometimes necessary for the doctor or dietitian to suggest changes in the amounts of these foods to meet individual needs, but for the average, healthy individual, these foods provide an economical and healthful diet. Dr. Thomas Parran, Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, recently expressed the importance of adequate diet in this way: "If we replace an average diet with an adequate diet, we get a 10 per cent increase in the active virile life span. This would mean more in terms of human longevity than to wipe out cancer as a cause of death." Soybeans I read much about soybeans these days. I would really like to know the truth. Are soybeans actually superior to other beans, or are they a sort of fad? Dry soybeans contain about one and one-half times as much protein and twelve times as much fat as common varieties of beans. The composition of the soybean as given by a recent publication is, protein 34.9 per cent; fat, 18.1 per cent; and carbohydrate 12 per cent. Varieties of soybeans differ somewhat in composition. Doctor Hazel Munsell reports dry soybeans as higher in vitamin content than the other dried beans. The vitamin A content of three and one-half ounces of soybeans is 100 international units, and the thiamin chloride (vitamin B,) is 400 international units. This is more than double the amount in some beans. The iron content is less in soybeans, but the calcium and phosphorus are higher. The Government is finding soybean oil very useful in many ways. The cook may profitably make use of it. The Consumer's Guide suggests our trying it for pan frying, deep-fat frying, and as a substitute for olive oil in salad dressings. A very tasty soybean butter is available at many health-food stores. There are over eight hundred varieties of the soybean, ranging in color from white to ebony. Some of the best edible soybeans are Bansei, Imperial, Giant Green, Easycook, Emperor, and Yellow Marvel. Mixed Vegetables I would like to know if it is quite all right to mix three or four vegetables in one dish as in vegetable stew. Yes, almost everyone finds a dish of this kind easily digested and wholesome. There are some persons who do not seem to tolerate a mixture. For the very best and quickest digestion, the simpler the meal, the better. It is better to take more of two or three varieties and have variety from meal to meal and from day to day. Salt and Dandelions Should salt be used in a hyperacidity diet? Would you consider the use of the juice from dandelion greens suitable? Usually physicians advise against the use of salt when there is too much acid in the stomach, or what is called hyperacidity. They. do not as a rule say "No salt," but have the patient avoid it as much as possible. The reason is that salt contains chloride and so does the hydrochloric acid, and it is thought that when much salt is eaten it helps manufacture more acid. The juice from either raw or cooked green leafy vegetables is rich in chlorophyll, which is very healing and soothing to the delicate membranes of the stomach lining. Some add cream to the juice and heat it slightly. When the vitality is low, heating the juice helps. Some of the common foods which usually agree with those who have too much acid in the stomach are strained cream soups; sieved vegetables such as greens, carrots, peas, baked potato; milk drinks; rice pudding sweetened slightly with honey; well-cooked cereals, strained and made into gruel with milk; soft-cooked eggs; cottage cheese; ripe olives soaked to remove the excess of salt; avocado; sweet apples; white cherries; Tokay grapes; figs; dates; raisins; blueberries; peaches; pears; melons; and bananas. Individuals differ, and it is very important that the physician's orders be carefully followed. (Continued on page 27) LIFE AND HEALTH Cooking School Lessons No. 4 By MYRTLE V. BARKER Medical Dietitian There's Always Some New Delight Awaiting the Adventurous Housewife DEAR MARIAN: You must be having a great deal of fun with all your canning this fall. I shall look forward to seeing your wellfilled shelves. You are right about canning some of the tomato juice with celery and onion flavor, with purГ©ed carrot and very finely chopped parsley. I am sure that, with all the diligent studying you have been doing, you realize that you are adding to the amount of vitamin A. The juice will be good this winter, too, for making molded tomato salad. If it is rather thick, you can use the following recipe: 11. cups tomato juiceвЂ”thick 3 bay leaves 1 teaspoon salt cup lemon juice ounce vegetable gelatin 1 cup boiling water 2 tablespoons sugar Cook the bay leaves in the tomato juice. Be sure there are DA cups after it has boiled down. Add the salt and sugar. Soak the vegetable gelatin in waterвЂ”just warmвЂ”for a few minutes, and boil after it has been drained, in the cup of water. Add the tomato juice and the lemon juice; mold individually. Serve SEPTEMBER, 1942 with mayonnaise, and garnish with a sprig of parsley. If you want to vary this recipe, add diced vegetables to the juice before it is put into the molds. Be sure the vegetables are well drained, however, before adding them. You were asking about the luncheon menu. Those attending the luncheon are all girls who have office jobs, and I want a lighter meal than I would plan if there were some men in the group, or if the girls expended more Thysical energy. There are but six of us, and I will not plan for any extra help. You know that I like to plan those things that take as little unnecessary work and worry as possible, especially at the last minute. I intend to have as much in the refrigerator ahead of time as I can. Fruit cocktail Toasted egg sandwiches Salad plate Mint sherbet Hot Postum made with milk The fruit cocktail will be made from diced, sectioned grapefruit, fresh raspberries, and a little lime juice. This will be in the cocktail dishes at least half an hour before the meal, and in the refrigerator. The salad plate will consist of a banana-split salad, stuffed prunes, and salted almonds. Since it is an informal meal, the sectioned glass plates will fit in nicely. The banana-split salad is made by putting a whole banana cut lengthwise on the large section of the plate, with the flat surfaces up and close together. On this are placed three slices of seedless or seeded oranges, overlapping. Two fresh or maraschino cherries are then placed on the intersections of the orange. It is better to use the large prunes for stuffing. Soak them in cold water overnight; then simmer them slowly until they are tender. They need no added sugar. Drain thoroughly the ones to be used for the luncheon. Pit them, and stuff with cream cheese mixed to a soft consistency with cream. I like to use the pastry tube for this, for the cheese is much more attractive if the prunes are filled in this manner. Salted nuts always give a festive air for me, probably because I use them so little and like them so well. They are good food, too. The egg sandwiches will be made by mixing finely chopped, hard-boiled egg with mayonnaise, salt, and lemon juice. The whole-wheat bread will be buttered, the cold egg filling put in, and the sandwiches ready to place in the electric sandwich toasters. I am glad for the two of them, but I can use the oven to toast them in while the cocktail dishes are being removed and the salad plates served. You remember that koa leaf tray that I carved out last winter. It is large enough for just this purpose, and I plan to use it. The result of that eighteen hours of woodwork has come in handy many times, aside from my learning to use band saws, chisels, sandpaper, and an abundance of elbow grease. You know that I keep my desserts to a minimum, but this recipe for mint sherbet is easy to make, if there is time, and the food is easily digested and assimilated. Mint Sherbet 1 quart water 7 good-sized sprigs of mint cup lemon juice Scant cup of water Whites of 2 eggs 1 cups sugar tablespoons powdered sugar Boil sugar and one quart of water; add mint, cover, and let stand for ten minutes; strain and add gelatin previously boiled in one cup of water. When this is cool, add the lemon juice. Turn into the freezer and chill thoroughly. Add whites of eggs, beaten with powdered sugar, and finish freezing. If desired, the vegetable gelatin may be omitted, in which case five cups of water instead of one quart should be used. I shall use that handmade lace tablecloth that I found in San Francisco last spring, and all glass dishes, the ones with the black trimming on the crystal. There is enough color in the food so that no colored dishes will be necessary. The decoration will be simply a red rose in that bowl on the mirror I keep in the center of the table. We all want to visit, and do not want to be bothered by any tall flowers that interfere with vision. Tomorrow afternoon we are having an organ recital. As is our custom, I have asked the soloist and his wife to stay to dinner. We will serve them: (Continued on page 20) PAGE 17 Wow CAorrde , DOCTOR With Suggestions on When and How to Call Him At4i, W. W. BAUER, M. D.* I F was a beautiful summer afternoon a few years ago. I lay on my bed with the window open. Suddenly there came a frantic call from the middle of the next block. A little girl was running down the street and shouting to my daughter, then eight years old: "Nan, Nan, is your father a doctor?" "No," my child responded, with the devastating candor of youth, "he used to be, but he doesn't know anything about it any more." She referred to the fact that a number of years had elapsed since I had been in private practice, and so, in her eyes, I was not like the doctors who came to see her when she was ill. As to the emergency, it could not have amounted to much, because that was the last I heard of it, and though I watched for a doctor's car, none came to the home where the emergency call originated. Once, in my early days of country practice in southwestern Idaho, I received a call from eighteen miles away, on the other side of the swift and treacherous Snake River, which could be crossed only by ferry at that time. The ferry operator lived on the other side of the river, and could be reached when he slept too soundly to hear the night bell, only by one's paddling across in a skiff. When I arrived, the house was dark, and the irate relative who was finally induced to poke his head out of an upper window, announced calmly that the patient felt better, and was asleep, and they were certainly not going to wake her, because I had told them that sleep was the best medicine a patient could have. In that same community there was a mother hen (human) with one "chick." Every time the latter sneezed, the doctor had to drive ten miles to console the * Director, Bureau of Health Education, American Medical Association. PAGE 18 mother. It was a strong temptation to disregard these frequent and needless calls, or at any rate to put them off until more important matters had been attended to. It would have been disastrous, on one occasion, if I had done so, because that call turned out to be a real emergencyвЂ”the boy had appendicitis, and hours counted. Of course, as long as the patient desires the service, and is willing to pay for it, or if a jittery parent needs reassurance, the doctor should not complain. Nor would he, if his own convenience were the sole consideration. He would appreciate a little more co-operation from his patients mainly because he is often greatly puzzled to decide which of several apparent emergency calls is most important. Even the chronic crier of "Wolf!" may actually be in a situation in which he should have first consideration, though if he does not get it, he can blame no one but himself. There are right ways and wrong ways to call the doctor, as well as right times and wrong times. But first, there must be a doctor to callвЂ”the choice of a doctor must be made. Many persons are puzzled regarding how to go about that. Often they choose their medical adviser with less care and intelligence than they use in selecting a barber or a hairdresser. Yet there are ways to do it wisely. The first piece of advice is to take time to make the selection. "How can I find a doctor in an emergency?" is a frequent question addressed to the American Medical Association. There is an answer, and it will be given, but the best advice is to choose your doctor before the emergency arrives. Then you will not have to depend on him for something big like a Caesarean'section or an appendectomy the first time you ever see him. You and he will have learned to know each other, and there will be better mutual understanding and co-operation. In fact, if you don't like him, you have a chance to quit him and try someone else before the big moment arrives when you want to be absolutely sure of having the right doctor. The right doctor for you may not be the one whq was just right for someone else, and the fact that he is not the right doctor for you, casts no reflection upon him, or for that matter, upon you. This relationship between patient and doctor is a delicate thing, easily injured. The right doctor for you must have certain qualifications, of which no single one should be the determining factor. Good schools and good hospitals have turned out inferior doctors, and vice versa. Not all members of organized ethical medical societies live up to their professions, and it sometimes takes a long time for violators to be found out. But it is true, nevertheless, that a doctor who was graduated from an approved medical school, served an internship in a good hospital, and belongs to reputable medical societies, possesses three important qualificationsвЂ”good basic education, good practical training, and good character. If in addition, he is in the habit of attending medical meetings and reading medical journals, or better still, if he contributes to the medical literature, you know that he is keeping up with the march of medicine. At this point somebody usually inquires: "That's all very well, but how are you going to find these things out?" That's not much of a problem. You can write to the. American Medical Association about him, but usually that is not necessary. In his office you can see his medical-school diploma, often his internship diploma, and his certificates of membership in medical societies, or his qualifications as a specialist and his membership in special medical societies. You can get this information, as well as the other points suggested, by asking, if you cannot get it by looking. No physician who has the right answers will resent the question. As a matter of fact, so great a percentage has them, that your chances of going wrong are small. But there is still the advantage, already described, of choosing in anticipation of the emergency, instead of awaiting it and making a choice in haste. Suppose the emergency has arisen, and no doctor has been chosen, or you are overtaken by illness away from home. There are three things you can do: I. Call the secretary of the local medical society and ask for the name of a doctor. In larger cities the society is usually listed in the telephone book under the name of the county society or academy of medicine, or possibly of the city. 2. Call one. of the local hospitals and ask for names of staff physicians. LIFE AND HEALTH 3. If there is time, wire or telephone your own doctor and ask his advice. Having decided whom to call, how shall he be called, and when? Is there a special way to call a doctor? Not exactly, but there are some suggestions which help the doctor give better services to more patients more quickly. Here are some do's and don'ts about calling the doctor: 1. Don't ask him to come "as soon as possible." Either there is an emergency, in which case the call should be designated as "urgent" or "very urgent" and the reason for urgency stated; or there is no emergency, in which case the doctor can take more urgent calls first. As a matter of fact, there are few real medical emergencies, and most of those are created by unwise delay in calling the doctor. 