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В©Secondary В Solutions В THEY
THE THINGS
В CARRIED
All  Rights  byReserved.  Tim O’Brien
В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В Literature Guide Developed by Oona Abrams
for Secondary SolutionsВ®
ISBN-10: 1-938913-73-6
ISBN-13: 978-1-938913-73-0
В© 2013 Secondary Solutions. All rights reserved.
A classroom teacher who has purchased this Guide may photocopy the materials in this publication
for his/her classroom use only. Use or reproduction by a part of or an entire school or school system,
by for-profit tutoring centers and like institutions, or for commercial sale, is strictly prohibited. No part
of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, translated or stored in any form (including
digitally) without the express written permission of the publisher. Created and printed in the United
States of America.
В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В The Things They Carried Literature Guide
Table of Contents
About Secondary Solutions .................................................................................... 4  About Our Literature Guides ................................................................................... 5  Pre-Reading Activities and Ideas ............................................................................ 6  Historical Focus: The Vietnam War and America in the 1960s ............................ 8  Comprehension Check – The Vietnam War and America in the 1960s ............................. 10  Informational Focus Pre-Reading Activity: Predictive Assessment ................. 11  Pre-Reading Literature Focus: Visual Poetry ...................................................... 15  Informational Focus: Author Biography—Tim O’Brien ...................................... 17  Comprehension Check: Author Biography ......................................................................... 18  Informational Focus: Evaluating O’Brien’s Style ................................................ 19  Comprehension Check: Evaluating O’Brien’s Style ........................................................... 20  Pre-Reading Activity: Written Discussion – Teacher Directions ....................... 21  Pre-Reading Activity: Discussion Questions ...................................................................... 22  Glossary of Military, Historical, and Geographical Vocabulary ......................... 23  Vocabulary List ....................................................................................................... 24  Vocabulary List With Definitions .......................................................................... 25  Literary Inventory – Teacher Directions ............................................................... 27  Literary Inventory Lesson Plan ........................................................................................... 29  Literary Inventory – Student Sample .................................................................................. 30  Literary Inventory ................................................................................................... 31  “The Things They Carried,” “On the Rainy River,” “How to Tell a True War
Story”....................................................................................................................... 32  Comprehension/Analysis .................................................................................................... 32  “The Things They Carried” ................................................................................................. 33  Literature Focus: Point of View ....................................................................................................... 33  Language Focus: Word Roots and Memes .................................................................................... 37  “On the Rainy River” ........................................................................................................... 41  Literature and Writing Focus: Selecting and Incorporating Textual Evidence in an Argument ....... 41  Language Focus: Word Roots and Skits ........................................................................................ 44  “How to Tell a True War Story” ........................................................................................... 46  Literature Focus: Paradox .............................................................................................................. 46  Language Focus: Context Clues .................................................................................................... 48  “Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong,” “Speaking of Courage,” “In the Field” ... 49  Comprehension/Analysis .................................................................................................... 49  “Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong” .................................................................................... 50  Literature Focus: The Power of Syntax and Writer’s Purpose ........................................................ 50  Speaking and Listening Focus: Marketing ...................................................................................... 53  “The Man I Killed” ............................................................................................................... 54  Writing / Language Focus: Revising for Flow ................................................................................. 54  “Speaking of Courage” ....................................................................................................... 55  Literature Focus: Genre – Meta-Fiction .......................................................................................... 55  Writing/Language Focus: Sentence Strips and Story Sequence .................................................... 58  “Notes” ................................................................................................................................ 59  Writing/Language Focus: Selecting Effective Quotations ............................................................... 59  “In the Field” ....................................................................................................................... 61  Literature Focus: Stream of Consciousness ................................................................................... 61  Language Focus: Vocabulary and Context Clues .......................................................................... 63  Writing Focus: “123 Essays” ........................................................................................................... 66  2
В©2013 Secondary Solutions
The Things They Carried Literature Guide
Purchaser may reproduce copies of the materials in this book for his/her classroom use only.
Sharing or reproduction of any part of this book, or the book in its entirety, is illegal.
©Secondary  Solutions   All  Rights  Reserved.   SAMPLE  ONLY.   NOT  FOR  USE  OR  SALE.   PLEASE  PURCHASE  FULL  VERSION  FOR  ACCESS.  “Field Trip” .......................................................................................................................... 67  Writing/Language Focus: Incorporating Quotations into Writing .................................................... 67  “The Ghost Soldiers,” and “Lives of the Dead” ................................................... 69  Comprehension/Analysis .................................................................................................... 69  “The Ghost Soldiers” .......................................................................................................... 70  Literature Focus: Direct vs. Indirect Characterization .................................................................... 70  Writing/Language Focus: Vocabulary and Round Robin Storytelling ............................................ 73  “The Lives of the Dead” ...................................................................................................... 74  Literature Focus: Defining and Understanding Nonlinear Narrative ............................................... 74  Language Focus: “Bookend” Narratives ........................................................................................ 77  Informational Focus: Benchmark Assessment .................................................... 80  Comprehension and Analysis ........................................................................................................ 82  Quiz: “The Things They Carried” .......................................................................... 84  Vocabulary Quiz: “The Things They Carried” ..................................................................... 86  Quiz: “On the Rainy River” .................................................................................... 87  Vocabulary Quiz: “On the Rainy River” .............................................................................. 89  Quiz: “How to Tell a True War Story”.................................................................... 90  Vocabulary Quiz: “How to Tell a True War Story” .............................................................. 92  Quiz: “Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong” ............................................................ 93  Vocabulary Quiz: “Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong” ....................................................... 95  Quiz: “Speaking of Courage”................................................................................. 96  Vocabulary Quiz: “Speaking of Courage” ........................................................................... 98  Quiz: “In the Field”.................................................................................................. 99  Vocabulary Quiz: “In the Field” ......................................................................................... 101  Quiz: “The Ghost Soldiers”.................................................................................. 102  Vocabulary Quiz: “The Ghost Soldiers” ............................................................................ 104  Quiz: “The Lives of the Dead” ............................................................................. 105  Vocabulary Quiz: “The Lives of the Dead” ........................................................................ 107  Final Exam ............................................................................................................. 108  Things I’d Carry ..................................................................................................... 115  Essay Ideas ........................................................................................................... 116  Comparative Film Study ....................................................................................... 117  Post-Reading Activities ........................................................................................ 119  Teacher’s Guide .................................................................................................... 120  Sample Agenda ................................................................................................................ 120  Notes to the Teacher ........................................................................................................ 123  Summary of the Novel ...................................................................................................... 124  Project Rubric A ................................................................................................................ 129  Project Rubric B ................................................................................................................ 130  Response to Literature Rubric .......................................................................................... 131  Answer Key ........................................................................................................... 133  3
В©2013 Secondary Solutions
The Things They Carried Literature Guide
Purchaser may reproduce copies of the materials in this book for his/her classroom use only.
Sharing or reproduction of any part of this book, or the book in its entirety, is illegal.
В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В About Secondary Solutions
Secondary Solutions is the endeavor of
a high school English teacher who could
not seem to find appropriate materials to
help her students master the necessary concepts at the secondary level. She grew tired of
spending countless hours researching, creating, writing, and revising lesson plans,
worksheets, and activities to motivate and inspire her students, and at the same time, teach
her required list of novels, and address the California standards. Frustrated and tired of
trying to get by with inappropriate, inane lessons, she finally decided that if the right
materials were going to be available to her and other teachers, she was going to have to
make them herself! Mrs. Bowers set to work to create one of the most comprehensive and
innovative Literature Guide sets on the market. Joined by a middle school teacher with 21
years of experience, Secondary Solutions began, and has matured into a specialized team
of intermediate and secondary teachers who have developed for you a set of materials
unsurpassed by all others.
Before the innovation of Secondary Solutions, materials that were available to help teach
novels were either juvenile in nature, skimpy in content, or were only “ideas” – with little to
guide teachers on how to implement those ideas. The market merely provided the teacher
with separate teacher and student materials, or teacher materials that completely ignored
the content standards. Secondary Solutions introduced all of the necessary materials for
complete coverage for literature units of study, including author biographies, pre-reading
activities, numerous and varied vocabulary and comprehension activities, study-guide
questions, graphic organizers, literary analysis and critical thinking activities, writing ideas
and essay prompts, extension activities, quizzes, unit tests, alternative assessment, and
more. Each Guide is designed to address the unique learning styles and comprehension
levels of every student in your classroom, and are based on time-tested best practices for
teaching. All materials are written and presented at the grade level of the learner, and now,
with the introduction of Common Core State Standards, include extensive coverage of ELA
CCSS standards.
As a busy teacher, you don’t have time to waste reinventing the wheel. You want to get
down to the business of teaching! With our professionally developed teacher-written
literature Guides, Secondary Solutions has provided you with the answer to your time
management problems, while saving you hours of tedious and exhausting work. You can be
assured that our materials are fully CCSS aligned, and give you the tools to teach an
understanding and appreciation of literature in your classroom. Our Guides will allow you to
focus on the most important aspects of teaching—the personal, one-on-one, hands-on
instruction you enjoy most—the reason you became a teacher in the first place.
Secondary Solutions—The First Solution for the Secondary Teacher! ®
www.4secondarysolutions.com
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В©2013 Secondary Solutions
The Things They Carried Literature Guide
Purchaser may reproduce copies of the materials in this book for his/her classroom use only.
Sharing or reproduction of any part of this book, or the book in its entirety, is illegal.
В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В About Our Literature Guides
Our Literature Guides are based upon the Common Core State Standards for English Language
Arts, National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association’s national
English/Language Arts Curriculum and Content Area Standards. The materials we offer allow you to
teach the love and full enjoyment of literature, while still addressing the essential core concepts upon
which your students are assessed.
Secondary Solutions Literature Guides are designed to be used in their sequential entirety, but may
be divided into separate parts to fit your classroom needs. Not all activities must be used! We’ve
given you more than enough material to assure you that you are A) teaching your students how to
analyze and understand the text, and further, to appreciate the literature, while B) fully addressing the
Common Core State Standards for which this Guide was written. Most importantly, you now have a
variety of valuable materials to choose from, and you are not forced into hours of extra work!
There are several distinct categories within each Secondary Solutions Literature Guide:
• Teacher Resources: A variety of resources to help you get the most out of this Guide as well as
the text you are teaching. Teacher Resources include a Sample Teacher’s Agenda, Summary of
the Play or Novel, Pre-and Post-Reading Ideas and Activities and Alternative Assessment, Essay
Prompts and Writing Ideas, Rubrics, complete Answer Key and more. Look for the Teacher
Resource section at the end of our Guides. Helpful notes for teaching using each specific Guide,
as well as Pre-Reading Ideas and Activities are located at the beginning of the Guide.
• Informational/Historical/Cultural Focus: Articles and corresponding questions, lessons, and
activities, designed to address the exploration and analysis of functional and/or informational
materials and the historical and/or cultural aspects of the text.
• Comprehension/Analysis: (formerly Comprehension Check) Designed for comprehension
and generally basic analysis of the text— These questions can be used as study questions, but
they are designed to guide students as they read the text. Questions focus on Reading
Comprehension and Analysis and cover the first four levels of questioning of Bloom’s Taxonomy,
and/or the first three levels of Webb’s Depth Of Knowledge.
• Literature Focus: (formerly Standards Focus) Lessons and activities that directly address the
CCSS for Reading: Literature and allow students extensive practice in literary skills and analysis,
including determining theme, analyzing the author’s purpose and choices in diction and structure
of the text, and articulating direct and indirect nuances of plot, character, setting, and more.
• Writing Focus: (formerly Assessment Preparation) Lessons and activities that specifically
help students improve their writing. Based upon the CCSS for Writing, these lesson prepare
students for writing argumentative, narrative, and informational essays and research projects,
through focused activities designed to help students improve word choice, better their sentence
structure, gather supporting evidence, develop their style, and practice their skills.
• Language Focus: (formerly Assessment Preparation) Lessons and activities that directly
address the CCSS for Language. Lessons and activities can range from vocabulary acquisition to
grammar proficiency exercises, to language conventions practice to specifically prepare students
for testing, while helping them to gain an appreciation of the literature’s language and style.
• Assessment: Quizzes and tests are included for each chapter or designated section at the end
of each Guide. Two final tests are provided: one with a variety of questioning styles, and one allmultiple choice, for those who prefer to have students use a “bubble” answer sheet.
We hope you can effectively utilize every aspect our Literature Guides have to offer—we want to
make things easier on you! If you need additional assistance, please email us at
[email protected]
Thank you for choosing Secondary Solutions—The First Solution for the Secondary Teacher!
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В©2013 Secondary Solutions
The Things They Carried Literature Guide
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В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В The Things They Carried
Pre-Reading Activities and Ideas
The following are suggested activities to supplement the study of The Things They
Carried prior to the reading the novel:
Hump Day
•
Fill your backpack with 20 pounds of stuff. (Four 5-pound bags of flour are perfect!)
Spend your entire school day wearing that backpack to get a notion of what the
soldiers literally carried—day in, day out, seven days a week sometimes. Many
soldiers carried even heavier loads. They humped this backpack for hours all day
through jungles, villages, and rice paddies!
The Vietnam War – A Visual Presentation
•
•
•
View the Prezi, The Vietnam War, created by Ivonne Rovira, at
http://prezi.com/cv0ublfciqgo/the-vietnam-war-by-ivonne-rovira/ (Please note: some
of the content in this Prezi contains links to youtube.com, and therefore some errors
in spelling, etc. cannot be corrected. Please understand this before viewing.)
Take notes as you watch, writing down any questions or comments you may have
about what you saw in the Prezi.
Share your questions and observations with other class members who also watched
the Prezi, trying to help answer each other’s questions. Share your unanswered
questions with your teacher for clarification.
It’s In the Bag
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sit in small groups of three to five, facing each other.
Take five items that are not school related out of your backpack. (For the purposes of
this activity, you cannot use a phone as one of your items.)
Place the items on your desk, visible to your group members.
Without speaking to each other, write about “the things they carry.” You should write
for at least 15 minutes about your own objects and the items displayed by your group
members. What do these objects reveal about you? About your classmates? What
are you left wondering about the owners of these objects? What does a review of all
the group members’ objects reveal about what you all have in common? What are
your differences?
Share your writings with your group members.
One member from each group will share his or her piece of writing with the class as
a whole.
Documentary Film Study: Alive Day Memories: Home from Iraq
• Return permission slip from home to view this documentary.
•
•
In this HBO documentary hosted by James Gandolfini, each of the veterans was
injured, physically and/or mentally, during his/her service in Operation Iraqi Freedom.
The title refers to the day each veteran almost lost his or her life.
As a class, view the documentary and take notes on each of the ten veterans
featured: Jake Schick, John Jones, Jay Wilkerson, Dawn Halfaker, Jonathan Bartlett,
Crystal Davis, Michael Jernigan, Bryan Anderson, Dexter Pitts, and Eddie Ryan. For
each veteran, respond to the following prompts:
o What was this veteran’s role in the military?
6
В©2013 Secondary Solutions
The Things They Carried Literature Guide
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©Secondary  Solutions   All  Rights  Reserved.   SAMPLE  ONLY.   NOT  FOR  USE  OR  SALE.   PLEASE  PURCHASE  FULL  VERSION  FOR  ACCESS.  •
o Why did he or she join the armed forces?
o Describe this veteran’s “Alive Day” experience.
o Describe this veteran’s homecoming and experiences after the military.
Pause throughout the film study, discussing your answers and reactions to the
viewing. This will help others whose viewing strategies may not be as strong, by
modeling qualitative note-taking on viewing.
Letters and Care Packages to Deployed Soldiers
•
•
Before you begin reading the novel, write a letter introducing yourself to a deployed
soldier. In your letter, mention that you are reading O’Brien’s novel about the
Vietnam War, and that you are hoping to learn more about what it means to serve in
the military. Letters should not contain pictures and your teacher will preview them
for appropriateness before sending them. With the letters, the class as a whole can
contribute to a care package containing:
o Chewing gum
o Cookies (store bought or home-made in an airtight container)
o Beef or turkey jerky
o Canned nuts
o Dried fruit
o Cans of coffee
o Shaving cream
o White socks
o Paperback books
o Sudoku and crossword puzzle books
In your letter, invite him or her to write back. Inside the care package, include preaddressed envelopes (student name, teacher name, and school address) in the
event that the deployed soldier wishes to write you. Ask the soldier to share what
he/she can about his/her experiences in the military.
Artifact Analysis
•
•
•
Find out if friends or relatives who served in the Vietnam War or were active in the
antiwar protests would be willing to share artifacts from these experiences. If
possible, ask the family member or friend to write a short description of the artifact
and its relevance. These can be uniforms, medals, photographs, articles, or other
objects curated by the entire class. Carefully choose which objects the class will
display.
Create a museum of these artifacts in the classroom. Examine these artifacts in pairs
or triads. Answer the following questions about each artifact as you examine it, and
record your responses. Ideally, students in the group should alternate roles as
recorders and observers.
o What does this artifact remind you of?
o Where might it have come from?
o What did the owner(s) use it for?
o What predictions and assumptions do you have about this artifact?
o How does this artifact convey a sense of culture?
In a large group setting, discuss answers to these questions with the entire class. If
possible, tell the specific story about the artifact you contributed, or at least as much
as you know about it.
7
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The Things They Carried Literature Guide
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Historical Focus: The Vietnam War and America in the 1960s
Before, during, or after your study of this novel, your teacher may ask a Vietnam veteran to
visit your class and share his or her memories of the experience. Or your teacher might
invite a Vietnam War protester to present to the class. Perhaps both representatives will
come for a debate. What makes Tim O’Brien’s novel unique is that he personified both roles.
He was a war protester, and he is a Vietnam veteran, which is why his perspective on the
war is multifaceted. O’Brien does not provide much background information about the
Vietnam War. In fact, O’Brien arguably wrote his novel for an informed audience. The
purpose of the text that follows is to inform you so that you can understand O’Brien’s novel
in a clearer context.
America’s Role in Vietnam
How can the Vietnam War mean so many different things to so many different Americans?
While some believed passionately that it was a war worth fighting, others considered it a
failure in our country’s history and a contradiction of our country’s values. Tim O’Brien’s
novel, The Things They Carried, captures this conflict and develops it.
Vietnam: A General Chronology
French culture influences Vietnamese culture very much, since Napoleon III took full control
of Vietnam during his reign in the mid-1800s, making Vietnam a French colony. However,
when one culture seeks to overtake or absorb another, conflict ensues. By the early 20th
century, Ho Chi Minh began to lead a revolt against the French. The Vietnamese people
revered him as the leader who would restore their culture. In response to this rebellion, in
1932, the French government decided to allow Vietnamese representatives to be the
country’s leaders. Critics This labeled this form of government “puppet government,”
because many believed that the people appointed to these positions, while Vietnamese,
were simply doing what the French wished.
By 1941, Ho Chi Minh had traveled extensively and learned about many forms of
government, particularly communism. Communism is the belief that social classes should be
destroyed, property should be publicly owned, and individuals should work and be paid
according to their talents and needs. When Ho Chi Minh returned to Vietnam, he formed the
Vietminh. Other terms for the Vietminh include The North Vietnamese Army, The Vietcong,
or VC. In 1946, war began between French forces and the Vietminh. By early 1950, Ho Chi
Minh claimed leadership of the North Vietnamese government. The Soviet Union and China,
both communist countries, recognized his claim. This is where American involvement
officially began.
As allies of the French, the United States and Britain accepted the “puppet government” in
South Vietnam. In addition, the United States’ hostility towards communist countries during
the Cold War period made it clear that America supported South Vietnam, not North
Vietnam. Proof of this support came in President Harry Truman’s allowance for $15 million
in military aid to the French. When Ho Chi Minh appealed for aid from the United States, the
U.S. leadership distrusted him due to his communist affiliations with China and the Soviet
Union. Despite this lack of aid, Ho’s forces conquered the French in 1954, a humiliating
defeat at Dien Bien Phu, ending the First Indochina War. As a result of this defeat, France
sought a peace settlement, and the American government under President Eisenhower
reaffirmed support of South Vietnam with $100 million in aid. In addition, the United States
agreed to train the South Vietnamese army.
8
В©2013 Secondary Solutions
The Things They Carried Literature Guide
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В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В The Geneva Accords of 1954 officially divided Vietnam into North Vietnam and South
Vietnam. This divide was supposed to be temporary, since the Vietnamese were to hold free
elections in 1956. At this point, U.S. policy was dominated by “domino theory,” the belief that
communism in North Vietnam would spread throughout Asia. Because of this domino
theory, the United States backed an anti-communist politician, Ngo Dinh Diem.
Unfortunately, Diem’s leadership proved harsh and unpopular, but America was fearful of
communism’s popularity in South Vietnam.
By 1960, when President John F. Kennedy took office, the United States’ involvement in
Vietnam grew even more substantial, and the American government provided South
Vietnam with more supplies and personnel. By 1962, American advisers increased from 700
to 12,000. Despite all of these reinforcements, the U.S. Government could not redeem
Diem’s regime. In 1963, the United States overthrew Diem and played an active role in
installing a new leader. But the cycle of corruption was already in place, and the new
leaders were no better than the old ones in achieving the United States’ objectives.
After President Kennedy was assassinated in1963, President Lyndon Johnson oversaw the
placement of 15,000 American military advisers and another $500 million in aid to the South
Vietnamese government. On August 2, 1964, North Vietnamese forces attacked U.S. Navy
ships in the Gulf of Tonkin. Five days later, the U.S. Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf
Resolution, and President Johnson began to send U.S. troops to Vietnam. The United
States began bombing North Vietnam, deployed large military forces, and entered into
combat in South Vietnam. By the end of 1968, five hundred eighty-five thousand American
troops were present in Vietnam.
The death tolls mounted as the number of troops and the intensity of fighting escalated. The
United States’ strategy in Vietnam was to wear down the enemy, attempting to bury the
Vietnamese communist forces with fatalities. However, the Viet Cong’s radical tactics
frustrated and discouraged American troops. Since combat occurred in a widespread rural
environment, America resorted to alternative forms of warfare, using napalm and the
chemical Agent Orange. Neither of these unconventional weapons proved successful.
The Antiwar Movement
Following President Kennedy's assassination, the Johnson administration initially undertook
an effort to limit mobilization, attempting to keep everyday life in America as separated from
the war as possible. Eventually, however, there simply were not enough volunteers entering
the U.S. Military, and the government instituted a draft. The military drafted men into its
ranks to fill vacancies that volunteers could not fill. After being drafted, a man might be able
to defer his induction if he was a student, or if his induction would put his dependents (wife
and children) in extreme hardship. Unless he was unqualified for military service, however,
the government considered a young man over the age of 18 ready for immediate induction
into the military.
Draft resistors, also known as conscientious objectors or “draft dodgers,” included men who
could no longer defer their induction into the military. For those who did not agree with
America's stance on the Vietnam War and refused to be drafted, Canada quickly became a
refuge. For some time, Canada's government would not allow American men to immigrate if
they could not offer proof of discharge from the U.S. military, but this changed in 1968. As a
result, many young men who did not wish to serve in the Vietnam War fled to Canada, and
some never returned to reside in the United States.
9
В©2013 Secondary Solutions
The Things They Carried Literature Guide
Purchaser may reproduce copies of the materials in this book for his/her classroom use only.
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В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В Because of the draft, the Johnson administration was the target of American antiwar
sentiments. Demonstrations against the war and the draft grew increasingly violent in
America. The antiwar movement within the United States escalated as young protesters,
countercultural hippies, and even many mainstream Americans criticized the American
government for going to war. At the Democratic National Convention in 1968, after antiwar
protesters occupied the streets of Chicago for eight days, police brutality brought national
attention to the war protests. After President Richard Nixon was elected, large-scale antiwar
demonstrations began in Washington, D.C. Even though President Nixon began gradual
withdrawal of American troops, protests continued in the United States. When Ohio National
Guardsmen fired on a crowd at Kent State University in 1970, the deaths of four students
evoked an emotional response on college campuses across America.
One of the most historically renowned protesters of the war was Vietnam veteran John
Kerry. In April of 1971, he testified before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, and
his testimony proved shocking. As a result of hearing Kerry’s testimony, many Americans
were persuaded to oppose the war in Vietnam. Kerry revealed disturbing facts about war
crimes, such as rape, mutilation, torture, and other brutalities committed by high-ranking
Vietnam veterans. He informed the Committee on Foreign Relations that the veterans
returning from Vietnam felt angry and betrayed by their fellow citizens. Kerry criticized
President Nixon’s administration for supporting the Vietnam War rather than admitting that
America had made a mistake going into the war. He also expressed frustration that veterans
were not receiving the help that they needed to recover emotionally, physically and
financially from their war wounds, citing that one in ten unemployed people in America was
a Vietnam veteran.