2. Give him a general idea what to ex- pect when he comes. His bag contains the requirements to meet most situations, but he cannotsarry his whole office about. 3. Call him before he leaves home in the morning, or during office hours if possible. This helps him to plan his calls, and all his patients get earlier service. 4. If parents or responsible persons are at home only at certain hours because of work or other obligations, it is quite proper to request the doctor to call between certain hours, but this should be done only when necessary. It is unfair to call the doctor for little Egbert and suggest an emergency so that the doctor will come and go in time for mother to get to the bridge club. 5. Both doctor and patient profit if the doctor is consulted at his office whenever possible by patients who are in fit physical condition to go there. This saves the doctor's time and the patient's money, and often forestalls a second visit at the office later. 6. In case of doubt about the necessity for a night visit, the welfre of the patient must govern. Better several useless visits than one essential call omitted. There are times when doubt arises regarding whether or not a doctor is needed. Many of these doubts can be settled only by calling the doctor, and it is foolish to try to settle them any other way. The doctor's fee in such cases is not wasted; the assurance of safety should be worth the price. The following are a few situations in which the doctor should be called to settle any questions that may arise: 1. In case of sudden and severe illness, such as unconsciousness, convulsions, great pain, collapse, injury, poisoning, or other obvious emergencies, there is seldom doubt, unless the patient appears to be improving. Even then, the course of safety is to call the doctor to be sure that apparent improvement is real. 2. Pain, especially abdominal pain, is often very deceptive. To the inexperienced and excited lay observer a greenapple tummy-ache may seem more alarming than a ruptured appendix. It is a safe rule that when pain, especially abdominal pain, persists for more than two hours, or when it grows steadily worse, the doctor should be called. Of course, no medication should be given. That simple bit of advice, if heeded, would save many lives. 3. Difficulty in breathing may be due to many causes; if sudden and severe, it always calls for prompt medical care. 4. Fever may be due to so many causes that a patient with an elevated temperature should always be kept in bed and the doctor summoned. 5. Severe injuries obviously require the doctor's presence, and so do apparently minor injuries which do not recover promptly. Redness, soreness, swelling. fever, chills, or a feeling of being "dopey," after an apparently minor injury, probably indicate infection. 6. Chills usually mean infection spreading, and call for prompt action. 7. Coughs and colds, if not definitely on the road to improvement by the end of the second twenty-four hours, or if severe and progressive, or accompanied by chills or fever, call for skilled treatment at once. If there is pain in the chest, delay is dangerous. 8. Rashes may indicate many diseases. some serious, and they are too deceptive for the home diagnostician to recognize. Call the doctor. IMACR STAR In Case of Doubt, Call the Doctor Anyway. Better Several Useless Calls Than One Essential Call Omitted PAGE 19 9. Sore throats, like rashes, may not be what they seem. 10. Racing pulse or palpitating heart or severe chest pains, demand prompt relief. 11. Bleeding, unless promptly controlled by simple pressure, calls for the doctor's ministrations without delay. 12. Little symptoms, persistent and annoying, especially if they occur in middle life, may be signs of something vital going wrong, or they may be amenable to simple treatment which will end the nuisance. In either case, the doctor's call will be worth while. Be especially watchful for sores that do not heal, lumps that appear where they do not belong, moles or warts that become changed in appearance, abnormal discharges or bleeding, and digestive disturbances after middle ageвЂ”these are the warning signs of cancer. Of course, if you are one of those rare sensible souls who call the doctor, or Call upon him, before they have emergencies, or even before they have symptoms, you don't have these problems to anywhere near the extent to which most persons have them. You then have your regular physical checkup and health conference, minor abnormalities are attended to before they grow into major ones, and you spend your medical budget more for prevention than for cure. While this does not give you absolute assurance against illness, it does help materially, and it is economical. What about asking your neighbor's advice in the choice of a doctor? By all meansвЂ”ask several friends and neighbors. A good doctor, if he has been in the community long enough, will be well spoken of by his patients, and by many who are not his patients, but who know of him. A good name in the community at large is one indication of a good doctor. But it is only oneвЂ”don't forget the others. Select your doctor on the basis of all of them combined; select him before you have urgent need of him, and you will seldom make a mistake. Cooking School Lessons (Continued from page 17) Tomato-and-avocado cocktail Baked potatoes Carrot loaf Buttered fresh asparagus Whole-wheat Parker House rolls Butter Hot Ovaltine Fresh limeade I am looking forward to your coming up this week end; so please do not disappoint me. We will have at least one lunch out in the mountains and some good boating. Love, MYRTLE. PAGE 20 By William G. Wirth, Ph. D. E was 'way, 'way down in the dumps, that man I met the other day; and I must confess he had good reason to be gloomy. His point was that we human beings as separate individuals do not amount to very much in these days of conflict and slaughter. "A man is getting to be the cheapest thing on earthвЂ”nothing but cannon fodder. Here I have spent thousands on the education of my boy, and now it seems to be all a useless waste of money. As a good American, I am glad he is in the service of his country; but I cannot help thinking about the vanity and futility of the life of every one of us in these terrible times." Yes, the value of the human individual seems to be under a despairing blackout. But it only seems so. The actual fact that ought to and must be an encouragement to us all is that man is supreme. All of his institutions, groupings, organizationsвЂ”no matter how powerful at the momentвЂ”are definitely secondary to himself. The declaration of the Old Testament psalmist centuries ago, in answering the challenge "What is man?" still holds with pertinent force, "Thou hast made him but a little lower than God [so reads the Hebrew original], and crowned him with glory and honor." Ps. 8:4, 5. Let us catch the profound lesson the bard of Avon has given us in his tragedy of Hamlet. You recall the pessimism and despairing setting of the drama. Hamlet's father had been killed by the evil contriving of his mother and her more wicked husband. Plunged as he was in the sea of sorrow, without confidence in mankind, he yet saw the value of the individual human being, and left us this exalted expression: "What a piece of work is a man! How noble in reason! how infinite in faculty! in form and moving, how express and admirable! in action how like an angel! in apprehension, how like a god! the beauty of the world! the paragon of animals!" Shakespeare's wisdom here in causing the priceless person to triumph in spite of the hopelessness of people still stands. That ought to cheer us in these evil days. We are each one of us of great price. Two thousand years ago the Founder of Christianity drove home to us the same lesson. Certainly no one has ever lived in this world that with such penetrating vision knew the helplessness and the perversity of mankind as did He. T And yet He thought so much of the individual man that He gave Himself as a sacrifice of love for every single person. What a lesson that should be to all of us when we are inclined to despair and hopelessness as we think of the future and the destiny of mankind! Jesus was the world's supreme individualist. We hear Him saying, "The very hairs of your head are all numbered." We see His soul going out after the one dying thief on the cross. We listen to His parables about the value of the one lost coin, the one lost sheep, the one prodigal son. How thrilling to our perplexed and troubled souls are those satisfying and hopeful words of His: "There shall be more joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine righteous persons, who need no repentance"! It is small wonder that the famed historian Adolf von Harnack tells us that "Jesus Christ was the first to bring the value of every human soul to light." + + + The Virtues of Lady Nicotine Challenged (Continued from page 15) of just what all this evidence consists of, but let me say that it is voluminous, highly scientific, and well controlled, and it proves conclusively that tobacco smoking is associated with dangers far beyond anything formerly thought possible. This information seldom gets through to the public, and the reason for this fact is not hard to find. Perhaps an incident known at first hand will illustrate. A few years ago Mr. George W. Gray, brilliant author of "The Advancing Front of Science" and "The Advancing Front of Medicine," called upon me to inquire respecting my researches in the field of tobacco and public health. I was informed that he had been asked by the editor of a leading magazine to "get the facts" on this controversial subject. His contribution, he said, was to be published in a certain issue some months hence. When the article failed to appear, I called Mr. Gray to ask the reason. His reply was that the findings of his inquiries among leading scientific workers had been so predominantly adverse to tobacco that the editor had frankly informed him that he could not publish it, since it would affect his advertising accounts with the tobacco interests. Tobacco companies are heavy advertisers; hence, news adverse to their interests must be played down, if not suppressed altogether. In view of this sorry situation, a contribution such as that from Mr. Tunney comes as a brilliant beam on a dark path. Much credit must also be given to the editors of the Reader's Digest for having the courage to publish it. LIFE AND HEALTH Eye Troubles (Continued from page 11) headlights and flickering illuminated signs, gazing out of a car window at objects when moving rapidlyвЂ”all these force the visual organs to make innumerable adjustments. The eye may be greatly disturbed at times, owing to infection of some of the associated tissues in conditions such as sinus trouble, irregularities of the nose, infected tonsils, abscessed or devitalized teeth, and other focal troubles in remote parts of the body. Any one of these may cause a severe conjunctivitis, ulceration of the cornea, or uveitis. It is a serious matter to neglect or delay treatment for such disturbances. In certain diseases, such as Bright's disease, diabetes, tumors of the brain, and others, a study of the eyes is very valuable and necessary. The eye physician often is the first to discover the presence of such a condition. Preschool children get less attention so far as their eyes are concerned, than older ones, but really, the time to check and make needed corrections is before they enter school. Students who are given much reading material, and those who are pushed a grade ahead of where they really belong, must eventually be given assistance in the form of glasses. Refraction is a common term used by the eye physician, oculist, or ophthalmologist, which means simply a complete eye examination and proper fitting of glasses. After this has been done and one has a reliable and accurate prescription worked out, then first-class material and workmanship in grinding the lenses and fitting the frames is just as essential as a scientific prescription. Although most lenses resemble one another in appearance, they are substantially