Despite many protests, Nixon declared that a “silent majority” of Americans still supported
the war. Shortly after President Nixon was inaugurated into his second presidential term in
1973, the United States and North Vietnam signed cease-fire agreements. American troops
began to leave Vietnam on March 29, 1973.
Comprehension Check – The Vietnam War and America in the 1960s
Directions: After reading the article, answer the following questions using complete sentences
on a separate sheet of paper.
1. What makes Tim O’Brien a unique novelist as an author about the Vietnam War?
2. Why was Ho Chi Minh an influential leader?
3. What is communism? Why might communism be a form of government that Americans
opposed?
4. What was the “puppet government” in South Vietnam? Why was it criticized?
5. Why did the American government support South Vietnam and not North Vietnam?
6. What was domino theory?
7. Why was Ngo Diem’s regime overthrown?
8. Why was the Tonkin Gulf Resolution passed in 1964?
9. In what situations could a young man defer his draft into the U.S. Military?
10. How were the antiwar protests at the Chicago National Convention and at Kent State
University similar?
11. What did John Kerry reveal in his testimony to the Senate Committee on Foreign relations in
1971?
10
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Informational Focus Pre-Reading Activity: Predictive Assessment
Directions: Read the following speech and answer the questions that follow.
American Policy in Vietnam
President Lyndon B. Johnson
April 7, 1965
Over this war and all Asia is another reality: the deepening shadow of communist China.
The rulers in Hanoi are urged on by Peking. This is a regime which has destroyed
freedom in Tibet, which has attacked India and has been condemned by the United
Nations for aggression in Korea. It is a nation which is helping the forces of violence in
almost every continent. The contest in Vietnam is part of a wider pattern of aggressive
purposes.
Why are these realities our concern? Why are we in South Vietnam?
We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since 1954 every American
president has offered support to the people of South Vietnam. We have helped to build,
and we have helped to defend. Thus, over many years, we have made a national pledge
to help South Vietnam defend its independence.
And I intend to keep that promise.
To dishonor that pledge, to abandon this small and brave nation to its enemies, and to
the terror that must follow, would be an unforgivable wrong.
We are also there to strengthen world order. Around the globe from Berlin to Thailand
are people whose well-being rests in part on the belief that they can count on us if they
are attacked. To leave Vietnam to its fate would shake the confidence of all these people
in the value of an American commitment and in the value of America's word. The result
would be increased unrest and instability and even wider war.
We are also there because there are great stakes in the balance. Let no one think for a
moment that retreat from Vietnam would bring an end to conflict. The battle would be
renewed in one country and then another. The central lesson of our time is that the
appetite of aggression is never satisfied. To withdraw from one battlefield means only to
prepare for the next. We must say in Southeast Asia, as we did in Europe, in the words
of the Bible: "Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further."
There are those who say that all our efforts there will be futile – that China's power is
such that it is bound to dominate all Southeast Asia. But there is no end to that argument
until all the nations of Asia are swallowed up.
There are those who wonder why we have a responsibility there. Well, we have a
responsibility there for the same reason that we have a responsibility for the defense of
Europe. World War II was fought in both Europe and Asia and when it ended we found
ourselves with continued responsibility for the defense of freedom.
11
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want nothing for ourselves – only that the people of South Vietnam be allowed to guide
their own country in their own way.
We will do everything necessary to reach that objective and we will do only what is
absolutely necessary.
In recent months attacks on South Vietnam were stepped up. Thus, it became
necessary for us to increase our response and to make attacks by air. This is not a
change of purpose. It is a change in what we believe that purpose requires.
We do this in order to slow down aggression. We do this to increase the confidence of
the brave people of South Vietnam who have bravely born this brutal battle for so many
years with so many casualties. And we do this to convince the leaders of North Vietnam
– and all who seek to share their conquest – of a simple fact: We will not be defeated.
We will not grow tired. We will not withdraw either openly or under the cloak of a
meaningless agreement.
We know that air attacks alone will not accomplish all of these purposes but it is our best
and prayerful judgment that they are a necessary part of the surest road to peace.
We hope that peace will come swiftly. But that is in the hands of others besides
ourselves. And we must be prepared for a long continued conflict. It will require patience
as well as bravery – the will to endure as well as the will to resist.
I wish it were possible to convince others with words of what we now find it necessary to
say with guns and planes: armed hostility is futile – our resources are equal to any
challenge – because we fight for values and we fight for principle rather than territory or
colonies, our patience and our determination are unending.
Once this is clear, then it should also be clear that the only path for reasonable men is
the path of peaceful settlement.
Such peace demands an independent South Vietnam – securely guaranteed and able to
shape its own relationship to all others – free from outside interference – tied to no
alliance – a military base for no other country.
These are the essentials of any final settlement. We will never be second in the search
for such a peaceful settlement in Vietnam.
There may be many ways to this kind of peace: in discussion or negotiation with the
governments concerned; in large groups or in small ones; in the reaffirmation of old
agreements or their strengthening with new ones.
We have stated this position over and over again fifty times and more to friend and foe
alike. And we remain ready with this purpose for unconditional discussions.
And until that bright and necessary day of peace we will try to keep conflict from
spreading. We have no desire to see thousands die in battle – Asians or Americans. We
have no desire to devastate that which the people of North Vietnam have built with toil
and sacrifice. We will use our power with restraint and with all the wisdom that we can
command. But we will use it.
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Informational Focus Pre-Reading Response
Part I: Multiple Choice Questions
Directions: Based upon your reading, mark the correct answer on your answer sheet.
1. In the first sentence of Paragraph 3, President Johnson says, "…we have a promise to
keep." How does President Johnson develop this point of view in his speech?
A. He clarifies that there are many ways to find a peaceable resolution to the
conflict.
B. He explains that withdrawing soldiers from Vietnam would end the conflict there.
C. He proposes a timeline for freeing the South Vietnamese and securing victory.
D. He uses the pronoun “we” to create a sense of obligation among Americans.
2. "To dishonor that pledge, to abandon this small and brave nation to its enemies, and to
the terror that must follow, would be an unforgivable wrong" (Paragraph 5). Which other
sentence from President Johnson's speech also conveys this same message?
A. “Let no one think for a moment that retreat from Vietnam would bring an end to
the conflict” (Paragraph 7).
B. “But there is no end to that argument until all the nations of Asia are swallowed
up” (Paragraph 8).
C. “Our objective is the independence of South Vietnam and its freedom from
attack” (Paragraph 10).
D. “Once this is clear, then it should also be clear that the only path for reasonable
men is the path of peaceful settlement” (Paragraph 17).
3. Which of the following sentences best expresses the meaning of Johnson's statement
that "there are great stakes in the balance" (Paragraph 7)?
A. America needs to establish borders with both Europe and Southeast Asia.
B. During times of war, it is difficult to weigh the needs of several countries.
C. If America does not defend the South Vietnamese, more conflicts will arise.
D. Members of the United States military are willing to risk their lives.
4. Why does President Johnson refer to World War II (Paragraph 9)?
A. to emphasize that neither Europe nor Asia has the freedom it desires
B. to guarantee independence and freedom to govern to the people of South
Vietnam
C. to stress American responsibility for protecting the freedom of other countries
D. to summarize a recent historical event and caution against history repeating itself
5. "We will do everything necessary to reach that objective and we will do only what is
absolutely necessary" (Paragraph 11). Considering Johnson's speech as a whole, what
would be considered an action that is "absolutely necessary" to achieve independence
for South Vietnam?
A. intensifying assaults
B. fighting for territory
C. reaffirming agreements
D. settling peacefully
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requires" (Paragraph 12). Which of the following is an example of the change President
Johnson identifies?
A. the change from building to defending South Vietnam
B. the change from communism to democracy
C. the change from ground attacks to air attacks
D. the change from spreading conflict to resolving conflict
7. "We will not withdraw either openly or under the cloak of meaningless agreement"
(Paragraph 13). Which of the following examples from earlier in his speech does
President Johnson use to introduce the point he repeats in this sentence?
A. “Around the globe from Berlin to Thailand are people whose well-being rests in
part on the belief that they can count on us if they are attacked” (Paragraph 4).
B. “To leave Vietnam to its fate would shake the confidence of all these people in the
value of an American commitment and in the value of America’s word” (Paragraph
6).
C. “There are those who say that all our efforts will be futile – that China’s power is
such that it is bound to dominate all Southeast Asia” (Paragraph 8).
D. “We want nothing for ourselves – only that the people of South Vietnam be
allowed to guide their own country in their own way” (Paragraph 10).
8. In Paragraph 15, President Johnson states that the conflict in Vietnam will require "the
will to endure as well as the will to resist." How does Johnson develop this specific idea
in his speech?
A. He appeals to his audience’s reason that power can be exercised with discretion.
B. He asserts that peaceful settlement in Vietnam is the only reasonable road to
take.
C. He declares that military forces are persistent in response to recent outbreaks.
D. He describes the regime’s destruction and aggression in Tibet, India and Korea.
Part II: Short Essay
As he concludes his speech, President Johnson says that Americans will use their power
and their wisdom to bring peace to Vietnam. Can the use of power bring about peace?
In a short essay of two to three paragraphs, argue for or against Johnson's point. Use
examples from this speech to support or refute Johnson's argument.
For more about Lyndon Johnson, scan here for an article from PBS.org.
14
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this style? Find two examples from the passage to support your answer.
2) How does the way that this passage is written make us question what is real and what
is not? Give two examples from the passage.
Part II: Extending Your Understanding of Meta-Fiction
Directions: Now that you have had some practice recognizing what meta-fiction is and
how O’Brien has used it, take a closer look at another passage from “Speaking of
Courage” with a partner or group. Your teacher will assign you one of the three passages
below. Read it aloud with your partner or group, and discuss the following questions as
you read and after you read. Go back and revisit the text to discuss your answers. Share
portions of the text with your group as you discuss.
Passage #1: “Along an unused…no self-pity” (138-139).
Passage #2: “’But the worst part… I hear you’” (139-140).
Passage #3: “The intercom squeaked… �Out,’ said Norman Bowker” (145-146).
1. How does this passage break away from the usual, traditional form of fiction writing?
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readers? How do you know?
As your classmates share their answers, make some notes on O’Brien’s purpose in using
a meta-fictional style in each of the passages.
Part III: Reflecting on Meta-Fictional Style and Characterization
Directions: You have looked at several examples of meta-fiction in “Speaking of
Courage.” Now that you have taken the time to consider O’Brien’s stylistic choice and his
purposes, answer the following question in one or two well-developed paragraphs:
How does O’Brien’s use of meta-fiction help to develop Norman Bowker’s character
throughout “Speaking of Courage”?
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“Speaking of Courage”
Writing/Language Focus: Sentence Strips and Story Sequence
Part I: Completing and Sequencing Vocabulary Sentence Strips
Directions: Complete the following sentences using the vocabulary from this section.
You may need a dictionary to help you. Use each word only once as it appears in the
chapter. Once you have filled in the vocabulary words, cut your sentences into strips.
Show both your understanding of the vocabulary and your understanding of the chapter
“Speaking of Courage” by gluing the sentence strips on a separate sheet of paper in the
order they belong, to summarize the chapter in its proper sequence.
“Speaking of Courage” is a story about how
is misunderstood.
As he drives around the
veteran Norman Bowker thinks about his experiences at war.
of the lake, Vietnam
As the day comes to a close, he
were someplace else to go.
wishes there
As the story unfolds, the psychological
Norman has suffered in combat becomes more evident to the reader.
that
But Norman’s feelings of isolation do not result from his being less
than some of the wealthier people in town.
Even though he has been home for a while, he has not been warm and has started to
from opportunities to connect with others.
He passes expensive homes that belong to more
families.
In fact, the
that Norman crosses in his car is arguably
symbolic of the bridge Norman is unable to cross emotionally.
Norman’s depression is also evident in the flat tone he expresses in the story, one in
which very few
or emotional resonances are evident.
This is illustrated when Norman feels more comfortable talking to the
at Mama Burger than he does talking to a waitress there.
Part II: Reflecting on Sequencing Ideas
Directions: Discuss the following questions in your group or with the entire class.
1. How did your group have to problem-solve to complete this activity?
2. Which of the sentences was the most challenging to sequence? Why?
3. What did you learn about writing as a result of doing this activity?
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“Notes”
Writing/Language Focus: Selecting Effective Quotations
Part I: Selecting Quotations
Often, when your teacher asks you to write a composition, he or she expects that you
include quotations from the text. But how do you choose the best sections of the text to
quote? This exercise with quotations taken from “Notes” will help you to categorize text
and decide how best to plan using it. When you come across a key sentence or chunk of
text, ask yourself the following questions:
•
•
•
Is this so powerful that the only way I can convey its meaning is to quote it directly
as it is written?