different in the way they function before the human eye. There are elderly people, usually beyond the age of sixty years, who cannot be aided very much by the use of glasses, because the substance of the crystalline lens takes on a milky or frosty appearance. This can be efficiently remedied by the removal of this frosty lens, or cataract, as it is properly called. False impressions exist regarding the nature, location, and composition of a cataract. Some think it is something on the surface of the eye that can be taken off or dissolved by the use of medicine drops, but such is not the case. A cataract is a normal part of the eye that has grown and developed naturally since birth and has served faithfully all through life until, first of all, there is noticed a gradual dimness of vision, first in one eye and then perhaps in the other. This dimness increases until one is unable to read, or to recognize his neighbor. The lens change, or cataract, is within your eye, and when removed must be (Continued on page 27) SEPTEMBER, 1942 THE LAMB: I did, ma'am. But, you see, I'm a lamb with a purpose. I'm here to tell you of a gentler way of dealing with your little trouble. MRS. R.: You must mean constipation! THE LAMB: That's it, ma'am! If you are one of those people with normal intestines who are troubled with constipation due to lack of "bulk" in the diet, this crisp, crunchy cereal, KELLOGG'S ALL-BRAN, will get right at the cause of your trouble. But more than that, it will do it in a way that is surprisingly pleasant and gentle, too. MRS. R.: Gentle? Tell me more! THE LAMB: With pleasure, ma'am. You see, ALL-BRAN acts differently from many medicinal laxatives. They work by prodding the intestines into action, or by drawing moisture into them from other parts of the body. But ALL-BRAN works principally on the contents of the colon, helping you to have easy and normal elimination. MRS. R.: But tell me, lamb, this ALL-BRANвЂ”will I really enjoy it? THE LAMB: You certainly will! ALL-BRAN has now been improved; it's golden-soft and doubly delicious! Eat it often, and drink plenty of water. efillIZE AS' LAM For people with normal intestines who are troubled with constipation due to lack of "bulk" in the diet f MADE BY KELLOGG'S IN BATTLE CREEK In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH, PAGE 21 wiFE's oRnE H C CODUCTED BY CPROLI116 EELLS HEELER HomemakingвЂ”A Career Packed Full of Adventure, Love, and Work Fatigue THIS is a problem that comes to every one of us, especially during the hot summer days, with cooking, washing, ironing, cleaning, canning, and taking care of our Victory gardens, attending first-aid classes, solving all the problems of a household. Oftentimes, though, some little adjustment or correction of a condition will do much to alleviate fatigue. For instance, do you do your housework in suitable shoes? I know many of you wear your once "best" shoes for housework when they have lost their original good looks. You should have special housework shoes вЂ”low, comfortable shoes with heels well kept. And, too, you'll get an extra lift if you keep your working shoes well polished. It gives you an extra pride in your work. You'll find that a cooling bath, combing the hair, and freshening up in general, will do wonders to help you attack that pile of work one more and do it with a song and a swish. Is your worktable high enough? your sink? They should be, or you can't help tiring. A little nap each day, even though it irks your soul to take it, will revive your weary spirit, and your family will appreciate it, too, for sometimes lack of rest, you know, just makes us plain cranky and spitfiery, if I may coin a new word. Picking up just a bit at night when the children have gone to bed, will help you off to a good start in the morning, for sometimes it just discourages you to get up in the morning and cast an eye first on disorder, disorder that could be out of the way. Summer Happenings I'VE had a delightful summer at home. I did so many things I've wanted to get done for a long time. I repapered my bedroom, as I told you I would. It is a lovely soft green now, with small bouquets of white flowers with just a touch of pink on their petals. New fluffy curtains for the bedroom, too. I've tinkered a great deal about the garden, in an endless battle on weeds. I never saw anything grow so fast as weeds. They pop up overnight where you left a neat, clean row the day before. I've had the fun of watching a mother hen bring forth a family of soft, bright-eyed little baby chicks that immediately went to PAGE 22 work at the business of growing and producing something worth while. I've spent time talking to my flock of New Hampshire Red pullets. They seemed to understand my talk, for the next day we found their first egg in the hen coop. They run to meet me when I feed them, squat down on the ground for me to pick them up and stroke their sleek heads. And how they do sing and sing and sing! I think there's no more musical sound than that of a flock of happy hens. (We have contented cows; so why not happy hens!) We've gone berryingвЂ”blueberrying, raspberrying, and blackberryingвЂ”and known all the itching agonies of chigger bites, but, oh, the delight of fresh berries from the garden! And incidentally, berries have made very good desserts and solved the sugar problem helpfully. We've watched the chipping sparrows and their little family in our young holly tree, the sleek pair of catbirds that have summered with us, and another bird that I haven't quite identified yet, which had a nest in the old stovepipe in my husband's workshop. She was a very sleek bird, sort of olive green in color, with a yellowish breast; at least in the brief whizzing moment that I got a glimpse of her that was my impression of her color. She was a thrifty bird, using old snakeskins and almost anything in her nest. Of course, we've been enchanted by the fairy-winged hummingbirds that have visited our gladioli and roses and delphiniums. We've gathered up the old rubber, the papers, and everything we could find that our Government could use in the defense program. We've had pleasure with our two young ducks with their happy cavortings in the puddles after a rain. We've filled the house full of flowers, and this year we actually had sweet peas. But they grew in Johnnie's garden. The sweet peas I planted happened to be near a Juneberry tree that the children loved to climb to pick the fruit, and the sweet peas got walked on sometimes. The roses, the tall stately glads, the colorful nasturtiums, my dear old favorite zinnias that never fail me, the feathery cosmos, the starry-eyed daisies of the meadow, and the wild roses and honeysuckle of our Maryland countryside, have graced the garden and our home. Oh, yes, I forgot the bees. We ha% e three hives of bees now. Now there's something to watch, and, incidentally, they wandered over the countryside bringing in bits of this honeysuckle and wild-rose sweetness. I was quite thrilled over our first gallon of strained honey from the middle hive. I had lots of fun over my husband's appearance in his old hat with a marquisette curtain brought over it and tied about his neck, and his putting on his leather, fur-lined gloves, and getting all beeproof, and son John dressing up in duplicate, sallying forth to deal with the bees. Herbs Miss CORNOR, chef at the Washington Sanitarium, gave me some basil to try, and I found great delight in its flavor. It's something you have to try yourself to know how really good it is. Sprinkle a little on omelets, scrambled eggs, or even on plain bread and butter. So I planted some basil in my garden this summer, and some summer savory. For a new taste adventure, why don't you try some herb seasonings, new ones, not just the same sage and something else all the time? General Electric GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY is circulating a booklet and seven small folders on the use and care of appliances. The booklet is entitled, "A Captain in the Kitchen." Another booklet prepared by General Electric in the interest of the national nutrition program is "How to Get the Most Out of the Food You Buy." These may be secured through regular G. E. distribution channels. Sweet Corn HOT buttered ears of corn, corn chowder, roasted cornвЂ”it makes your mouth water just to think of these good things from the garden. Here are two corn recipes you may enjoy: Corn and Carrot Pudding.вЂ”Mix about eight ounces of canned corn, eight ounces of cooked carrots, two tablespoons chopped green pepper, and one cup of white sauce. Add two beaten eggs, and pour into buttered casserole. Bake in moderate oven until set, or until knife comes out clean. Serves six. Mexican Corn.вЂ”SautГ© one medium onion, chopped, in two tablespoons butter or vegetable shortening until golden LIFE AND HEALTH brown. Add one tablespoon flour, and stir smooth. Add two cups canned tomatoes, two cups canned or cooked corn, two canned pimientos cut into small pieces, one teaspoon salt, one teaspoon sage. Pour into buttered baking dish, cover with buttered crumbs, and bake in hot oven. Eggplant THERE IS no more beautiful vegetable iron, but will provide him with other essential minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, and a full quota of the vitamins, proteins, and energy which are requisite for buoyant health. In these days when we must often be steeled against disaster and discomfort due to the war, everyone needs iron and all the other essential nutrients. Food is one of the principal factors in our fighting efficiency, and we should, therefore, make the best use of it. than a glossy purple eggplant, and if you grow them, you feel just pride in producing anything quite so large and beautiful. Try scalloping eggplant with to- 11111111011111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 matoes and adding green pepper and onion for extra flavor. Pare a two-pound eggplant and cut into small, even pieces. Melt two tablespoons of vegetable shortening in skillet, add chopped green pepper and small onion, and cook for a few minutes. Add eggplant, a DELLA L. REISWIG, Dietitian quart of chopped raw tomatoes, and salt. Cook ten minutes more. Then Cheese Cake place mixture in shallow buttered pan I package Ruskets and alternate layers of eggplant mix1 cup raw sugar ture with fine bread crumbs. Bake until 3. cup melted shortening or butter tender and brown. This recipe is given Crumble Ruskets, add sugar and butter, by the Bureau of Home Economics. and mix well. Press mixture except tivo Favorite Recipes + + + Why You Need Iron in Your Diet (Continued front page 9) Lion was formerly administered with so much zeal. Iron is one of the nutrients included in the new enriched white breads, which contain vitamins and minerals natural to whole wheat. According to the standards recommended for this "nutritionally modernized" bread by the National Research Council, each pound of enriched bread must contain from 4 to 16 milligrams of iron, which may be incorporated in the loaf by the use of enriched flour or enriched yeast, or by direct addition of suitable iron salts. Practically all the iron in a food such as enriched bread is available for use by the body, because white bread is also a good source of the food mineral calcium which is contributed largely by the milk solids included in the bread formula. The presence of plenty of calcium in the diet always has a favorable action on the utilization of iron. Copper, in much smaller amounts, also aids in the retention of iron, but enough of this mineral is generally supplied in a typical or average diet. Anemia and attendant ills due to lack of iron are easily avoided by constructing the daily diet around liberal amounts of such valuable protective foods as pasteurized milk, eggs, fruits, green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, whole-grain products, and enriched bread. These wholesome foods not only will assure the eater an adequate intake of necessary SEPTEMBER, 1942 thirds cup for the top, on bottom and sides of a greased eight or nine inch form mold. Place in refrigerator. 4 eggs 1 cup raw sugar 4 tablespoons flour I teaspoon salt teaspoon vanilla 2 tablespoons lemon juice 1 teaspoon lemon rind 1 cup evaporated or soy milk 1 lb. American cream cheese, or 14 lbs. cottage cheese Beat eggs until thick and light; add sugar. flour, salt, vanilla, lemon juice and rind. Beat well. Combine evaporated milk and cheese, mix thoroughly, and add to egg mixture. Pour into pan containing crumbs or Ruskets, and sprinkle with two thirds cup Ruskets saved' out. Bake in moderate oven 325В° F. for one to one and a half hours, or until center is set. When cool, loosen edge of cake with spatula and remove from pan. Makes eight to ten servings. Vegelona and Carrot Salad cup diced Vegelona 11 cups grated carrots cup sliced radishes 2 tablespoons mayonnaise or French dressing 1 cup chopped peppers 1 tablespoon lemon juice teaspoon salt Brown Vegelona in broiler. Mix all ingredients. GorhamВ° Loaf 1 can garbanzos 6 tablespoons tomato sauce 3 eggs medium onion cup toasted bread crumbs or Ruskets 1 tablespoon vegetable fat Heat garbanzos, and run through colander. Brown (golden) two beaten eggs in the fat, stirring constantly to make fine particles. Combine with garbanzos. Add the braised onion and the raw egg slightly beaten, the tomato sauce and the Ruskets or crumbs. Salt to taste. Turn into a buttered baking dish. Sprinkle top with buttered Ruskets. Bake at a moderate temperature for thirty minutes. Serve sliced, with any desired sauce. Proteena Stuffed With Dressing 1 large can Proteena * cup chopped celery 1 small onion teaspoon salt 1 cup tomato pulp Remove the center of the Proteena, making a cavity lengthwise about two inches in diameter. Chop the Proteena taken from the center, and mix well all ingredients. Fill and bake forty-five minutes, after covering outside of Proteena with rest of the stuffing. Serve with sauce. Savory-Loaf Potpie 2 tablespoons butter or vegetable margarine 3 potatoes 2 stalks celery 1 lb. Proteena * 1 onion chopped coarse cup -tomatoes 3 cups water Little parsley and thyme Heat butter in saucepan. Add onion and celery. Let cook until light brown; add two tablespoons flour. Let cook few minutes more; add tomatoes, water, parsley, thyme, 1 pound Proteena, and the potatoes cut in small cubes. Salt to taste. Cover, and cook until potatoes are done. Add more water if needed. Serve as a stew, or put into baking pans, cover with pie or biscuit dough, brush top with milk or cream. and hake until nicely browned. Vitamized Macaroni Loaf lb. iii:Rarotii lb. \ uteena * cup chopped celery 4 eggs 1 tablespoon chopped pepper 1 cup tomato sauce 2 tablespoons chopped onion 1 tablespoon chopped parsley Cook macaroni until tender, and drain. Mix all the ingredients together, and bake in loaf. Serve with cream tomato sauce.Patties Stay-Mince Delights 1 cup Soy Mince Sandwich Spread * 4 tablespoons onion 1 cup bread crumbs or Ruskets Salt to taste cup tomato purГ©e Mix all together, form into patties, and either bake in oven or brown in skillet on top of stove, using small amount of fat. Vegetarian Fish Balls Make "fish" balls of one cup hot mashed potatoes, one and a half cups Nuteena (mashed), celery salt, salt, and sage to taste. Form into balls; then dip in slightly beaten egg or roll in ground dry crackers or Ruskets, and brown in deep fat. Drain, and set in warm place until served. Serve with brown sauce or tomato sauce. Serves six. Carrot or Split-Pea Ring 14 cups cooked carrots or split peas cup soft bread crumbs or Ruskets 3 egg yolks well beaten 1 cup milk I small grated onion I teaspoon salt Mix the above thoroughly. Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites. Bake in ring mold set in pan of water. ...Similar trade names are: Protene, Proast, Pro. teena, Protose, VigorostвЂ”Nut-tene, Not-Meat, NuвЂў mete, Nuteena, NuttoseвЂ”Soy Mince, Spread. PAGE 23 PO LY PHYs We do not diagnose or treat disease by mail. Enclose stamped, addressed reply envelope. The services of the Query Editor are restricted to bona fide subscribers. Please be explicit and brief. Address The Query Editor, LIFE AND HEALTH, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C. Ulcer Diet "Please send a diet for gastric ulcer." We are enclosing a suggestive outline of a modified ulcer diet. In every case there are individual questions that may arise that prevent the following of such an outline to the exact letter. In treating ulcer, the fundamental. principle to keep in mind is that of using bland food, with frequent feedings. Five or six feedings a day of food that is free from coarse, rough residue, is usually found to be a good working plan. When food is eaten as often as this, however, one must guard against an unwanted increase in weight. The regular meal should be larger than the in-between feeding. Only a glass of milk, or perhaps a sandwich or other simple portion of food, should be taken in midmorning, midafternoon, and in the evening before retiring. Chronic Myocarditis "Kindly explain just what chronic myocarditis is." Chronic myocarditis is a form of muscle weakening which follows infection or poor nutrition of the heart muscles. It is commonly observed in elderly persons, and some of the changes in the muscle may actually be those which result from old age. These changes weaken the action of the heart, sometimes making it irregular. When the arteries of the heart have undergone a degree of change, so that they are more rigid than normal, and consequently less blood is brought to the working muscles of the heart, we have another situation that contributes to this general state. The word "myocarditis" implies inflammation of the heart muscles, but it is used frequently when no actual inflammation is present, but only a deteriorating weakness and wasting. Eczema "I am eighty-five years of age, and suffer torture with itching eczema of the legs. What can I do for this?" There are many forms of eczema or lesions of the skin that resemble eczema. In one of your age this most likely would be associated with the circulatory condition in the leg. If this is true, then treatment should be directed along this line, in aiding both the heart and the circulation of the blood through the vessels. We doubt whether any medication taken PAGE 24 by mouth or applied locally would have a far-reaching effect. Local applications of soothing ointment or powders may do a great deal to relieve the present irritation or itching. Zinc-oxide ointment with phenol added, which is a preparation that can be obtained in any well-stocked drugstore, frequently is of great aid in conditions such as you mention. We recommend that you see a physician. Foods Rich in Iron "My blood count is low, and I have been advised to eat meat. What ironcontaining foods can I eat in place of meat?" Vegetables, particularly the leafy ones, fruit, including raisins and dates, and lentils, beans, and wheat, are the foods that contain the largest amount of iron. Cheese and milk and cream do not contain very much of this ingredient. There is a fair supply in egg yolk. In frequent tests in which meat eaters and nonmeat eaters have been compared, it has been our observation that one who eats a wellbalanced vegetarian diet that includes milk is as well supplied with iron as are those who use meat, and very frequently their blood hemoglobin readings are higher. We are enclosing a suggestive diet for anemia, which places emphasis on iron and other mineral foods. Watery Eyes I am sixty-four years of age, and have watery eyes. Occasionally in the morning I have noticed tiny granules on my eyelids. I bathe my eyes with warm water, and on retiring use a boric-acid solution, but the trouble continues. The use of a saturate boric-acid solution probably is one of the best ways to treat the condition you mention. You should see also that your glasses are properly adjusted to your needs. In addition to using a boric-acid solution, you may find help in using an ointment, such as one per cent yellow oxideof-mercury ointment (ophthalmic), which you can purchase in practically any drugstore. A small thread of this should be squeezed in behind the open lid, and then the eye blinked several times to spread the ointment over the eye and along the edges of the lid. The condition is due to an infection of the glandular canals about the roots of the hairs. If it continues, consult an oculist. Pyorrhea Kindly advise regarding the proper treatment of pyorrhea. I have been told by some that sometimes an operation is necessary. It is true that severe cases of pyorrhea are often treated best by operation. Sometimes some of the teeth may have to be removed, but by cutting the gums back and scraping along the roots of the teeth, often a healing can be brought about. Various medicines have been applied locally to the teeth with good results. Some of these must be applied with great care, as they are rather strong and corrosive in nature. Others are less destructive of tissue, and can be used freely. A mouthwash of half-strength peroxide of hydrogen is favored by some. In mild cases careful attention to the teeth with a toothbrush and a suitable toothpaste or powder may be all that is needed. Spitting Blood An elderly woman had a bad cough last winter and spit up blood. She feels better now. She has leakage of the heart and hardening of the arteries. Is this spitting of blood liable to come back? Quite likely the woman of whom you speak, seventy years old, and who spat up blood last year, is suffering from a weakened circulation which results in congestion of the lungs and consequent coughing and spitting. Because of the engorged condition of the blood vessels, the sputum has a blood tinge. If she has a cold, or becomes specially weakened again in health, it is likely that the spitting of red mucus may recur. In respect to the leakage of the heart, this is most likely a damage that dates from early life. The valves do not close tightly, and when the heart contracts, it allows some of the blood to flow backward instead of all flowing forward. This portion that flows backward makes a little rasping sound in flowing against the valve, which can be heard by the doctor when he examines the heart. If the leakage is not extensive, it is not regarded as a serious ailment, because the heart normally will strengthen itself so as to offset this backward leak. However, in old age, when other ailments develop, it is important to guard against overloading the heart or exposing oneself to colds and other illnesses. LIFE AND HEALTH Rapid Heartbeats "Does a shortage of oxygen cause the heart to beat faster?" When there is a deficiency of oxygen in the blood stream the natural mechanism of the body frequently causes the heart to beat faster so as to bring more blood in contact with the air of the lung spaces. However, it is not the only cause for increased heart rate. Frequently an injured valve or injury to the lungs will cause a rapid heart rate. In other cases the increase may have no apparent cause. One who is afflicted with periods of rapid pulse should consult his physician for a careful examination before drawing final conclusions regarding the cause in his own individual case. How to be sure you'll do as the doctor ordered Wheat Germ "I take wheat germ for breakfast in place of a laxative. Should it be cooked?" Unless one has an extremely sensitive digestive mechanism, we would suggest using the wheat germ in the raw state. Cooking or toasting seems to take from the germ some of its value and changes its chemical composition. After it is treated by heat, rancidity occurs more readily. Oily Skin "I have an oily skin, full of pimples and blackheads. What should I do to help this condition?" It is very desirable that you have a careful study made of your general health. Sometimes an oily skin is due to other conditions that seem rather far removed from the surface of the body. Avoid too free use of fats in your diet, and see that the body weight is kept down to normal. Bathing the face in hot water and soap of some nonirritating type, then applying an alcoholic solution of about 67 per cent strength, will be found very useful. Sometimes hot packs over the face will be an aid. Ultraviolet "Is an ultraviolet-ray lamp really of help in curing such diseases as rheumatism?" Ultraviolet light is valuable in building up one's natural vitamin D in the skin. Sunlight will do the same thing. We would not think of this as being a specific cure for rheumatism, but as a general tonic measure which would enable the body to resist infections. Vitamin D, whether taken in cod-liver oil or made in one's own skin by the action of artificial ultraviolet light or of the sun's violet rays, aids in the proper metabolism of calcium in the body. Ultraviolet lamps are rather expensive. If one is going to undertake the home use of them, it is important that he should build up a tolerance for exposure slowly to avoid being burned. SEPTEMBER, 1942 SHOULD YOUR DOCTOR hand down the verdict: "No more coffee!" you might find his order a hard one to follow. But it needn't be. If you're like millions of others, the warmth and cheer and hearty flavor of Postum will make it replace coffee in your beverage affections. Postum contains no caffein . . . no stimulant of any kind. It is simply whole wheat and bran roasted and slightly sweetened. A product of General Foods. ASK YOUR DOCTOR ABOUT POSTUM P.S. On warm days, a frosty glass of iced Postum is especially delicious! In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH. PAGE 25 14 5ouri5ELOR c COI1DUCTED BY w000-coniSTOCK,111. BELIE Questions for this department should be addressed to the Mother's Counselor, LIFE AND HEALTH, Takoma Park, Washington, D. C. Always enclose stamped, addressed reply envelope. Pinworms Our son is four years old, and during the past two years he has suffered from pinworms. What causes them? Can anything besides too much sugar be the cause? What can one do for them? Is the treatment permanent, and are they only in the lower bowel? Are they really dangerous? By this, I mean do they cause convulsions? Your little son has in some way picked these pinworms or the eggs on his fingers, and from his fingers has introduced them into his digestive tract. Diet has really nothing to do with it. These worms tend to accumulate in the lower bowel and anus. If they are kept washed out regularly, they will finally disappear. The best way to do this is to give the child an enema every night of a pint of cool water in which a cup of Quassia chips has been steeped. You can get these at any drugstore. The reason the enema has to be repeated is that the fresh worms will come down and the enemas will have to be kept up until they are eliminated, which will probably be a week or two. Then the child should be watched, and if there are any signs of return, the treatment should be repeated. These worms cannot be said to be a definite cause of convulsions. In a nervous child they might be a contributing cause. up Diet Trouble of Eight-MonthOld Baby My baby is eight months old and weighs seventeen pounds. At birth he weighed seven pounds one ounce. This last month he hasn't gained any. He takes thirteen ounces of canned milk and twenty-two ounces of water, and three tablespoons corn sirup. I also give him two ounces of orange juice a day. He is a very good baby and has two teeth. He takes five drops of halibut-liver oil with viosterol. I started giving the baby cereals, Pablum and Cream of Wheat, at six months, then a few weeks later, strained vegetables. After he had had these vegetables for several days his bowels moved four and five times a day and his buttocks became very red and sore. Every time his bowels moved the condition became PAGE 26 worse. I stopped the vegetables, and he healed up right away. I have tried twice since then with the vegetablesвЂ”carrots, peas, string beans, celery, and green Lima beans. It isn't quite so bad this time because he is using a nursery chair, but all around his rectum in little patches the skin looks drawn or blistered, then becomes very red as if it has peeled. I gave him eggs twice, and