Is this meaningful, but necessary only to paraphrase or summarize in my own
words before citing?
Can I summarize this in just a few words rather than quote it?
Directions: Read each quotation from the chapter in the chart below. Then check the
most appropriate category for each quote given.
Quote
#
Direct Quotation
1
“I received a long, disjointed letter in
which Bowker described the problem
of finding a meaningful use for his life
after the war” (149).
2
“�It’s almost like I got killed over in
Nam … Hard to describe. That night
when Kiowa got wasted, I sort of
sank down into the sewage with
him…’” (150).
3
4
5
So
powerful
I have to
quote it
directly.
Meaningful,
but I can
put it in my
own words.
Summarizes
the plot, and
I should
reference but
not quote or
paraphrase.
“�I’d write it myself except I can’t ever
find any words, if you know what I
mean, and I can’t figure out what
exactly to say’” (151).
“So I took pride in sliding gracefully
from Vietnam to graduate school,
from Quang Ngai to Harvard, from
one world to another” (151).
“I never spoke much about the war,
certainly not in detail, and yet ever
since my return I had been talking
about it virtually nonstop through my
writing” (151).
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#
Direct Quotation
6
“I was afraid to speak directly, afraid
to remember – and in the end the
piece had been ruined by a failure to
tell the full and precise truth…” (153).
7
“There was no suicide note, no
message of any kind” (154).
8
9
So
powerful
I have to
quote it
directly.
Meaningful,
but I can
put it in my
own words.
Summarizes
the plot, and
I should
reference but
not quote or
paraphrase.
“Kiowa, after all, had been a close
friend, and for years I’ve avoided
thinking about his death and my own
complicity in it” (154).
“Norman did not experience a failure
of nerve that night. He did not freeze
up or lose the Silver Star for valor.
That part of the story is my own”
(154).
Part II: Application of Quotation Selection
Directions: Now that you have completed this exercise, return to a previous chapter.
Complete the chart below with quotations from your chosen chapter, also writing the page
number. Then, discuss your responses in small groups and/or as a full class.
Chapter Title
Quote from Chapter
So powerful I have to
quote it.
Meaningful, but I can put
it in my own words.
Summarizes the plot,
and I should reference
but not quote or
paraphrase.
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“In the Field”
Literature Focus: Stream of Consciousness
Part I: Defining and Understanding Stream of Consciousness
Stream of Consciousness is a method used by authors to help us get into the mind of
the narrator as he or she tells a story. It captures how the narrator is thinking in real time,
and as a result, the narrator’s thoughts guide the style of the literature. Earlier in the
novel, O’Brien used stream of consciousness to convey the thoughts of First Lieutenant
Jimmy Cross in the chapter “The Things They Carried.” Now, “In the Field” returns us to
this character’s unique point of view again. Read the passage below, and as you read
answer the questions below the passage.
A crime, Jimmy Cross thought.
Looking out toward the river, he knew for a fact that he had made a mistake
setting up here. The order had come from higher, true, but still, he should’ve moved to
higher ground for the night, should’ve radioed in false coordinates. There was nothing he
could do now, but still it was a mistake and a hideous waste. He felt sick about it.
Standing in the deep waters of the field, First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross began composing
a letter in his head to the kid’s father, not mentioning the shit field, just saying what a fine
soldier Kiowa had been, what a fine human being, and how he was the kind of son any
father could be proud of forever. (157)
1. How does Jimmy Cross’s stream of consciousness reveal aspects of his character?
Find two examples from the passage to support your ideas.
2. What specific conflicts (person vs. self, person vs. person, person vs. nature, person
vs. supernatural or person vs. society) does this stream of consciousness reveal?
Find two specific examples from the passage to support your ideas.
Part II: Extending Your Understanding of Stream of Consciousness
Directions: Now that you have had some practice recognizing what stream of
consciousness is and how O’Brien uses it, take a closer look at another passage from “In
the Field” with a partner or group. Your teacher will assign you one of the two passages
below. Read it aloud with your partner or group, and discuss the following questions as
you read and after you read. Go back and revisit the text to discuss your answers. Share
portions of the text with your group as you discuss.
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Passage #2: “A stupid mistake…cold, sad drizzle” (161-162).
3. How does the stream of consciousness technique reveal Jimmy Cross’s character?
4. How does the stream of consciousness technique reveal conflicts that are developed
throughout the novel?
As your classmates share their answers, make some notes on O’Brien’s purpose in using
stream of consciousness style in the passages.
Part III: Reflecting on Stream of Consciousness
Directions: You have looked at several examples of stream of consciousness in “In the
Field.” Now that you have taken the time to consider the impact of stream of
consciousness, write one to two paragraphs answering the following question. You may
use all of your knowledge of the novel up to this point, including information from this
chapter, to support your answer.
Aside from Tim and Jimmy Cross, which other character or characters in the novel should
O’Brien have developed through this stream of consciousness narration? Why?
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“In the Field”
Language Focus: Vocabulary and Context Clues
In most assessments, you must infer (make an educated guess) the meanings of words
by looking at context clues, or clues within an entire line, sentence, or paragraph. You
must look at how the word is used in order to make an inference.
Directions: For each of the following vocabulary words from “In the Field,” first infer the
meaning of the word in bold, and then look up the bold word and write down the
dictionary definition. For b., now that you know the correct definition, explain how the
context clues aid (or don’t aid) you in understanding its meaning in the sentence.
1. “In his head he was revising the letter to Kiowa’s father. Impersonal this time. An
officer expressing an officer’s condolences.”
a. Definition:
b. Explanation:
2. “The body lay partly wedged under a layer of mud beneath the water. It was hard to
get traction; with each movement the muck would grip their feet and hold tight.”
a. Definition:
b. Explanation:
3. “He watched the young soldier wading through the water, bending down and then
standing and then bending down again, as if something might finally be salvaged
from all the waste.”
a. Definition:
b. Explanation:
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wading across the field to the river and then turning and wading back again.”
a. Definition:
b. Explanation:
5. “Near the center of the field First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross squatted in the muck,
almost entirely submerged.”
a. Definition:
b. Explanation:
6. ”He would place the blame where it belonged. Tactically, he’d say, it was
indefensible ground from the start. Low and flat. No natural cover.”
a. Definition:
b. Explanation:
7. “Looking out toward the river, he knew for a fact that he had made a mistake setting
up here. The order had come from higher, true, but still he should’ve exercised
some field discretion. He should’ve moved to higher ground for the night, should’ve
radioed in false coordinates.”
a. Definition:
b. Explanation:
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could blame the munitions makers or Karl Marx or a trick of fate or an old man in
Omaha who forgot to vote.”
a. Definition:
b. Explanation:
9. “…he folded his arms and watched his platoon crisscrossing the wide field. In a
funny way, it reminded him of the municipal golf course in his hometown in New
Jersey.”
c. Definition:
d. Explanation:
10. “For all of them it was a relief to have it finished….They felt bad for Kiowa. But they
also felt a kind of giddiness, a secret joy, because they were alive, and because
even the rain was preferable to being sucked under a shit field, and because it was
all a matter of luck and happenstance.”
c. Definition:
d. Explanation:
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“In the Field”
Writing Focus: “123 Essays”
Part I: Incorporating Vocabulary Into “123 Essays”
Directions: By now, you should have a thorough understanding of the vocabulary words
from this section. Using all of the vocabulary words from this section, write a summary of
the chapter, “In the Field.”
•
•
•
Your summary must be exactly 123 words;
It must summarize the chapter as a whole, not just part of it; and
It must convey the meaning of the vocabulary words in the context.
Here is an example of a 123 Essay for the chapter “Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong”:
Mark Fossie's girlfriend Mary Anne Bell was seduced, but not in a romantic way. When
she first arrived in Vietnam, she was hardly subdued in her approach to all the men in
Mark's outpost. She was full of inquiry, asking many questions when casualties were
brought in for emergency medical care. Even though she enjoyed digressions and
recreational activities, she began to participate in more military transactions. The
ambush of the Green Berets encompassed Mary Anne's attention, and eventually she
disappeared. This caused a great deal of speculation as to her whereabouts, and the
imprecision of the report was also cause for reduction in rank for both Eddie Diamond
and Mark Fossie. For these men, the possibility of achieving superlative offices was
gone.
Now, on a separate piece of paper, write your own 123 Essay summarizing “In the Field.”
Part II: Reflection on Writing the 123 Essay
Directions: Discuss the following questions in small groups and then share out your
reflections in the larger group setting. Write notes on your discussion on the lines below.
1. Even though this task is relatively short in length, it requires focused effort. How did
you approach the task of writing exactly 123 words?
2. Which vocabulary words were challenging to incorporate into your summary? Why?
3. Which sentence in your own 123 Essay do you feel conveys the most meaning? Why?
4. If you had to double the length of this to a “246” essay, what strategy would you take?
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“Field Trip”
Writing/Language Focus: Incorporating Quotations into Writing
Part I: The “CQC” Sequence for Quote Incorporation
In the previous “Writing and Language Focus” activities, you practiced selecting the best
quotations to use as evidence. Once you have found great evidence, how can you
present it in your writing? If you quote too much and don’t offer commentary, then you
don’t do your job as a writer. If you don’t quote enough, then you can’t show support for
your points. This exercise is about finding the balance.
Rules of thumb when you are incorporating quotations:
•
•
•
•
•
No quotation should stand on its own without clear explanation for its use.
You should only begin or end an essay or paragraph with a quotation from the
text if it is for a specific effect. Avoid doing this otherwise.
Never use the word “quote” in your writing (“This quote shows,” “In this quote”).
As soon as you use quotation marks, it’s evident that you are quoting the text
and supporting your argument.
Blend the quotation into your own words and edit it down to the most essential
words to do so. Do not quote a full sentence unless it is necessary.
Do not repeat or summarize the content of the quotation: analyze its importance.
With those rules in mind, you should follow the “CQC” method whenever you incorporate
a quotation into your writing.
Context: puts the example in a clear framework so that it is not “random” to read.
Context provides information about when and where the quotation occurs in the text and
who the speaker is.
Quotation: an example taken directly from the text, put into quotation marks and cited
with the author’s name and the page number. If the quote includes dialogue, then use
single quotations inside double quotations. Use only the part of the quotation that is most
relevant.
Commentary: Commentary analyzes the importance of the example you’ve chosen. It’s
extremely difficult to provide quality commentary for poor examples. Commentary
answers “So what?” to the quotation.
Here is an example:
During his visit to Vietnam 20 years after the war, Tim characterizes his daughter
Kathleen by sharing that the war in Vietnam “was as remote to her as cavemen and
dinosaurs” (O’Brien 175). In contrast to his daughter, Tim’s experience of the Vietnam
War is present in his mind.
Notice that the context and the quotation are in one sentence here. Sometimes, you can
capture “CQC” in just one sentence, and at other times it may take several sentences.
Just remember to follow the sequence and to communicate your ideas clearly.
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Directions: Below is a menu of quotations from the chapter “Field Trip.” Choose five of
the quotations and write five sentences using the “CQC” method shown in Part I. You
will need to revisit the text to provide quality context and commentary.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
“’Some dumb thing happens a long time ago and you can’t ever forget it’” (175).
“I wanted to show her the Vietnam that kept me awake at night” (176).
“This little field, I thought, had swallowed so much” (176).
“After that long night in the rain, I’d seemed to grow cold inside, all the illusions gone,
all the old ambitions and hopes for myself sucked away into the mud” (176).
“For twenty years this field had embodied all the waste that was Vietnam, all the
vulgarity and horror” (176).
“I tried to think of something decent to say, something meaningful and right, but
nothing came to me” (178).
“It had a rough, chalky sound, full of things I did not know were there” (178).
“Twenty years. A lot like yesterday, a lot like never” (178).
Quote ______ Sentence(s):
Quote ______ Sentence(s):
Quote ______ Sentence(s):
Quote ______ Sentence(s):
Quote ______ Sentence(s):
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“The Ghost Soldiers,” and “Lives of the Dead”
Comprehension/Analysis
Directions: To help you understand all aspects of the novel, answer the
following questions for “The Ghost Soldiers,” and “Lives of the Dead.” Write your
answers on a separate piece of paper using complete sentences.
“The Ghost Soldiers”
1. Why does Tim compare Bobby Jorgensen to Rat Kiley?
2. How does Tim’s new assignment change his relationship with Alpha
Company?
3. What is Tim’s plan to get revenge on Bobby? What is the outcome?
“The Lives of the Dead”
1. This chapter has two storylines: one of Tim as a soldier in Vietnam and the
other of Tim as a child in Minnesota. How does he connect these two
storylines in the chapter?
2. How is Linda represented as both real and imagined in this chapter?
3. What new story does Tim tell about Ted Lavender’s death?
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“The Ghost Soldiers”
Literature Focus: Direct vs. Indirect Characterization
Showing vs. Telling
Part I: Defining Direct and Indirect Characterization
In “The Ghost Soldiers,” Tim O’Brien develops his characters by employing both direct
characterization and indirect characterization. Direct Characterization occurs when the
author tells the reader about the character in straightforward statements; indirect
characterization occurs when the author shows the reader about a character through
the dialogue, actions, thoughts, and responses of one or more characters.
Directions: Now that you have these definitions for reference, it’s time to apply them to
your reading of “The Ghost Soldiers.” Below is a list of the characters in the story.
Provide an example of characterization from the text for each, and indicate whether the
example from the text is direct or indirect characterization.
Character
Example of Characterization
Direct or
Indirect?
Bobby
Jorgensen
Mitchell
Sanders
Morty
Phillips
Azar
As you share your examples in pairs, small groups or in larger class discussion, take
notes on the following questions.
1. At what points does O’Brien use direct characterization? Why does he choose to use
it at these specific points?
2. Conversely, when does O’Brien use indirect characterization, and why does he use
it?
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В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В Part II: Applying Your Understanding of Direct and Indirect Characterization
Directions: Now that you have practiced finding examples of direct and indirect
characterization, it is time to apply your skill to a passage from the chapter. For this
exercise, use two different colored highlighters or two different colored writing utensils.
Below is a character profile of Tim from “The Ghost Soldiers.” Read it closely at least
once. Then, after you have read the passage at least once, with one color, highlight
examples of direct characterization; with the other, highlight examples of indirect
characterization. Keep in mind that one sentence may have examples of both, so read
closely before annotating. Create a simple key.
Something had gone wrong. I’d come to this war a quiet, thoughtful sort of person, a
college grad, Phi Beta Kappa and summa cum laude, all the credentials, but after seven
months in the bush, I realized that those high, civilized trappings had somehow been
crushed under the weight of the simple daily realities. I’d turned mean inside. Even a
little cruel at times. For all my education, all my fine liberal values, I now felt a deep
coldness inside me, something dark and beyond reason. It’s a hard thing to admit, even
to myself, but I was capable of evil. I wanted to hurt Bobby Jorgenson the way he’d hurt
me. For weeks it had been a vow—I’ll get him, I’ll get him—it was down inside me like
a rock. Granted, I didn’t hate him anymore, and I’d lost some of the outrage and passion,
but the need for revenge kept eating at me. At night I sometimes drank too much. I’d
remember getting shot and yelling out for a medic and then waiting and waiting and
waiting, passing out once, then waking up and screaming some more, and how the
screaming seemed to make new pain, the awful stink of myself, the sweat and fear,
Bobby Jorgenson’s clumsy fingers when he finally got around to working on me. I kept
going over it all, every detail. I remembered the soft, fluid heat of my own blood. Shock,
I thought, and I tried to tell him that, but my tongue wouldn’t make the connection. I
wanted to yell, “You jerk, it’s shock—I’m dying!” but all I could do was whinny and
squeal. I remembered that, and the hospital, and the nurses. I even remembered the
rage. But I couldn’t feel it anymore. In the end, all I felt was that coldness down inside
my chest. Number one: the guy had almost killed me. Number two: there had to be
consequences. (190-191)
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В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В Look at your annotated passage, and consider the examples you identified of direct
characterization and indirect characterization. Then, in one or two paragraphs, answer
the following question on a separate piece of paper:
Why does O’Brien use both direct and indirect methods to develop Tim’s character in
this passage? Which do you believe is the more effective method in this case? Why?
Use examples from the passage to support your argument.
Part III: Reflecting on Direct and Indirect Characterization
Directions: Now that you have examined O’Brien’s methods, find examples of both
direct and indirect characterization from other texts you have read, or from an earlier
chapter in O’Brien’s novel.
•
•
Select an excerpt from this novel or from another text that is one to three
paragraphs—about a page in length.
Share the passage with a small group of your classmates. You may share in a
small group activity, or for homework if your class has a secure social networking
platform. If you share your text online by scanning it or taking a photograph of it,
be sure that the text is easy to read and the copy is of an acceptable resolution.
Answer the following questions about your chunk of text.
1. How does the author use direct characterization methods?
2. How does the author develop a character or characters indirectly?
3. In the specific case of your text and your character, how does a combination of these
methods help you to understand the character or characters?
4. Offer your classmates some feedback on what they have shared. Your feedback
should encourage, question or challenge the ideas your classmate offers, e.g. “I
noticed that…”; “I wondered why…”; “This reminds me of…”; or “I have a different
opinion, and here is why…”; etc. Your response should not be generic, e.g. “I agree,”
or “Good job.”
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“The Ghost Soldiers”
Writing/Language Focus: Vocabulary and Round Robin Storytelling
Part I: Understanding Your Vocabulary
Directions: Define and study the definitions of the vocabulary words from this section.
Part II: Writing Round Robin Narratives
Directions: You have done several different writing exercises by now, and you are going to
apply all that you know about writing and incorporating vocabulary into your writing by
creating round robin narratives. Here’s how it will work:
•
•
•
•
Everyone in your group will use a separate sheet of paper, writing his or her name at the
top. You will sit in a small circle.
On the top of each paper, write the list of ten vocabulary words from “The Ghost
Soldiers.”
Now, you and your group will retell the story of “The Ghost Soldiers” in a variety of ways.
Beneath your list, write one sentence to begin telling the story.
o Use only one of the vocabulary words in your sentence.
o Also include two of the following in your sentence: telling details from “The Ghost
Soldiers,” images that show feelings and experiences, events, setting, and
characters. Do not try to include all of these – but shoot for two.
o Your teacher will cue you to finish your sentence. When you are finished, put your
initials next to the vocabulary word you have used on the list at the top of your sheet.
o Then, rotate your paper to your right in the circle.
o Repeat this cycle until your group has used all ten vocabulary words.
o Do not use the same word for each sentence you write. Choose a different word
each time you get a new paper, so you can get the practice you need to understand
the vocabulary.
o As you receive each new paper, continue the logical sequence of the story. Make
sure your sentence fits with what others have written and do not just write a sentence
containing the vocabulary word so that you will be “done.” Be a team player and try
your absolute best. Ask your teacher for help if you need it!
Part III: Reflection on Writing the Round Robin Narratives
Directions: Each group will share one or two of their round robin narratives of “The Ghost
Soldiers” with the class. After you have listened to these, discuss the following questions in
the larger group setting.
1. Which of your group members excelled at:
a) incorporating the vocabulary?
b) creating memorable images?
c) recounting events and details from the chapter?
d) developing characters from the chapter?
2. Which vocabulary words did your group use right away when you began writing? Why?
3. Which vocabulary words were tough to incorporate? Why?
4. Which sentence on your round robin paper do you feel conveys the most meaning? Why?
5. Which sentence or sentences would you edit out of this if you could? Why?
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“The Lives of the Dead”
Literature Focus: Defining and Understanding Nonlinear Narrative
Part I: Understanding Nonlinear Narrative
Nonlinear narrative is a strategy used by many authors to break away from traditional
forms of chronological storytelling. In modern literature, nonlinear narratives are becoming
much more popular, since authors are beginning to craft their texts for readers who would
like to visualize and engage in storylines in a variety of ways. Many authors use nonlinear
narrative when they depict their story from the end to the beginning, starting in the middle, or
shifting in time between chapters. While this technique proves challenging to readers, it also
keeps them engaged and stimulated by a text. Throughout The Things They Carried, Tim
O’Brien uses a nonlinear format. He does not tell the story chronologically, but rather shifts
frequently between past and present. In addition, O’Brien develops his nonlinear narrative
through multiple narrators and points of view.
Think about texts you have read (novels, nonfiction, short stories, news articles) or viewed
(television, film) that utilize nonlinear narrative. List the title or titles of these texts below:
Choose one of the texts that you identified above. Explain why the author or producer of the
text may have chosen to depict the story with nonlinear narrative. Why was nonlinear
narrative a better way of presenting the story than it would have been in linear style?
Share your responses with your classmates, and as you share, create a list of reasons why
writers choose to use nonlinear narration to tell their stories. You will use this list of reasons
for Part II of this lesson, so take detailed notes.
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Directions: Now that you have had some time to compile a list of reasons why writers tell
their stories in a nonlinear fashion, take a closer look at this passage from “The Lives of the
Dead.” As you read, highlight and annotate the passage to help you answer the questions
that follow the passage.
It’s now 1990. I’m forty-three years old, which would’ve seemed impossible to a
fourth grader, and yet when I look at photographs of myself as I was in 1956, I realize that in
the important ways I haven’t changed at all. I was Timmy then; now I’m Tim. But the
essence remains the same. I’m not fooled by the baggy pants or the crew cut or the happy
smile—I know my own eyes—and there is no doubt that the Timmy smiling at the camera is
the Tim I am now. Inside the body, or beyond the body, there is something absolute and
unchanging. The human life is all one thing, like a blade tracing loops on the ice: a little kid,
a twenty-three-year-old infantry sergeant, a middle-aged writer knowing guilt and sorrow.
And as a writer now, I want to save Linda’s life. Not her body—her life.
She died, of course. Nine years old and she died. It was a brain tumor. She lived
through the summer and into the first part of September, and then she was dead.
But in a story I can steal her soul. I can revive, at least briefly, that which is absolute
and unchanging. In a story, miracles can happen. Linda can smile and sit up. She can reach
out, touch my wrist, and say, “Timmy, stop crying.”
I needed that kind of miracle. At some point I had come to understand that Linda was
sick, maybe even dying, but I loved her and just couldn’t accept it. In the middle of the
summer, I remember, my mother tried to explain to me about brain tumors. Now and then,
she said, bad things start growing inside us. Sometimes you can cut them out and other
times you can’t, and for Linda it was one of the times when you can’t.
I thought about it for several days. “All right,” I finally said, “So will she get better
now?”
“Well, no,” my mother said, “I don’t think so.” She stared at a spot behind my
shoulder. “Sometimes people don’t ever get better. They die sometimes.”
I shook my head.
“Not Linda,” I said. (223-224)
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In what ways is this passage “timeless”? Find an example from the text to explain your
answer.
2. Why does O’Brien wait until the end of his novel to share this story? Does this story
provide closure to the text as a whole? Why or why not?
3. Look at your notes from Part I on reasons to tell stories with nonlinear narrative. Which
of the reasons you and your classmates identified apply to this passage? Find two
examples to support your reasons.
Part III: Reflecting on the Nonlinear Narration
Directions: Now that you have had the opportunity to see how and why nonlinear narration
is effective, answer the following question in one to two paragraphs on a separate piece of
paper.
The Things They Carried is often called a work of historical fiction, but O’Brien chooses not
to tell his story in chronological order as it might appear in a history book. In “The Lives of
the Dead” and throughout the novel, O’Brien uses nonlinear narrative and tells his story out
of sequence.
Should we consider The Things They Carried a work of historical fiction? Why or why not?
Use several examples from the text to support your argument. You may use examples from
various chapters to make your argument.
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“The Lives of the Dead”
Language Focus: “Bookend” Narratives
Part I: Understanding Your Vocabulary
Directions: Define and study the definitions of the vocabulary from this section.
Part II: Incorporating Vocabulary Into “Bookend Narratives.”
Directions: For this activity, you are going to write a story from the point of view of one of
the characters from The Things They Carried, using all of the vocabulary words from this
section. To help you write the story, below is a list of characters to choose from, as well as
“bookends.”
Bookends are the first and last lines of some of the chapters in the novel. You may also
choose your own bookends from the text. As you plan how to write your original story,
remember to include the elements in the checklist below. Your teacher may ask you to do
this task alone, in pairs, or in small groups. In any case, follow this checklist, and ask your
teacher for help if you are struggling to complete one of these items. Return to the checklist
after you have finished your narrative, noting whether the items on the list are complete.
Bookend Narrative Checklist
Remember to…
Choose narrator, first line and last line.
Create a sense of the setting in the story.
Identify the conflict(s) in the story. Show why the conflict is significant.
Develop the narrator’s character as the action unfolds.
Develop at least three events that connect to show the conflict(s) and character.
Move toward resolution by the time you reach the last line.
Incorporate all ten vocabulary words smoothly.