he broke out with red blotches like hives. Will these go away as he becomes used to the eggs, or shouldn't he eat them? After six months a baby should be on straight whole milk with nothing in the way of sweetening added. There is no reason why your baby should not be taking 'fresh cow's milk, preferably boiled two to three minutes to ensure ease of digestion and assimilation. He should also have more orange juice. Give him three to four ounces twice a day unless he seems allergic to this; if he is, he may have tomato juice. It will be well for you to continue giving the halibut oil as at present. He should continue the cereals, such as Pablum, etc., once a day and his strained vegetables once a day. I think with the discontinuance of the corn sirup you will have little if any trouble with his bowel movements. Start with one vegetable, and gradually add others. It is not necessary for him to have eggs, since he doesn't seem to take them well. It would be a good thing for him to learn to like buttermilk and cottage cheese, and a little later he may be able to take hardboiled egg yolks occasionally. Do not put sugar on his cereal, and do not add fat to his vegetables. He may have baked potato with a little canned milk or a little of his boiled milk and moderate salt. He should gradually take more fruit, as applesauce unsweetened, or he may have dried fruits like dates, or mashed banana. He evidently has been on too concentrated a formula, and when this is adjusted, his bowels should be all right. Diet for Twenty-two-MonthOld Baby My baby, aged twenty-two months, has suffered from constipation from the age of three months. She has never had normal bowel action. It is necessary to resort to the use of purgatives. Sometimes I try to avoid giving her a purgative, and then she will be constipated for as long as three days. Finally, I have to resort to a purgative. On these occasions her movements are very painful and the feces are quite dry. I have had several doctors examine her. They all say she is strong and healthy, and they recommend purgatives such as milk of magnesia, etc., but I do not want this purgative habit formed. I strongly believe that her diet needs more roughage, for I tried whole wheat in porridge form and her condition was slightly improved during that time. She has now grown tired of the whole-wheat porridge and refuses to take any more. She will never eat whole-wheat bread. Her diet is as follows: 6:00 A. M. One cup Ovaltine. 8:00 A. is. One or two slices white bread, one soft-boiled egg 11:00 A. M. Vegetable. soup, rice or macaroni with a little gravy, spinach, etc. 3:00 P. M. Porridge 6:30 P. M. One slice white bread and one cup Ovaltine Oranges, bananas, prunes, and raisins are also included in the diet at different times. She drinks a sufficient quantity of water and passes urine frequently. At present she is teething, but is quite healthy and strong. I shall be very grateful if you will kindly suggest what I should do to improve her condition. Should I change her diet, and if so, -how may I prepare the necessary foods to make them attractive and tasty? Stop all purgatives or laxatives of any kind. Do not even give your baby milk of magnesia. Give her daily an injection into the bowels of warm flaxseed tea, made by cooking one tablespoon of whole flaxseed in a pint' of water until it is slimy. Strain off the seeds and introduce the remaining liquid slowly into the bowels. Use only a few ounces at a time. This will take care of the bowel action and will help to relax a tight bowel. In the meantime her nutritional program should be such that she will tend to have normal bowel movements. I would suggest the following: 6 or 7 A. M. One half Dr two thirds of a glass of orange juice. LIFE AND HEALTH 8 A. at. One or one and a half slices of whole-wheat bread or one-half cup whole-grain cereal. Eight to ten ounces milk. Some simple fruit like applesauce. Use no butter or sugar. One-half glass orange 9 or 10 A. juice. 12:30 or 1 P. M. Vegetable soup or tender vegetables. Egg or cottage cheese. Eight to ten ounces milk. If her appetite calls for more food than this, you may add whole-wheat bread or baked potato or brown rice, or perhaps occasionally macaroni. If extra sweet is desired, she may have a little honey eaten from a teaspoon at the close of the meal, or her rice or cereal may be cooked with raisins or shredded dates. 2, 3, or even 4 P. M. One-half or twothirds glass of fruit juice. 5 or 6 P. M. Dark bread, milk, fruit freely of any kind. If stewed fruit is used, it should be preferably that made from fresh fruit and should not be very sweet. On the diet she is taking at the present time, she is very deficient in vitamin B and no doubt other vitamins as well. After a week or so of the diet I have given you, discontinue the enemas. Give them on alternate days for another week or ten days, and then forget her bowels. Nature will take care of them. If they miss a day now and then, don't worry. Those Artificial Teeth (Continued f r ont page 13) you the best service possible. Have confidence in the work he is giving you. This brings us to the fourth and last considerationвЂ”your own personal co-operation in learning to wear new teeth. Of the four this is really the most important. Put them in with the determination that you are going to leave them there all day, until you feel lost when you take them out. Of course, your mouth will feel fullвЂ”it should, to start withвЂ” and you are not going to be able to eat until you learn how. There will probably be some sore spots that may cause you to return to your dentist to be relieved. Don't put up with them if they persist; continual irritations may cause serious trouble in the mouth, but don't lay the teeth out, even though sore places appear. If you do, you may lose the battle in learning to wear them. Some mouths are so deformed, naturally or from disease or accident, that they are hard to fit. In these cases only a limited amount of service can be expected. Your dentist can never foretell your success after he has made the teeth to fit your mouth; only your persistent application to the new task will count. Some people master their use in a few weeks, others take months, and some never learn. This is true sometimes in mouths SEPTEMBER, 1942 that are quite normal. Patients who begin the wearing of dentures unwillingly or halfheartedly seldom make a success of it. Remember, your gums shrink for at least two years after extractions. You can expect your plate to loosen on this account, and to get the best results, you should have it reset when the shrinkage has fully taken place. The shape of the plate seldom changes in the mouth, and the dentist cannot be held accountable for gum shrinkage that causes loose plates. Even after the two-year period there are changes going on in most mouths, and many of the best authorities in dentistry recommend new dentures every five or six years to give the maximum amount of service. Many dentists today recommend immediate dentures that are made before the last of the teeth are extracted, generally extracting the teeth in the back of the mouth first and letting them heal for a few weeks or months before the final extractions. These cases usually have to be adjusted as the gums shrink. A word regarding roofless dentures in the upper mouth. In mouths in which they are indicated, they often give good service and can be recommended, but only about one mouth in five hundred has all the anatomical requirements to make them a success. Beware of the advertisements you read in magazines and newspapers for teeth made by taking your own impressions and sending them to dental laboratories by mail. - It takes real skill to take a good impression and get the teeth to articulate properly. While there may b ^ some cases that give some satisfaction, in the majority that I have seen the patient has been greatly disappointed, and generally in the end has had to go to a dentist for a new set. In the judgment of ethical dentists, mail-order dentistry is quackery, and in some States such laboratories are entirely prohibited. The Dietitian Says (Continued front page 16) Laxative Diet My physician says, "Eat more of the laxative foods." Please tell me which of the common foods are laxative, and give me a laxative menu. Laxative foods differ with the individual to some extent, but usually the following foods are rather laxative: buttermilk and sauerkraut, because of the lactic acid they contain; greens such as turnip, beet, and spinach; bread made from coarsely ground whole-wheat flour; prunes, and most fruits, especially the fibrous ones, including oranges and grapefruit; ripe olives, owing to the laxative oil in them; and concentrated sweet foods. such as molasses, honey, dates, raisins, and figs. Foods that lack in fiber tend to be constipating unless they are combined with fibrous foods. Some of these that lack fiber are: white bread, white rice, eggs, sweet milk, and spaghetti. A laxative menu for the average otherwise-healthy individual could be arranged this way: BREAKFAST A whole orange in place of orange juice Dish of prunes Whole-grain cereal with dates and cream Cereal beverage with honey and cream LUNCH A large fruit or vegetable salad Ripe olives Whole-wheat toast with butter Buttermilk DINNER Cottage cheese and ripe olives A serving of beans with molasses Baked potatoвЂ”skin to be eaten Greens with butter and lemon Whole-grain bread Buttermilk Dried fruits and nuts for dessert Many physicians recommend bran, and many people find it a very dependable laxative. The food should be varied, as variety alone will often help. Be sure to eat slowly and chew thoroughly. Milk and Gums Would a full-milk diet of five quarts a day tend to restore shrunken gums to normal? The writer has never heard of this being accomplished, but if your physician or dentist approves, you might try it. Since it has been demonstrated that vitamin C is very essential for hard, firm gums, you might add to your diet each day two or three glassfuls of citrus-fruit juice, tomato juice, several servings of other fruits, and a serving of greens. This would assure you sufficient vitamin C. Vitamin Spelling How do you spell vitamin B1? Is it "thiamine" or "thiamin"? The American Medical Association is spelling it "thiamine," and this will no doubt become common usage, although it is spelled both ways in authoritative works. -4-- + Eye Troubles (Continued from page 21) taken out, and not off. Nor can it be dissolved by medicine as some think. It is usually caused by an injury such as a blow on the eyeball or, most commonly, a slow injury from toxic or chemical changes within the blood and lymph circulation that constantly bathes the lens body, thus causing the milky appearance. Proper care and living conditions throughout one's life are the best preventive. PAGE 27 along without Parry Inty. And now it is time to put the Inty family to bed," Alice concluded. "Inty, Inty, go to bed; you are now a sleepyhead," sang the Twins as they kissed Big Sister and ran upstairs. UST TOR By Veda S. Marsh, R. N. The Inty Family LICE, will you tell us a story?" asked the Little Jays one evening in late summer. It was very pleasant to have Big Sister Alice home for her vacation, and Alice enjoyed the Twins. "You've studied so much about physiology this year, I shall tell you about the Inty family." "The Inty family!" laughed the Twins. "Who are they?" "In certain glands in the body there are what we call internal secretions. These secretions are absorbed into the blood stream and carried to other parts of the body, where they are very active. We'll call them the Inty family." "All right," said Joan. "I'm ready to hear about the Inty family." "There's a large family," said Alice. "I'll tell you about a few of them. Notice first the location of the uppermost part of your neck in the back under the bulge 'of your head. Notice that it is almost on a level with the lower part of your nose. There is bone right through the head on this level. 