First Line (choose one)
Last Line (choose one)
First Lieutenant Jimmy Cross carried
letters from a girl named Martha, a
junior at Mount Sebastian College in
New Jersey.
He might just shrug and say, Carry
on, then they would saddle up and
form into a column and move out
toward the village west of Than Khe.
This is one story I’ve never told before.
I went to the war.
This is true.
It’s about sisters who never write
back and people who never listen.
Vietnam was full of strange stories,
some improbable, some well beyond
that, but the stories that will last forever
are those that swirl back and forth
across the border between trivia and
bedlam.
She was ready for the kill.
I was shot twice.
I shrugged. “Sure. Or just kill him.”
Complete?
Character to
Narrate
(choose
one)
Tim
Linda
Nick
Rat
Bobby
Mitchell
Azar
Mary Anne
Elroy
Kiowa
Tim’s mom
Jimmy
Norman
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place in particular to go.
For a small town, he decided, it was
a pretty good show
At daybreak the platoon of eighteen
soldiers formed into a loose rank and
began tramping side by side through
the deep muck.
Maybe he would just take a couple of
practice swings and knock the ball
down the middle and pick up his
clubs and walk off into the afternoon
Part III: Reflecting and Assessing
Directions: Now that you have written your bookend narratives and incorporated the
vocabulary, it is time to get feedback from your peers. You may do this in a one-on-one
conference or within a gallery walk. You will give feedback to three of your peers or peer
groups, using the charts below. Three copies of this chart have been provided for you.
After you have evaluated your peers, read over all of the feedback you received from your
classmates in the Peer Checklists. Answer the following questions in class discussion or on
your own, depending upon your teacher’s instructions.
1. Which one of the tasks on the checklists was the most challenging to complete? Why?
2. If you had twice the time to do this task, how would you approach it differently?
3. Did the parameters of the assignment (first line, last line, vocabulary) help you to
complete this task? If you could create different parameters to do a similar task, what
would you suggest? Why?
Bookend Narrative Peer Checklist for:
Did the writer(s) remember to:
Comments:
Choose narrator, first line and
last line?
Create a sense of the setting in
the story?
Identify the conflict(s) in the
story? Show why the conflict is
significant?
Develop the narrator’s character
as the action unfolds?
Develop at least three events
that connect to show the
conflict(s) and character?
Move toward resolution by the
time he/she wrote the last line?
Incorporate all ten vocabulary
words smoothly?
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Did the writer(s) remember to:
Comments:
Choose narrator, first line and
last line?
Create a sense of the setting in
the story?
Identify the conflict(s) in the
story? Show why the conflict is
significant?
Develop the narrator’s character
as the action unfolds?
Develop at least three events that
connect to show the conflict(s)
and character?
Move toward resolution by the
time he/she wrote the last line?
Incorporate all ten vocabulary
words smoothly?
Bookend Narrative Peer Checklist for:
Did the writer(s) remember to:
Choose narrator, first line and
last line?
Comments:
Create a sense of the setting in
the story?
Identify the conflict(s) in the
story? Show why the conflict is
significant?
Develop the narrator’s character
as the action unfolds?
Develop at least three events that
connect to show the conflict(s)
and character?
Move toward resolution by the
time he/she wrote the last line?
Incorporate all ten vocabulary
words smoothly?
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Informational Focus: Benchmark Assessment
From John Kerry’s Testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
April 23, 1971
We call this investigation the Winter Soldier Investigation. The term Winter Soldier is a play
on words of Thomas Paine's in 1776 when he spoke of the Sunshine Patriots and
summertime soldiers who deserted at Valley Forge because the going was rough.
We who have come here to Washington have come here because we feel we have to be
winter soldiers now. We could come back to this country, we could be quiet, we could hold
our silence, we could not tell what went on in Vietnam, but we feel because of what
threatens this country, not the reds, but the crimes which we are committing that threaten it,
that we have to speak out....
In our opinion and from our experience, there is nothing in South Vietnam which could
happen that realistically threatens the United States of America. And to attempt to justify the
loss of one American life in Vietnam, Cambodia or Laos by linking such loss to the
preservation of freedom, which those misfits supposedly abuse, is to us the height of
criminal hypocrisy, and it is that kind of hypocrisy which we feel has torn this country apart.
We found that not only was it a civil war, an effort by a people who had for years been
seeking their liberation from any colonial influence whatsoever, but also we found that the
Vietnamese whom we had enthusiastically molded after our own image were hard put to
take up the fight against the threat we were supposedly saving them from.
We found most people didn't even know the difference between communism and
democracy. They only wanted to work in rice paddies without helicopters strafing them and
bombs with napalm burning their villages and tearing their country apart. They wanted
everything to do with the war, particularly with this foreign presence of the United States of
America, to leave them alone in peace, and they practiced the art of survival by siding with
whichever military force was present at a particular time, be it Viet Cong, North Vietnamese
or American.
We found also that all too often American men were dying in those rice paddies for want of
support from their allies. We saw first hand how monies from American taxes were used for
a corrupt dictatorial regime. We saw that many people in this country had a one-sided idea
of who was kept free by the flag, and blacks provided the highest percentage of casualties.
We saw Vietnam ravaged equally by American bombs and search and destroy missions, as
well as by Viet Cong terrorism - and yet we listened while this country tried to blame all of
the havoc on the Viet Cong.
We rationalized destroying villages in order to save them. We saw America lose her sense
of morality as she accepted very coolly a My Lai and refused to give up the image of
American soldiers who hand out chocolate bars and chewing gum.
We learned the meaning of free fire zones, shooting anything that moves, and we watched
while America placed a cheapness on the lives of Orientals.
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В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В We watched the United States falsification of body counts, in fact the glorification of body
counts. We listened while month after month we were told the back of the enemy was about
to break. We fought using weapons against "oriental human beings." We fought using
weapons against those people which I do not believe this country would dream of using
were we fighting in the European theater. We watched while men charged up hills because
a general said that hill has to be taken, and after losing one platoon or two platoons they
marched away to leave the hill for reoccupation by the North Vietnamese. We watched pride
allow the most unimportant battles to be blown into extravaganzas, because we couldn't
lose, and we couldn't retreat, and because it didn't matter how many American bodies were
lost to prove that point, and so there were Hamburger Hills and Khe Sanhs and Hill 81s and
Fire Base 6s, and so many others.
Now we are told that the men who fought there must watch quietly while American lives are
lost so that we can exercise the incredible arrogance of Vietnamizing the Vietnamese.
Each day to facilitate the process by which the United States washes her hands of Vietnam
someone has to give up his life so that the United States doesn't have to admit something
that the entire world already knows, so that we can't say that we have made a mistake.
Someone has to die so that President Nixon won't be, and these are his words, "the first
President to lose a war."
We are asking Americans to think about that because how do you ask a man to be the last
man to die in Vietnam? How do you ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake?....
We are here in Washington to say that the problem of this war is not just a question of war
and diplomacy. It is part and parcel of everything that we are trying as human beings to
communicate to people in this country – the question of racism which is rampant in the
military, and so many other questions such as the use of weapons; the hypocrisy in our
taking umbrage at the Geneva Conventions and using that as justification for a continuation
of this war when we are more guilty than any other body of violations of those Geneva
Conventions; in the use of free fire zones, harassment interdiction fire, search and destroy
missions, the bombings, the torture of prisoners, all accepted policy by many units in South
Vietnam. That is what we are trying to say. It is part and parcel of everything.
An American Indian friend of mine who lives in the Indian Nation of Alcatraz put it to me very
succinctly. He told me how as a boy on an Indian reservation he had watched television and
he used to cheer the cowboys when they came in and shot the Indians, and then suddenly
one day he stopped in Vietnam and he said, "my God, I am doing to these people the very
same thing that was done to my people," and he stopped. And that is what we are trying to
say, that we think this thing has to end.
We are here to ask, and we are here to ask vehemently, where are the leaders of our
country? Where is the leadership? We're here to ask where are McNamara, Rostow, Bundy,
Gilpatrick, and so many others? Where are they now that we, the men they sent off to war,
have returned? These are the commanders who have deserted their troops. And there is no
more serious crime in the laws of war. The Army says they never leave their wounded. The
marines say they never even leave their dead. These men have left all the casualties and
retreated behind a pious shield of public rectitude. They've left the real stuff of their
reputations bleaching behind them in the sun in this country...
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В©Secondary В Solutions В В All В Rights В Reserved. В В SAMPLE В ONLY. В В NOT В FOR В USE В OR В SALE. В В PLEASE В PURCHASE В FULL В VERSION В FOR В ACCESS. В We wish that a merciful God could wipe away our own memories of that service as easily as
this administration has wiped away their memories of us. But all that they have done and all
that they can do by this denial is to make more clear than ever our own determination to
undertake one last mission – to search out and destroy the last vestige of this barbaric war,
to pacify our own hearts, to conquer the hate and fear that have driven this country these
last ten years and more. And more. And so when thirty years from now our brothers go
down the street without a leg, without an arm, or a face, and small boys ask why, we will be
able to say "Vietnam" and not mean a desert, not a filthy obscene memory, but mean
instead where America finally turned and where soldiers like us helped it in the turning.
Comprehension and Analysis
Directions: Write the letter of the correct answer on your answer sheet.
Part I: Multiple Choice
1. Which of the following examples from Kerry's speech best supports his argument that
America is to blame for the wrongdoings of Vietnam veterans?
A. “We rationalized destroying villages in order to save them” (Paragraph 7).
B. “Someone has to die so that President Nixon won’t be, and these are his words, �the
first President to lose a war’” (Paragraph 11).
C. “How do you ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake?” (Paragraph 12)
D. “The Marines say they never even leave their dead” (Paragraph 15).
2. How does Kerry develop the idea of the "Winter Soldier" (Paragraphs 1 and 2)
throughout his speech?
A. He argues that ignorant people overvalue the loss of American lives.
B. He explains that the term “Winter Solider” is taken from a historical document.
C. He implies that America has deserted Vietnam veterans returning from war.
D. He reports that many Vietnamese know little about forms of government.
3. Which of the following examples from later in Kerry's speech is a detail illustrating "the
height of criminal hypocrisy" discussed in Paragraph 3?
A. blaming the Viet Cong for bombings committed by America
B. determining to undertake one last mission to conquer fear
C. turning inconsequential battles into full-blown wars
D. watching quietly while American lives are lost
4. Kerry states that the Vietnamese "practiced the art of survival"(Paragraph 5). One
example of this action is
A. abusing the freedom they receive
B. laboring all day in rice paddies
C. remaining loyal only to themselves
D. welcoming all foreigners as visitors
5. "Hamburger Hills and Khe Sanhs and Hill 81s and Fire Base 6s" (Paragraph 9) are all
examples of
A. battles that took place in the European theater
B. mountains on which combat occurred
C. notable victories for American troops in Vietnam
D. places in which American soldiers died
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Kerry uses the final sentence of Paragraph 12 (“It is part and parcel of everything.”) to
A. argue that some components of the war should not be considered over others
B. deliver a brief message about the Vietnam War to all American citizens
C. emphasize that numerous moral dilemmas encompass the Vietnam War
D. support the honorable resolutions made at the Geneva Conventions
7. How does Kerry's story about his American Indian friend (Paragraph 13) relate to the
entire speech?
A. It describes a realization that all Americans should have.
B. It explains how television influence’s perspectives on the war.
C. It exposes prejudice against Native Americans and Vietnamese.
D. It offers an example of moral character to Vietnam veterans.
8. Kerry's four consecutive questions at the beginning of Paragraph 14 reinforce his point
of view as someone who is
A. inquisitive regarding serious war crimes committed by casualties
B. doubting whether those who began the war will honorably conclude it
C. curious about how all branches of the military will respond to veterans’ needs
D. confused as to the whereabouts of the men sent off to war who have not returned
Part II: Short Essay
Throughout John Kerry’s speech, he argues that America’s involvement in the Vietnam War
is hypocritical. Does hypocrisy cause war, or does war cause hypocrisy?
In a short essay of two to three paragraphs, make your argument. Use examples from this
speech to support your argument.
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Quiz: “The Things They Carried”
Part I: Multiple Choice Questions
Directions: Circle the correct answer for each of the following. Each question has only one
correct answer.
1. The chapter “The Things They Carried” employs third person narration, using three
different narrators. These three narrators are
A. Henry Dobbins, Dave Jensen, and Tim O’Brien
B. Lieutenant Jimmy Cross, Tim O’Brien, and Kiowa
C. Ted Lavender, Mitchell Sanders, and Rat Kiley
D. Tim O’Brien, Lee Strunk, and Norman Bowker
2. Throughout the chapter, one character who is continuously revisited in one narrator’s
thoughts is
A. Henry Dobbins’ girlfriend, whose panty hose are good luck
B. Lee Strunk, who drew the number 17
C. Martha, a junior at Mount Sebastian College in New Jersey
D. Norman Bowker, who tells Kiowa to shut up
3. The meaning of the title is heightened when the narrator shares that all the men in Alpha
Company carried
A. ammunition
C. ghosts
B. extra rations
D. machetes
4. An event repeated by the narrator throughout the chapter is
A. Mitchell Sanders’ gift of a thumb to Norman Bowker
B. the arrival of resupply choppers
C. the lottery conducted for tunnel duty
D. the shooting of Ted Lavender
5. In the burning of both Lieutenant Cross’s letters and the village of Than Khe, O’Brien
coveys the idea that
A. passionate acts are often effective
B. only the strong survive
C. misdirected anger is useless
D. anything can be destroyed by accident
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Directions: Match each quotation from this chapter to its proper context. Each quotation
has only one correct context. Write the LETTER of the best quotation on the line.
6. _____________ After Kiowa discusses the day’s events with Mitchell Sanders, he
reflects privately.
7. _____________ As a result of the tragedy that occurred, Cross is determined to be more
disciplined.
8. _____________ As he leads the men of Alpha Company physically, Lieutenant Cross’s
thoughts are elsewhere.
9. _____________ Before Alpha Company is led into Than Khe, the men await the
chopper to take Ted Lavender away.
10. _____________ Members of the platoon fan out as security for Lee Strunk and wait for
him.
Quotation Menu:
A. “Do rats carry babies? If you screamed, how far would the sound carry? Would your
buddies hear it?”
B. “He liked the smell of the New Testament under his cheek, the leather and ink and
paper and glue, whatever the chemicals were. He liked hearing the sounds of the
night.”
C. “He would not tolerate laxity. He would show strength, distancing himself.”
D. “It was a simple pebble, an ounce at most. Smooth to the touch, it was a milky white
color with flecks of orange and violet, oval-shaped, like a miniature egg.”
E. “The moral’s pretty obvious, Sanders said, and winked. Stay away from drugs. No
joke, they’ll ruin your day every time.”
Part III: Short Answer Questions
Directions: Respond to each of the following prompts on your own sheet of paper. Give
examples from the chapter to support your responses.
11. Describe the relationship between Jimmy Cross and Martha.
12. Name three items that Rat Kiley always carried and explain their relevance.
13. Why does Norman Bowker become annoyed with Kiowa during their conversation?
14. Identify three actions that members of Alpha Company take while they await the dustoff
to arrive for Lavender.
15. Describe one specific instance in which a member of the platoon uses humor to cope
with a serious subject, and explain why the humor is used.
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Vocabulary Quiz: “The Things They Carried”
Directions: Using your knowledge of the roots and definitions, complete the following
sentence completion tasks. Use each word only once.
lingo
insignia
volition
dictated
intransitive
elusive
negligence
impose
mortification
insecticide
1. After a series of bullying incidents in the hallway, the principal ___________________
that all teachers stand at the doorways of their classrooms during all passing periods.
2. Hank’s mother could not hide her ___________________________ when his physics
teacher called to say that her son had been caught cheating on a test.
3. If you are trying to limit your word count for an assignment, then I suggest using
___________________ words that won’t invite extra details beyond the required length.
4. It took Jessica over a year to understand the different regional ____________________
when she moved from New York to Illinois.
5. Mr. Tegan’s style of teaching could be considered _________________________, since
you never really knew how he was going to conduct class from one day to the next.
6. Since Lee had witnessed _________________ of pet caretakers in the past, he decided
to provide foster care for a dog on a trial basis to see how his children would care for it.
7. The Morrisons were having a wonderful time camping out until night fell; the mosquitos
came out, and Mrs. Morrison realized that she had left the ________________ at home.
8. The silver eagle is used as the official _________________________ of a colonel in the
United States Army, Air Force and Marine Corps.
9. Wendy began her request with “Please don’t feel obligated to say yes,” which ironically
was a sign of the task she was about to ________________________________ on us.
10. While many high school seniors are helped through the college application process by
parents, teachers and guidance counselors, Kelvin met all of his deadlines early and
without the help of his elders, of his own _________________________.
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Quiz: “On the Rainy River”
Part I: Multiple Choice Questions
Directions: Circle the correct answer for each of the following. Each question has only one
correct answer.
1. Which of the following historical facts referenced by Tim has a direct effect on his
conscription into the army?
A. the attack on the USS Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin
B. the debate over the war’s purpose to liberate Vietnamese
C. the domino theory about the spread of communism
D. the progression of Ho Chi Minh’s leadership
2. In college, Tim “made a modest” protest against the Vietnam War. Which of the following
is not a form of modest protest?
A. participating in peaceful protests
B. ringing doorbells for Gene McCarthy
C. wearing a “Bomb Hanoi” button
D. writing editorials for the newspaper
3. Tim hides his draft notice in
A. his car
B. his wallet
C. the plant
D. the kitchen
4. At one point in the chapter, Time says that he “cracked.” He is describing the moment in
which he
A. carries a suitcase to the kitchen
B. gets covered with hog stink
C. takes a hot shower at home
D. walks out of the meat plant
5. Which of the following is not an activity that Tim and Elroy Berdahl do at the Tip Top
Lodge?
A. cross-country skiing
B. listening to records
C. playing Scrabble
D. reading in front of the fire
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Directions: Match each quotation from this chapter to its proper context. Each quotation
has only one correct context. Write the LETTER of the best quotation on the line.
6. ___________Elroy takes Tim out onto the Rainy River to go fishing.
7. ___________Tim and Elroy discuss the work he has done during his stay at the Tip Top
Lodge, and Elroy calls it even.
8. ___________Tim comes home after playing a round of golf, and his mother and father
are eating lunch.
9. ___________Tim spends the summer of 1968 working in a meat packing plant in his
hometown.
Quotation Menu:
A. “There was some bounce to it, an elastic up-and-down give, and the trick was to
maneuver the gun with your whole body, not lifting with the arms…”
B. “He was a witness, like God, or like the gods, who look on in absolute silence as we
live our lives, as we make our choices or fail to make them.”
C. “I remember opening up the letter, scanning the first few lines, feeling the blood go
thick behind my eyes. I remember a sound in my head.”
D. “In the morning, though, I found an envelope tacked to my door. Inside were the four
fifties and a two-word note that said EMERGENCY FUND.”
Part III: Short Answer Questions
Directions: Respond to each of the prompts on your own sheet of paper. Give examples
from the chapter to support your responses.
10. For what reasons does Tim oppose the draft?
11. Throughout this chapter, Tim discusses the “moral split” he feels. Describe the moral
split that Tim is feeling and explain his feelings.
12. Tim decides to stay at the Tip Top Lodge. Describe his first impressions of the lodge
when he arrives.
13. Tim states that his story is “a small gesture of gratitude twenty years overdue.” To whom
is Tim grateful and why?
14. Tim says, “Even now I can see myself as I was then.” Describe how Tim remembers
himself appearing in the story.
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Vocabulary Quiz: “On the Rainy River”
Directions: Using your knowledge of the roots and definitions, complete the following
sentence completion tasks. Use each word only once.
pretense
isolated
discredit
acquiescence
gentry
rupture
monotonous
maneuver
impassive
conviction
1. Cassie suffered several injuries from the car accident, but the most serious one caused
her spleen to ________________________.
2. Crocheting and knitting may seem similar, but actually require very different skills to
_______________________ the needles and yarn.
3. Despite her friends’ disagreement with her stance on gun control, Ana still held a firm
_______________________ that all firearms should be banned.
4. During the toddler’s temper tantrums, her mother was ___________________________,
a response she had discovered made her daughter’s fits end much more quickly than
when she had an emotional reaction.
5. Even though Yolanda liked a consistent class routine, the ________________________
lectures in her history class made her crave change.
6. In the classic American novel, The Catcher in the Rye, Holden criticizes phony people
for their ________________________ and arrogance.
7. In the film, The Karate Kid, Daniel is extremely embarrassed in front of the country club
____________________ when he spills marinara sauce down his white serving uniform.
8. Ironically, at the crowded soccer game Pedro felt most __________________________
in the mass assembly of fans, because they opposed his favorite team.
9. Sometimes, people confuse ________________________ and surrender, but the former
is far more graceful than the latter.
10. Unfortunately, Jamie’s choice to start a vulgar chant at the pep rally served to
______________________ her reputation as student council secretary.
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Quiz: “How to Tell a True War Story”
Part I: Multiple Choice Questions
Directions: Circle the correct answer for each of the following. Each question has only one
correct answer.
1. Rat Kiley and Curt Lemon play ___ with ___.
A. cat’s cradle; fishing wire
B. catch; smoke grenades
C. hopscotch; bullets
D. tug of war; machetes
2. In the story Mitchell Sanders tells, the colonel asks the six-man patrol for an explanation
about their use of firepower. They answer by
A. packing up and descending the mountain
B. saying nothing and walking away
C. sharing their full story with him
D. telling him he will never know
3. Which of the following details from Mitchell Sanders’ “true war story” turns out to be
fictional?
A. the chimes
B. the glee club
C. the opera
D. the xylophones
4. According to Tim, there is nothing much one can say about a true war story except
A. “I’m sorry”
B. “Oh”
C. “There’s a moral”
D. “War is hell”
5. As Mitchell Sanders tells his story, an object he continually uses for comfort is
A. a can of beans
B. a mask
C. his rifle
D. his yo-yo
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Directions: Match each quotation from this chapter to its proper context. Each quotation
has only one correct context. Write the LETTER of the best quotation on the line.
6. ______________ Rat Kiley’s act of violence does not produce the result he wants.
7. ______________ Tim explains the effects of combat on one’s outlook.
8. ______________ Tim proposes that a true war story is about sisters who never write
back and people who never listen.
9. ______________ Until the war is over, one cannot truly reflect on its effects.
10. ______________ When a six-man patrol goes up into the mountain on a basic
operation, they witness the same recurring thing.
Quotation Menu:
A. “You close your eyes. You take a feeble swipe at the dark and think, Christ, what’s
the point?”
B. “Amazing,” Dave Jensen said. “My whole life I’ve never seen anything like it.”
C. “I’ll picture Rat Kiley’s face, his grief, and I’ll think, You dumb cooze.”
D. “The grass, the soil—everything. All around you things are purely living, and you
among them, and the aliveness makes you tremble.”
E. “They can’t do that. It wouldn’t go down. So they lie there in the dark and keep their
mouths shut. And what makes it extra bad, see, is the poor dudes can’t horse around
like normal, can’t joke it away, can’t even talk to each other, except maybe in
whispers.”
Part III: Short Answer Questions
Directions: Respond to each of the prompts on your own sheet of paper. Give examples
from the chapter to support your responses.
11. Describe the details of Rat Kiley’s letter to Curt Lemon’s sister.
12. After Mitchell Sanders tells his story, he realizes that the moral just came to him. What
does he tell Tim is the moral of his story?
13. Tim describes a war story that is the subject of his recurring dream. Describe this story.
14. Identify three characteristics or identifiers of what Tim calls a “true war story” as he
describes them throughout the chapter.
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Vocabulary Quiz: “How to Tell a True War Story”
Directions: Using your knowledge of the roots and definitions, complete the following
sentence completion tasks. Use each word only once.
rectitude
preceded
concord
anarchy
comrade
credibility
proximity
illumination
symmetries
implacable
1. After the teacher discovered that his star student had plagiarized, he required that
she start over on the assignment to prove her _______________________ to him.
2. As the architect reviewed the plans for the new building with his clients, they noticed
how his focus on its ___________________________ was reflected in the identical
towers facing each other.
3. Every homeowner in the neighborhood lit jack-o-lanterns on their front porches this
Halloween, and the ________________________ of the carved pumpkins made for
even more festive trick-or-treating.
4. Honor codes in schools require students to act with __________________________
and report any witnessed incidents of cheating.
5. I tried to calm Barbara down after her purse was stolen, but her ________________
thirst for immediate justice made it hard to get her focused on her own well-being.
6. In William Golding’s novel, The Lord of the Flies, ______________________ results
when a group of boys is left to govern themselves unsuccessfully.
7. Once Maria and Jed’s relationship was obvious to Mr. Downing, he decided it would
be best to change their seats and remove them from close ____________________
to each other.
8. To re-establish _______________________ in the family after the brothers had a
fistfight, their parents decided to take them on a quiet fishing trip to the local lake.