'Way inside the head on this level along one of these bones there is a little hollow place called a Turk's saddle. - It holds a little gland about the size of a pea, called the pituitary gland. Pituitary Inty lives there. We shall call him Pinty Inty. "Pinty Inty is very important. He is the master of all the other glands and can make them work hard or let them get very lazy. "Pinty Inty can also determine how tall you can grow. If Pinty works too hard, as he seldom does, a person may become a giant. If Pinty Inty should be very lazyвЂ”but he usually does not like to be lazyвЂ”he might produce a dwarf. Of course, a doctor can help Pinty to work just right, and he usually does work just right, so that you grow about as tall as daddy or mother. Now I'll tell you about some other members of the Inty family. "In the pancreas, which is behind the stomach, is another member of the Inty family. This one we shall call Patty Inty. Whenever you eat sugars or starches like potatoes, bread, etc., Patty Inty hurries around and carries the sugar to the liver. "Your body uses starches and sugar for fuel. These are burned up in the body to keep us warm. Patty Inty stores this A PAGE 28 fuel in the liver for use in the body whenever needed, just as daddy stores coal or oil in the cellar to keep you warm during the long winter." "Are there any more Intys?" asked Joan. "Yes, many more," said Alice. "The next one I'll tell you about lives in the adrenal glands just above the kidneys. We'll call her Addie Inty. She's called the emergency Inty. "Do you remember, John, when you were a tiny boy, how frightened you were one evening when you were lost, and how fast you ran home when you came to our street?" "I should say I do," said John. "I believe that, as small as I was, I ran faster than I could run now." "Well, when a person gets frightened, Addie Inty can make the muscles work very, very fast, and sometimes a person is much stronger when frightened than at any other time. Addie Inty comes to help us at such a time. That's why we call Addie Inty an emergency secretion." "Aren't we wonderfully made?" said Joan. "We really are," answered Alice. "And the more you study physiology, the more you'll appreciate these wonderful bodies of ours." "Tell us about some more Intys," said John. "In the throat is the thyroid Inty, located in the thyroid gland. We'll call him Roidy Inty. Roidy Inty is supposed to help to make you fat or thin. If Roidy is very lazy, you may become very fat, so that even dieting will not help to make you thin. But a doctor can give you something to help Roidy make you the correct weight. "If Roidy works too hard, he can make you very thin, so that even if you eat and eat, you'll not gain. Again a doctor can help so that Roidy is not so industrious. Roidy eats iodine in very small amounts, and he usually works just right. "Living in four of the apartments of Roidy Inty's house are four glands, the parathyroid glands. In them live the parathyroid Intys. We'll call them the Parry Intys. "Parry Inty helps to put calcium into your bones, and he helps to keep the messages running smoothly over the nerve telegraph wires. We cannot get What Causes Cancer? (Continued from page 7) Further detailed consideration will be given in the sections dealing with the individual types of growths. Our knowledge in this field indudes a vast variety of conditions without which cancer does not arise, as well as a considerable amount of information regarding the exciting causes of new growths. These facts have been amassed during the centuries, but the last two or three decades have added more in proportion than all the preceding centuries of the Christian Era. An understanding of these items is the basis of modern diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. We may first consider the problem presented by the skin. No other portion of the body is exposed to external influences to the same degree as is the skin. The list of irritants which may produce cancer is very long. Among the most important in sunny Australia, for example, is the influence of ultraviolet rays in the sunlight. The production of rodent ulcers on the face and the back of the hands is of frequent occurrence in that land. The condition is also frequent in sailors, another group who endure considerable exposure to the sunlight. This type of reaction is not seen in the colored races, probably because of the filtering effect of the pigment found in the skin. It is less common in the brunette, who reacts by acquiring a "tan." One cannot help wondering what the harvest will be in years to come, from the present-day fad for sun baking and tanning as seen on most of the beaches each summer. We must not fail to mention the pigmented mole which is apparently a congenital malformation of the cells of the sensory organs in the skin. These cells show considerable instability, and if injured or irritated are liable to malignant transformation of the most dangerous type. The occurrence of cancer in the neck of the womb may be said to be unforgivable. It should be classed as a preventable disease. It is definitely a disease of child-bearing women who have suffered some laceration of the part. In this injured area a chronic infection becomes established and leads to a chronic catarrhal condition which acts as a constant irritant. From this background a malignant transformation occurs. Proper medical attention to this part should be included in every physical examination, and, if it is treated, the predisposing condition can be uniformly eradicated. LIFE AND HEALTH Malignant growths in the mouth are closely associated with two tangible conditions. One is the disease known as syphilis, which will be extensively discussed in a subsequent article. The other is the problem of misfitting dentures and jagged teeth. The constant mechanical injury resulting from these conditions, associated with the usual accompanying infection, appears to act as the exciting cause for cancer in this region. The overindulgence in tobacco plays some part, although the mode of action has not been clearly worked out. These relationships are so constant that one authority, Ewing, says that if they could be removed, cancer within the mouth would disappear. Cancer of the esophagus and stomach may frequently be traced to infections in the mouth, the eating of hot or irritating foods, to tobacco, and alcoholism. The classic example of the effect of hot foods is found in China. The men always eat first and gulp the hot rice rapidly. The women eat after the men, and their food is consequently not as warm. The men are particularly prone to cancer of the esophagus, whereas the disease does not show an increased incidence in Chinese women as compared with the women of other races. Malignant growths in the breast and upper part of the womb are usually attributed to some improper functioning of the internal glands which have to do with the sex characteristics. In the breast these seem to be related to the presence of stagnant secretions which appear to act as an irritant. Cancer has been produced in the breasts of mice by closing off the milk ducts and then rapidly breeding the mice. The side from which the milk can be nursed remains normal, but an appreciable number of the obstructed breasts develop a cancer. In addition to those exhibiting the stagnation element is a smaller group in which hereditary influences seem to have a predominant role. Two types of growths seem to show a direct cause-effect relationship to injury. The type of brain tumor known as a glioma is frequently preceded by some form of head injury. It is difficult to understand just how the force acts upon the brain tissue, as it is apparently well protected by the skull. The observation seems to be reliable, however, and is generally accepted. The malignant tumor in bone seems to follow injuries with a frequency which is too great to be coincidental. One cannot close this discussion without pointing out the fact that benign, or harmless, growths frequently lead to cancerous ones when acted upon by some of the poorly understood changes which take place in the body at the time of the change of life. This development of malignancy is admittedly not limited to this particular period, but it is sufficiently SEPTEMBER, 1942 1-1 LT4-I OUR PETS By Thomas B. Bruce, II, D. V. M. Fir HE 1, , Ilomng article niay not directly applx to the health and welfare of pets; nevertheless, it is interesting and worth while to consider some of the medieval myths concerning canine monsters of that era. Cerberus is probably the best known of the imaginary dogs. It is related that this, a multiheaded animal, stood by the side of Pluto as guardian of Hades, and that its subjugation was one of the fabled labors of Hercules. Some veterinarians, having been present at the birth of many canine monsters. might challenge the idea that any such dog had ever been born, and by further investigation of this myth, it is proved to be impossible. The animal not only had more than one head, he had the tail of a serpent, and wore a necklace of snakes. Ancient mythology has involved Hercules with more nonexistent animals than any other person, and credits him with encountering still another strange dog. This one, owned by Eurytion, had but two heads, and gave its life trying to prevent Hercules from вЂ” stealing the oxen of Geryon. The dogs that lived in the Middle Ages must have been quite different from those of earlier and later eras. It was commonly believed of them that they required three days to digest food; consequently it was unnecessary to feed them oftener. It was also believed of the same dogs that they could follow only the scent of their quarries' breath, and that hares, learning this, taught themselves to run with their noses in the air. Thus, when the odor of their breath did not touch the ground, the hounds were thrown off the scent. Still another peculiarity credited to the medieval dog is that it was the only creature (not even excepting humans) that could pull the dreaded mandrake from the ground вЂ”a feat which always cost the unfortunate animal's life. There were many curious superstitions concerning the mandrake, the most pertinent to this writing being that involving the dog. It was said that the root of this potent plant, having a remote resemblance to the human form, was all but worshiped as a fountain of good or evil. Dressed in miniature regal clothes, it was placed in a corner of the main room and treated as a god. The mandrake was also widely used in treating wounds, and not infrequently was given with murderous intent. This root, in order to be potent, must have grown beneath a gallows from which a murderer had swung. It could be dug only at great risk of life, since its shrieks when pulled from the ground would, if heard, strike one dead. To prevent this, he who dared attempt this extraction not only must cloSe his ears with wax, but, while his dog did the evil' job, must blow upon a horn to drown out the screams of the plant-animal he was thus destroying. The actual feat was accomplished by tying one end of a rope to the root, and the other to a black dog, which would oblige by pulling it out, and then allegedly die on the spot. This unusual bit of nonsense was actually believed during the fifteenth and into the sixteenth century. common to justify the surgical removal of all accessible benign growths as a step in the campaign for the prevention of cancer. From the foregoing discussion it is obvious that we cannot give a precise answer to the question, "What causes cancer?" Cancer must be looked upon as a type of disease which may have a variety of causes to excite it. We must always remember, however, that as yet no definite experimental evidence has been produced to prove that it is impossible for the condition to have some common denominator exerting its influence in some manner as yet unfathomed. + + + Corns (Continued from page 8) a strong salicylic-acid plaster, will take off the upper portion of the corn, but usually fails to remove the deep-seated peg-shaped end, or lowest portion. Corns can also be trimmed down at the top, or treated with salicylic acid and collodion, or filed down with pumice stone or emery paper. but all of these procedures are temporary only. Corns can be completely removed with the X ray, but before corns come out they usually extrude to a considerable extent and hence pressure on them is increased, so that they are much more painful than is ordinarily the case. In addition, the corns always recur unless satisfactory shoes are obtained. Ordinary corn pads, properly adjusted, can be bought or can be made from either felt or moleskin. These are not curative, but they can give a great deal of comfort. Soft corns occur between the toes, and are undoubtedly due to too great pressure from shoes. They are much more frequent in women than in men, and are most likely to occur between the little toe and the adjoining one. At times there are two, one on each toe where the toes touch, and in other cases only one situated at the bottom of the fold. Under each corn there is a small cyst, and if one looks carefully at the corn, he will usually find a slight central opening from which a little serum will exude. If corns are very small, they can often be cured by putting a piece of rubber bath sponge between the toes so as to keep the surfaces apart; if large, they can be treated with radium, a process which is not always satisfactory, or they can be cauterized, a means which usually results in some disability over a period of about two weeks. Again it should be noted that prevention is a much more satisfactory procedure than cure, although perchance it may be a little more unsightly, inasmuch as it means wider shoes. PAGE 29 "Doctor Jones" SaysвЂ” "SEVERAL times lately, when I've been up to the city on some business, I've had my lunch at one of these cafeteria places вЂ”you know, where everything's out in sight. The place was full every time. Well, there's one thing I kind of shy off from when I go in there now, and that's salad. There's a girl there that her job is keeping the salads fixed up. I watched her two or three days, and every timeвЂ” most of the stuff she handled with her handsвЂ”she'd get some salad dressing or something on her fingers and she'd lick 'em off, and then she'd pick up some lettuce leaves and put 'em on a plate. "She was a nice-looking girl, this girl wasвЂ”looked clean and all that. I'd rather it would be her than a lot of 'em I've seen. But, just the same, being good looking don't keep 'em from having sore throat and such things, and I don't suppose a disease germ would be any less a disease germ just because the throat it was parked in happened to be attached to a good-looking young woman. "They say, 'What you don't know won't hurt you.' If that was so, I'd. be pretty safeвЂ”but the fellow that said that was talking through his hat. Yes, sir, I'm convinced that a good many of these cases of septic sore throat and other contagious diseases that we can't tell where they come fromвЂ”that they come from germs being put in our food and on our drinking glasses and so on by folks that don't know it any more than we do. "But this girl I was speaking ofвЂ”if it was down home here, I'd have called her over and given her a little fatherly advice; but up there, if I'd tried it, they'd probably have thrown me out. Just the same, somebody ought to say something to her."вЂ”New York State Dept. of Health. How Clothes and Shoes Affect Good Posture POOR posture in children may be due to overfatigue and poor nourishment, but it may also be the result of wrong clothing or shoes. The baby's diaper should not be pinned too tightly and should not be so bulky as to force his legs apart. Hose supporters should not be fastened so tightly as to cause strain at waistline or shoulders nor so far forward as to pull the child's shoulders forward and down. Shoes and stockings should fit properly. Care should be taken that when shoes are repaired they are not made narrower or shorter or the shape changed. When stockings are outgrown they should be discarded. Night clothes should be loose, so as to allow the child to turn and stretch in his sleep.вЂ”Children's Bureau, U. S. Dept. of Labor. PAGE 30 By Merwin R. Thurber ARDENING is simpleвЂ”fortunately for most of us. It is surprising how many growing things can take care of themselves if given half a chance. As a matter of fact, the majority of the plants in the world do just that, and have been doing it for thousands of yearsвЂ”ever since the good Lord "planted a garden eastward in Eden." The principle of life implanted in the trees and herbs by a beneficent Creator is persistent beyond our imagination. Drouth and flood, heat and cold, wind and storm, may work destruction, but immediately life springs anew to repair the damage. Most of our gardening, therefore, consists merely of placing seeds or plants in the earth, and then letting nature do the rest. Life stirs in the dormant seeds and growth begins. Sprouts appear, a plant develops, flowers bloom, and seeds or fruit are producedвЂ”all without any effort on our part. That is not to say, of course, that we may not help. We must help in our modern world, and for a variety of reasons. We must keep intruders from crowding our selected plants. We must prepare the soil and cultivate it during the growing season. And we must combat plant enemies. But even as we do all thatвЂ”and it turns out to be a great deal of work in most casesвЂ”we really aren't making the plants grow. They just grow anyway. And speaking of simple things, may we remind you of an old favorite, the humble coleus. Growing coleus is so simple that it seems childish. You break a little branch from any coleus plant, set it in a glass of water for a few days, and soon you will see roots growing out of the lower end. It doesn't seem to make much difference how long you neglect to set out the new plant in soilвЂ”it just keeps on making roots. But set it outвЂ” in the ground or in a potвЂ”break off the crown so that it will branch out, and in a little while you can snip off some branches to root and plant, and so on ad infinitum. Coleus makes a good house plant during the winter. If it grows too big, just take a few of the branches, root them in water, and start over again. Now is a good time to start plants for the winter months. If you have no coleus of your own, your neighbors probably have some. They can easily spare a few cuttings this late in the season. For variations in color and markings, coleus has few rivals. Its foliage ranges G through maroon, crimson, yellow, and green, with almost every imaginable combination. Its leaves are little and big, smooth and crinkly, reasonably smoothedged and deeply serrated. For all that, it is possible to secure as many plants exactly alike as you might wish for a bed. The secret is in the method of propagation. Coleus grows from seed or cuttings, as we have already described. Seedlings vary. Cuttings are always identical. If you want a thousand plants alike, start cuttings from one plant. If you want a new variety, plant some seed. Most gardeners have looked with envy upon men like Luther Burbank, who produced new varieties of fruits and flowers in a seemingly miraculous way. Here is an opportunity for anyone to experimentвЂ”and to get results. You can create a variety that no one else has, and you may be surprised to find that you have turned up something of unusual beauty. You probably won't care to name your plant after yourself, but you can nave the pleasure of starting your neighbors out with something different. Pleasure is healthfulвЂ”at least the right kind is. The Good Book says, "A merry heart doeth good like a medicine." And gardening pleasure is the kind that really is a tonic. It tans the skin, hardens the muscles (not the arteries), promotes digestion, clears the eye, and elevates the mind. BOOK REVIEWS I [The broad subject of health involves many points on which differences of opinion are held. A generally commendatory review of a book in the columns of LIFE AND HEALTH does not mean, necessarily, that this journal agrees with every position taken by the author.вЂ”EDITORS.] Health in Schools. Published by American Association of School Administrators, 1201 16th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. Cloth, 544 pages. $2. Illustrated. Twentieth Yearbook. The place health teaching should occupy in the school curriculum, the aims of health education (to teach our children and youth to improve their own health, and to establish right habits of living that will govern them in later life, thus helping to engender healthful habits among parents and to improve the community life), and how health teaching is administered or carried onвЂ”all this is covered comprehensively in this book. Charts, tests, observation guide; how to plan a program of health teachingвЂ”how to work the plan; how to detect physical defects in children; communicable disease and characteristics, are some of the topics covered. LIFE AND HEALTH Minerals in Nutrition, by Z. T. Wirtschafter, M. D. Published by Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 330 W. 42d Street, New York City. Cloth, 175 pages. $1.75. What part do minerals play in body nutrition and metabolism? What happens when there is a deficiency of mineral intake, in what foods are the various minerals found, and what part do they fill in pregnancy and lactation? All these questions are answered in this volume. Minerals discussed are salt, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, iron, iodine, etc. The Home Guide to Modern Nutrition, by N. D. Phillips. Published by Longmans, Green, and Company, New York. 96 pages, 50 cents. Menus for thirty breakfasts, thirty dinners, and thirty lunches, each printed on its own ticket and hinged separately to the wire-o binding, enables the user to select any breakfast and match it with a lunch and dinner to make up the meals of a given day. A small volume containing charts on the different minerals, vitamins, the caloric content of foods, etc. The menus are designed to give you adequate nourishment for the day. LIFE AND HEALTH of course would not recommend the flesh foods listed in some of the menus, or such drinks as coffee, but its readers from time to time receive information on foods supplying nonflesh protein and drinks that are described as cereal beverages. Modern Medicine; Its Progress and Opportunities, by Netta W. Wilson and S. A. Weisman, M. D. Published by George W. Stewart, Inc., 67 N. 44th Street, New York City. Cloth, 218 pages. $2. Here we have the fascinating story of medicine, the discoveries that have contributed to modern medicine, the problems that medicine is today trying to - solve. The progress of medicine is traced. Through reading this very valuable book you will be more familiar with terms used today and just what they signify. Here, too, you may find inspiration to take up a career in medicine, bacteriology, etc., that may further contribute to medicine and the welfare of humanity. Sex Guidance in Family Life Education, by Mrs. Frances Bruce Strain. Published by the Macmillan Company, 60 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Cloth, 345 pages. $2.25. A discussion of the sex problems of children and youth, dealing with the incidental teaching of sex among kindergarten and primary children from the time they ask their first questions regarding the facts of life. The subject is handled primarily as a way of life; of bettering family relationships; of helping children, adolescents, and youth to live SEPTEMBER, 1942 fully and nobly and beautifully. Many helpful suggestions are given for teaching this subject. Defend Your Health With "Defense-Burger" Superior Children Through Modern Nutrition, by I. Newton Kugelmass, M. D. Published by E. P. Dutton & Company, Inc., 300 Fourth Avenue, New York City. Cloth, 332 pages. $3.50. While we would not agree with some of the author's statements regarding the beginning of manвЂ”that his circulatory system was originally a bit of sea water retained within a firm coating with which primitive beings surrounded themselvesвЂ” and being a vegetarian journal, we would not include meat in the diet, nor would we agree with the author's statement that tea and coffee "must not be condemned as poisons to be shunned;" yet this volume is full of valuable information on nutrition and feeding. Beginning with the classification of foods and their use in the body, the problem of the feeding of children is discussed thoroughly from the early eating habits of the newborn babe to the dietary habits of the tenyear-old. Feeding to prevent constipation, feeding to reduce or gain weight feeding in warm and cold weather, all these questions are dealt with fully. Delicious-New-Meat-Substitute Rabies, by Leslie T. Webster, M. D. Published by the Macmillan Company, 60 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Cloth, 168 pages. $1.75. Much of the horror has been taken away from the cry of "Mad dog!" and yet despite all the research, the lessened incidence of the disease, and the progress made in its treatment, there is still much uncertainty regarding the disease, and public health officers will need to maintain constant vigilance. Doctor Webster discusses this disease comprehensively. Only when we are intelligent regarding diagnostic procedures and the facts concerning rabies can we give intelligent support to its control. They Do Meet, by Bertha L. Selmon, M. D. Published by Froben Press, New York. Cloth, 254 pages. $2.50. Illustrated. Doctor Selmon and her doctor husband spent a number of years in China ministering to the physical needs of these people, conquering disease with but meager equipment and inadequate funds, but with the needful equipment of love for these brave people and an overwhelming desire to serve. In making their home among the Chinese people, in sharing their joys and sorrows, in meeting and defeating microbes, in dealing with the many perplexities of living in a country whose customs are quite different from our American ways, and in making two Chinese children their own, the Doctors Selmon discovered that while America has much to share with that vast country, China has much to .contribute to our way of living. Her examples of For SandwichesвЂ” PattiesвЂ”Roasts 3 one-lb. cans for $1.00 postpaid (or 2 cans and 1 lb. Superior Wheat Germ) ($1.30 west of Mississippi) Free with order: Alkaline Candy Bar and ViVi-Ta Wheat Germ Sucker. Dealers write. Vegetable Products CO., 480 E. Main, Dept. LH Rochester, N. Y. YOUR HEARING AID must serve long and well. Select it with care! INVESTIGATE Without Obligation ACOLITE Write for Booklet "A" Accepted by American Medical Assn. Council on Physical Therapy VACOLITE COMPANY 3003 N. Henderson, Dallas, Texas ..Exclusive Dealerships Available bras cry and courtesy and respect can well be emulated. Doctor Selmon shows clearly that though East is East and West is West. "They Do Meet." Some Medical Terms Explained Inoculation: The introduction, either accidentally or by intent, of the vim, of a disease into the body. Done intentionally as a preventive measure, as in the vaccination of persons to prevent smallpox. Isolation: Keeping a patient away from other persons whom he might infect, and allowing him to be attended only by nurses or physicians or persons who are immune to the disease. Also used in the case of persons who have been exposed to a disease, either for the longest incubation period of that disease, or for that portion of it during which they might transmit the infection. -itis: A suffix used to indicate inflammation of the organ or tissue whose name precedes it. Media: The term used to denote the substances on or in which germs are artificially cultivated. They consist of various broths or jellies containing appropriate foods and chemicals for each kind of germ. They are sterilized before use to prevent the growth of undesired kinds. In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH. PAGE 31 WHERE TO CO FOR HAS COME THE В°Mlle ta eon3etve illealth, The laws of health are simple, and nature richly rewards those who live in harmony with them. Without health all other treasures turn to dust and ashes. REST, SUNSHINE, FRESH AIR, DIREC FED EXERCISE, SUPERVISED DIET, AND A PROGRAM OF SIMPLE LIVING AND APPROVED TREATMENT, as well as facilities for diagnostic study and surgery, if needed, may be found atвЂ” DEW 51611100 invited to write for descriptive booklet "A" Tdental, Tuberculous, or Contagious Cases Not Accepted You are Throughout the United States, and in many other countries, is found a distinctive chain of medical institutions known as Sanitariums. To the many thousands who have been guests in these unique health institutions, the name Sanitarium describes not merely a hospital, though the best of medical care is given; nor does it describe simply a rest home, though many come primarily for rest. Rather, it denotes a unique combination of both. The word Sanitarium also carries with it the idea of health education and disease prevention, for those who come to these health centers receive instruction in the principles of healthful living. In addition to the Sanitariums whose announcements appear here, the following belong to this distinctive chain of health institutions: Boulder-Colorado Sanitarium, Boulder, Colorado Florida Sanitarium, Orlando, Florida Glendale Sanitarium, Glendale, California Iowa Sanitarium, Nevada, Iowa Loma Linda Sanitarium, Loma Linda, California Madison Rural Sanitarium, Madison College, Tennessee Mount Vernon Sanitarium, Mount Vernon, Ohio Paradise Valley Sanitarium, National City, California Pisgah Sanitarium, Box 1331, Asheville, North Carolina Porter Sanitarium, 2525 S. Downing Street, Denver, Colorado Portland Sanitarium, 932 S. E. 60th Avenue, Portland, Oregon Resthaven Sanitarium, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada St. Helena Sanitarium, Sanitarium, California Walla Walla Sanitarium, Walla Walla, Washington White Memorial Hospital, 312 N. Boyle Avenue, Los Angeles, California Diet Habits in the Forbidden Land of Tibet (Continued from page 12) are almost unknown. There was no den- Overlooking Beautiful Spot Pond, the Sanitarium Is Eight Miles From Boston forty -three VвЂў2ati o PAGE 32 ilealth Stadiny tist in all the length and breadth of the borderland; so all dental work fell to the doctor. Rare indeed were the Tibetan patients who required dental attention. Never shall I forget the family who worked for us thereвЂ”children and parents with perfect teeth and old grandma, stooped, withered, and worn, but still with all her teeth and never a cavity in the lot of them. Unknown and unneeded is the, to us, familiar toothbrush. Nature, unhampered by sweets and refined foods, but with the assistance of a coarse, simple, natural diet, produces and maintains in cleanliness and perfect condition, teeth which are unexcelled. Stomach and intestinal disorders are also rare. Appendicitis I have never seen in a Tibetan, and peptic ulcers are as scarce as the proverbial hen's teeth. Cancer of the stomach, disease of the colon, and constipation are also unknown. Nor did we ever see a case of diabetes. The only important stomach and intestinal disease common to our own people and these Tibetans is gall-bladder disease. LIFE AND HEALTH MOUNTAIN Sanitarium and Hospital вЂў COME and join those who find health and happiness in the beautiful mountains of Western North Carolina, and enjoy a few weeks of peace and quiet in God's great out-of-doors. MOUNTAIN SANITARIUM and HOSPITAL is a medical institution having all the departments necessary for scientific care and treatment of the sick, and yet where a homelike atmosphere pervades. вЂў Send for free Booklet M. No tubercular patients admitted. mounTnin SAILITARIUM and HOSPITAL 1 LH CHER, NORTH CAROLINA (Near Asheville , geavia faititatiam NESTLED amidst one hundred and forty-five acres of virgin forest, and only eight miles from the heart of Atlanta. A homelike institution equipped to care for medical, obstetrical, and minor surgical cases. Resident physician and surgeon in charge. An elevation of from 925 to 1.000 feet above sea level makes for an equable temperature throughout the year. SEND FOR FREE BOOKLET TO GEORGIA SANITARIUM Route 4, Box 290, Atlanta, Ga. SEPTEMBER, 1942 This is apparently best explained by the fact that the Tibetan eats such a large quantity of butter. These observations concerning the infrequency of stomach and intestinal disease, coincide with those of medical observers working in other areas in which natural diets are eaten. They may lend emphasis to the growing opinion that appendicitis, stomach ulcers, and cancer of the stomach are diseases of civilization related closely in cause to the highly refined, deficient diet of our modern day. Heart disease and high blood pressure do 'not bulk large among. Tibetan maladies. As a matter of fact, our heart cases were nearly all Chinese who lived not simply and wisely, but too well. After we had lived and worked with our Tibetan friends for a time, it became apparent that we were not seeing a great deal of high blood pressure. Focusing our attention more carefully, we discovered that high blood pressure was apparently to be found again only among our Chinese patients. So, just to be sun we were not neglecting the matter and overlooking something, we started a sвЂ�,tematic campaign to determine the blood pressure of every Tibetan who visited our clinic and of any friends or relatives who might accompany the patient. Inasmuch as there were usually plenty of friends or relatives, or both, we thus checked a fairly good cross section of the group. During the years we worked with these people, nearly seven in all, we discovered not one whose blood pressure exceeded normal limits. The highest pressure recorded was 132. Score again for the simple life and the simple diet. for, though there may be other factors involved in this problem, it seems obvious that these are outstanding. There are doubtless several factors to be considered when studying the ability of the Tibetan to resist infection. His marvelous ability to ward off bacterial invaders of the more common sorts is almost unbelievable. There was the man who in the course of an argument with his brother was struck over the head with a heavy knife, suffering in consequence a great split in his skull. A handful of dirt from the floor was used to stop the bleeding, and next day the brothers appeared at the clinic to have the wound dressed. Careful cleansing disclosed the coverings of the brain pulsating in the depths of the wound. The patient, after such attention as could be given, was put to bed with the expectation that meningitis would rapidly ensue. He refused to stay in bed, and after a few days declared that he had business at home which demanded his attention, and left our hospital. He walked five days to reach his home. A few months later his brother said he had entirely recovered. During his stay with us he developed neither fever nor pus in the wound, in spite of a contamination which ordinarily TAKO MA HOSPITAL ,id SANITARIUM There's Health in the Hills of East Tennessee The Best of Hospital Service Combined With Special Sanitarium Features The Takoma Hospital, with its new sanitarium section, offers additional facilities for the rational treatment of disease. This new section gives special attention to chronic cases and to those who seek a quiet place to rest and regain nervous energy. The hospital is fully equipped to care for medical and surgical cases. Special attention to diet and physical therapy. Beautiful natural surroundings in the hills of East Tennessee near the Carolina line, seventy miles from Knoxville. Mental and tubercular patients not accepted. For free booklet "A" describing the institution, write toвЂ” REENEVILLE ATLAI1TA TENNE SAfITARSUm The Place to Recuperate Graduate nursing care, graduate dietetic service, steam baths, massage, physical therapy, colonics. RATES BY THE WEEK 1119 Peachtree Street, N. E., Atlanta, Ga. Telephone VErnon 0311 PAGE 33 c_A Pleasant Place IN WHICH TO GET WELL t=ratl..`7: The Hinsdale Sanitarium provides for those who are tired or worn out physically, an atmosphere conducive to the rebuilding of health. Thoroughly equipped diagnostic facilities, including laboratory, 'Gray, etc., for making special examinations. Physiotherapy in its various forms: hydrotherapy, massage, mechanotherapy, etc. Nourishing diet, sci. entifically prescribed by a graduate dietitian, as indicated by laboratory tests. A modern health institution, beautifully located amid fifteen acres of beautifully shaded lawns. Quiet rest assisted by nature's remedies. Chronic invalids welcome. Send for Free Booklet H describing ,he Sanitarium (1' MII1SDALE SARITIIRIUM & Hospital HINSDALE. ILLINOIS CHOPLE75 E-Z-LAX for 0 IвЂ” CO X "The Common Complaint" If you are one of the many thousands of people who suffer from constipation because of lack of sufficient bulk in the diet, do not delay another day before trying E-Z-Lax. E-Z-Lax is a combination of Psyllium Gum, Lactose, and Dextrin; the Psyllium Gum provides smooth bulk and lubrication, and the Lactose and Dextrin help to promote the growth of friendly bacteria in the colon. Try the E-Z-Lax way and help free yourself of the habit of using harsh cathartics and purgatives. E-Z-Lax aids nature the natural way. Two economical sizes: 10 oz. jar ... $1.00 3 lb. tin 3.50 0 вЂў O вЂў"( m Transportation charges paid on orders amounting to $2 anywhere in the United States. DON'T DELAYвЂ”ORDER TODAY z SPECIAL FOODS, INC. IвЂ” в™¦ Worthington, Ohio E-Z-L A X + PAGE 34 might be expected to produce early infection and probably death. Frequent repetition of similar experiences has persuaded us that these people have a tremendous resistance to infection. This ability to resist infection is probably due in part to the fact that the Tibetan and his ancestors have lived with numberless bacteria for so long that they have become immune. That this is not the only factor, however, is shown by the fact that when our Tibetan friend is removed from his own environment and his diet is changed he becomes subject to infection. In his own land he can travel far in all sorts of weather, and so long as he has his own simple food and a bit of sunshine, he fears few ills. Should he make a trip down into China, however, and try to eat from the tables there and live as the Chinese do, he would fall an easy prey to infection. Tuberculosis frequently follows such an attempt. The common cold, a thing unknown to the average Tibetan, seizes upon him only when he forsakes his simple habits of living and eating. But, someone says, where do these Tibetans get their vitamins,вЂў of which we hear so much these days? You have told us the things they eat, but never a word about the fresh fruit and the fresh vegetables which are supposed to be so essential in maintaining a proper diet that contains adequate supplies of these lifegiving substances. True it is that our Tibetan friend rarely sees any fresh vegetables; and fresh fruits are a luxury indeed. He may not see them for months, perhaps years, at a time. Then where does he get these necessary food elements? Requirements of vitamin A are supplied, of course, in the quantities of richвЂў butter he consumes. No problem there. The various vitamin B factors are acquired from the tsampa which we mentioned. Being a whole-grain food, unprocessed and unaltered, it gives hint the very essential vitamin B group and vitamin E. Vitamin D comes also in the butter and in the abundant sunshine. The source of vitamin C is not yet completely explained. It is apparently obtained in the camellia-leaf tea, which is consumed in great quantities. True enough, Charley Tibetan may have some illness or disability. The chances are, however, that it will be due to accident or one of the so-called communicable diseases such as smallpox or the venereal diseases. Living as he does, the chances of getting kicked by a mule, shot or stabbed by bandits, or clawed by a bear are rather great, but his chances of survival are very good, for his excellent health usually carries him through. His greatest danger from illness lies in relapsing fever, the "scourge of the border," for which there is no remedy except the white man's medicine. Yet even this fearful malady carries a much lower mortality rate than we would expect to PARK-VIEW HOSPITAL CHATTANOOGA TENNESSEE ,,, The Modern -вЂ�0)500, s6,;(,cAos*ssi,44sliitysc,m, Hot Fomentation Fortunate is the individual who can have Hot Fomentations, as administered in Sanitariums featuring Battle Creek Methods. NOW . . . "at the Snap of a Switch" you can enjoy HOT FOMENTATIONS, with the BATTLE CREEK THERMOPHORE . . . the MOIST HEAT FOMENTATION PAD. Here is an ELECTRIC PAD providing an abundance of MOIST HEAT. Twenty-six patented features are found in no other electric pad. Size, 13 inches by 27 inches. NO HOT WATER . . . SAVES TIME . . . SAVES WORK . . . SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE; MODERN FIRST AID IN RELIEVING PAIN and CONGESTION. Write for literature and special price. Bailk aed EQUIPMENT CO., Dept. L.92, Battle Creek, Mich. BATTLE CREEK EQUIPMENT IS USED BY HUNDREDS OF HEALTH INSTITUTIONS. ALL OUR PRODUCTS ARE CORRECTLY ENGINEERED AND PRICED AS LOW AS QUALITY ALLOWS find elsewhere. Again, our Tibetan friend can thank his excellent health for a reprieve. It may be that you and I, while musing of these distant lands, think only of the hardships thereвЂ”squalor, dirt, and lack of variety of food. We think of the comfort and plenty that we ourselves enjoy. But don't pity the poor Tibetan, eating his simple fare. He is expecting to live a long, happy life, free from dentist's bills, pills for stomach-ache, a jittery heart, or a balky colon, and what is more, he really enjoys his simple food. In replying to advertisements, please mention LIFE AND HEALTH. LIFE AND HEALTH 1141%tai 7( 1,PfttetZW*CS .VEGEMEATI A NEW TERM USED FOR NIGH. PROTEIN ME \' trE CANNED FOODS, MADE OF SOY BEANS, GRAINS AND NUTS. rirr7riwpwnw Table Service Courtesy Bullock's-Downtown, Los Angeles. COOL, INVITING, AND . . . RICH IN VITAL PROTEIN Salads made with Loma Linda vegemeats offer all the tempting refreshment of cool, crisp fruits and vegetables вЂ”plus balanced nourishment. They are rich in vital proteins, as well as vitamins and minerals. Their distinctive meat-like flavors give main-dish LOMA LINDA VEGEMEATS вЂў taste-appeal, too. Vegemeat salad-enGLUTEN STEAKS trees suggest so many delightful warmGLUTEN-BURGER weather menusвЂ”meals that are good for PROTEENA NUTEENA you, and good, tooвЂ”an economical anVEGELONA SOY MINCE swer to the "meat problem." ARLI NGTON GLUTEN STEAK-VEGETABLE SALAD 1 cup green peas 8 Gluten Steaks 1 tbsp. minced onion 1 cup carrots 12 stuffed olives 1 cup potatoes Cook vegetables. Dice carrots, potatoes. Mix with minced onion, salt, mayonnaise. Chill. Place browned Gluten Steak on lettuce leaf. Roll another Gluten Steak like a cornucopia, and stuff with above mixture. Fasten with olive-topped toothpicks. Serves four. Serve with buttered beets; Ruskets (flaked whole-wheat cereal biscuits); Breakfast Cup (a good hot drink, caffeine free) made with milk; dessert. Contains vegemeat salad recipes and tells you what to serve with them. Seven complete meals. Ask your dealer or send postcard. FREE "SALAD MENU" FOLDER: CALIF ORNIA a geakide... bubbling away over a hot fire, lifting its cover in rhythm to the power of the imprisoned steam, gave an idea to a young lad watching. near by, an idea that has established new frontiers and turned the wheels of progress. The world will not forget young Watt and his invention of the steam engine. вЂ�71' Ilea/ /Rawly. Mental and contagious cases not accepted vadAnd other great discoveries have been made that affect your health and happiness. In laboratories small and obscure secrets have sometimes revealed themselves to men with a vision, a vision and a dream of alleviating the woe and suffering of mankind. Today these discoveries are seen in the medical miracles being performed in the modern sanitarium and hospital. Send for free illustrated booklet "A" WRSHMGTOH SIMITARIUM and-Hospital - Takoma Park, 011T;1:111Ildi D.C.