9. Because Miguel and Susie ____________________ their afternoon presentation
with coffee and cookies, their audience appreciated the kind gesture and settled in to
listen to them.
10. When tryouts for hockey were announced, Ed searched for a __________________
to accompany him to the rink.
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Quiz: “Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong”
Part I: Multiple Choice Questions
Directions: Circle the correct answer for each of the following. Each question has only one
correct answer.
1. Before Rat Kiley joined Alpha Company, he was assigned to
A. a crowded veteran’s hospital for injured soldiers in Saigon
B. combat duty caring for soldiers injured by mortar fire in the field
C. a small medical detachment in the mountains west of Chu Lai
D. an exclusive officers’ club sponsoring card games and movie nights
2. Which of the following phrases used by O’Brien best describes the Green Berets, or
“Greenies” as they are represented in the entire chapter?
A. “avoided contact with the medical detachment”
B. “moving like shadows through the moonlight”
C. “Secretive and suspicious, loners by nature”
D. “used the compound as a base of operations”
3. Eddie Diamond describes Mary Anne Bell as having “D-cup guts, trainer-bra brains.” He
forms this opinion of her by watching her
A. admire the simplicity of village life
B. show off her long legs in cutoffs
C. strip down to her underwear
D. swim in the Song Tra Bong
4. Mitchell Sanders criticizes Rat Kiley’s storytelling because of Rat’s
A. digressions
B. hyperboles
C. inconsistency
D. romanticism
5. Mary Anne criticizes Mark by saying that he
A. has to let her go and give her freedom
B. is in a place where he doesn’t belong
C. must be deaf if he doesn’t understand her
D. shouldn’t try to discuss the situation
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Directions: Match each quotation from this chapter to its proper context. Each quotation
has only one correct context. Write the LETTER of the best quotation on the line.
6. ________ In his final encounter with Mary Anne, Mark takes notice of her jewelry.
7. ________ Mark Fossie strongly asserts his relationship with Mary Anne after she goes
out on night ambush with the Green Berets.
8. ________ Mary Anne Bell can be flown in secretly because of the location where Mark
Fossie is stationed.
9. ________ Mary Anne walks off into the mountains all alone and does not come back.
10. ________ The need for female company often preoccupies the men in Rat Kiley’s outpost.
Quotation Menu:
A. “… the tips curled upward as if caught in a final shrill syllable.”
B. “In the end, however, nothing came of it. It was a war, and the war went on.”
C. “It was nothing serious. Just passing time, playing with the possibilities, and so for a
while they tossed the idea around, how you could actually get away with it, no
officers or anything, nobody to clamp down, then they dropped the subject and
moved on to cars and baseball.”
D. “There was plenty of cold beer, three hot meals a day, a tin roof over his head. No
humping at all. No officers, either.”
E. “They spent the long afternoons sunbathing together, stretched out side by side on
top of their bunker, or playing backgammon in the shade of the giant palm tree, or
just sitting quietly.”
Part III: Short Answer Questions
Directions: Respond to each of the prompts on your own sheet of paper. Give examples
from the chapter to support your responses.
11. Describe Mary Anne Bell from Rat’s point of view when she first appears in the chapter.
12. Explain how O’Brien uses foreshadowing earlier in the chapter to characterize Mary
Anne later in the chapter.
13. Explain how and why the relationship between Mark and Mary Anne changes.
14. In Mark Fossie’s final meeting with Mary Anne Bell, he visits the hootch where she stays.
Describe the atmosphere in the hootch as Rat Kiley and Mark Fossie experience it.
15. In recounting the story, Rat Kiley admits to his platoon that he loved Mary Anne. What
were his reasons for loving her?
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Vocabulary Quiz: “Sweetheart of the Song Tra Bong”
Directions: Using your knowledge of the roots and definitions, complete the following
sentence completion tasks. Use each word only once.
imprecision
encompassed
casualties
digressions
inquiry
subdued
transaction
seduced
superlatives
speculation
1. After Dawn sent her coworker Kyle a harshly phrased e-mail, her boss suggested
that any future ____________________________ with Kyle be verbal, not digital.
2. After the fight in the hallway, the dean conducted a detailed ___________________
with each student bystander who witnessed the brawl.
3. Most business owners practice their “one-minute pitch,” a casual speech, free of
___________________________ that focuses specifically on the product or service
they provide to customers.
4. The ________________________ of the tragic Columbine massacre was comprised
of one teacher and thirteen students.
5. The defense attorney won the case with objective evidence that led to logical
conclusions, unlike the prosecution who left too much room for _______________.
6. The school administration decided to eliminate the yearbook story on
______________________ such as “Best Dressed” and “Nicest Car,” since the
contests emphasized the wealthiest students over those with the best character.
7. The test was only multiple choice, allowing for no __________________________,
nor flexibility in answers.
8. Usually, I love making my own meatballs, but when the grocery store offered free
samples of the pre-made ones, I was __________________________ into buying a
package for dinner.
9. We can always tell when something is bothering Tessa, because she goes from
being bubbly and talkative to ________________________ and reserved in a matter
of seconds.
10. When Mrs. Wallach called home to ask Stephen’s mother why he was late to school,
she learned that his tardiness _____________________________ many factors,
including poor sleep habits and a stressful morning routine.
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Quiz: “Speaking of Courage”
Part I: Multiple Choice Questions
Directions: Circle the correct answer for each of the following. Each question has only one
correct answer.
1. What caused the death of Norman Bowker’s childhood friend, Max Arnold?
A. car wreck
B. drowning
C. ear infection
D. a fire
2. Which of the following does Norman Bowker pass only once?
A. a man in a stalled motorboat
B. the high school band
C. three boys in a Firebird
D. two young hikers
3. Norman wishes that he could have won the
A. Army Commendation Medal
B. Combat Infantryman’s Badge
C. Good Conduct Medal
D. Silver Star for Valor
4. Norman’s plans for the next morning include all of the following except
A. seeking job opportunities
B. shooting buckets at the Y
C. visiting Sally Gustafson
D. washing his father’s Chevy
5. The “seven honeys” that Norman’s father mentions in his imagined conversation are
A. distinguished honors
B. mainland continents
C. playing cards
D. sweet girlfriends
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Directions: Match each quotation from this chapter to its proper context. Each quotation
has only one correct context. Write the LETTER of the best quotation on the line.
6. ____________ Alone and without his weapon, Norman must make a life-changing
decision.
7. ____________ Norman Bowker reflects on a lost opportunity.
8. ____________ Norman Bowker has acquired a unique skill resulting from his military
experience.
9. ____________ The date on which “Speaking of Courage” is set carries both significance
and irony.
10. ____________ Upon his return home, Norman frequently experiences feelings of
isolation as he transitions back to normal civilian life.
Quotation Menu:
A. “For a moment he’d almost pulled over, just to talk, but instead he’d pushed down
hard on the gas pedal.”
B. “On his twelfth revolution, the sky went crazy with color.”
C. “She stared at him for a moment. Briefly, he thought, a question lingered in her fuzzy
eyes, but then she turned and punched the button for him and returned to her friends
in the Firebird.”
D. “The sun was lower now. Five fifty five, he decided. Six o’clock tops.”
E. “There were flares and mortar rounds, and the stink was everywhere—it was inside
him, in his lungs—and he could no longer tolerate it.”
Part III: Short Answer Questions
Directions: Respond to each of the prompts on your own sheet of paper. Give examples
from the chapter to support your responses.
11. The Chevy Norman Bowker drives is symbolic. Explain what it symbolizes and how
O’Brien develops this within the chapter.
12. Within the chapter, Norman expresses many opinions about his hometown. Describe
Norman’s mindset about his town, and explain why he feels the way he does.
13. The narrator, Norman, states, “Courage was not always a matter of yes or no.” Identify
one event within the chapter that conveys this idea.
14. As the chapter nears its conclusion, Norman expresses a uniquely phrased idea that one
of his platoon members “was folded in with the war; he was part of the waste.” Explain
how Norman’s statement is both literal and figurative.
15. Authors frequently title their novel’s chapters with statements used within the story or
phrasing used by a character. This is not the case in “Speaking of Courage.” Explain
why O’Brien assigned this particular title to this chapter.
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Vocabulary Quiz: “Speaking of Courage”
Directions: Using your knowledge of the roots and definitions, complete the following
sentence completion tasks. Use each word only once.
recede
affluent
fatigue
flourishes
intercom
valor
circumference
reluctantly
viaduct
prosperous
1. After learning that half of his class would be out of school on a field trip on Friday, Mr.
Cisneros _________________________ rescheduled the test for Monday.
2. If you drive from the south end of town to the north side, you can see that the houses
progressively get larger, and it isn’t difficult to infer that the more __________________
residents live in the northern mansions.
3. Joshua and Bella walked the ___________________________ of the track eight times,
a total of 3 miles on their pedometers.
4. One of the most suspenseful moments in the film was when the boys, who were
crossing a valley over the railroad tracks on a dangerous _______________________,
sprint to safety when they feel the tracks tremble and see a train coming.
5. Renee was so tired of yelling upstairs to her children that she had a special
______________________ system installed between the kitchen and their rooms.
6. Surprisingly, some of the most _________________________ entrepreneurs in Silicon
Valley choose not to flaunt their wealth, choosing simple homes and humble hybrid
vehicles.
7. Unlike the common cold, flu symptoms also include excessive ____________________,
in addition to congestion and sore throat.
8. We were advised to make our jet-ski reservations to be used before low tide, since the
water in the bay would ____________________________ then and present too many
opportunities to get stuck in the sand bars.
9. While Joe was a dynamic salesman, his __________________________ in presenting
were so mild that no one felt his exaggeration as he spoke.
10. Sometimes the greatest act of _______________________ involves saying the right
thing, not doing it.
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Quiz: “In the Field”
Part I: Multiple Choice Questions
Directions: Circle the correct answer for each of the following. Each question has only one
correct answer.
1. Even though Lieutenant Cross radios in an MIA (Missing in Action) report, he is still
determined to recover Kiowa’s body because
A. Cross will need to explain the situation to Kiowa’s father
B. damming the river and draining the field will punish their enemies
C. Kiowa had been a fine soldier and a fine human being
D. there is an unsolved mystery behind Kiowa’s death
2. Lieutenant Cross is taken to task for his poor decision-making by:
A. Azar
B. Mitchell Sanders
C. Norman Bowker
D. Tim O’Brien
3. As the platoon recovers Kiowa’s body, the narrator describes its appearance as
A. a dancer captured in mid-motion
B. a diver who had plunged headfirst
C. a singer with an open mouth
D. an animal caught in a trap
4. In response to Azar’s remorseful feelings, Norman Bowker says that
A. Azar’s jokes were dumb and no one listened anyway
B. Kiowa could hear what all of them were saying
C. the situation is nobody’s fault and everybody’s
D. the disaster could have been prevented by Azar
5. When Norman Bowker suggests to Mitchell Sanders that they should get the lieutenant,
Sanders’ response that “the man looks happy out there, real content. Let him be,” is best
interpreted as
A. bossy
B. shocked
C. sarcastic
D. concerned
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Directions: Match each quotation from this chapter to its proper context. Each quotation
has only one correct context. Write the LETTER of the best quotation on the line.
6. ___________ After compiling a list of possible reasons for Kiowa’s death, Lieutenant
Cross must accept responsibility.
7. ___________ In the platoon’s efforts to recover Kiowa, Mitchell Sanders makes the first
discovery.
8. ___________ Ironically, the reality of Kiowa’s death disillusions Azar.
9. ___________ Lieutenant Cross exercises a variety of coping strategies to escape the
chaos around him.
10. ___________ Rat Kiley uses the radio to call in for a dustoff and gathers Kiowa’s
personal effects.
Quotation Menu:
A. “’So where’s the joke?’ he said.”
B. “In a funny way, it reminded him of the municipal golf course in his hometown in New
Jersey. A lost ball, he thought.”
C. “In the field, though, the causes were immediate.”
D. “Moving away the men found things to do with themselves, some smoking, some
opening up cans of C rations, a few just standing in the rain.”
E. “Norman Bowker stared down at the rucksack. It was made of dark green nylon with
an aluminum frame, but now it had the curious look of flesh.”
Part III: Short Answer Questions
Directions: Respond to each of the prompts on your own sheet of paper. Give examples
from the chapter to support your responses.
11. “In the Field” is told primarily from the point of view of Jimmy Cross. Describe his attitude
about the work he does, and give specific examples from the chapter to support your
answer.
12. Earlier in the chapter, Azar makes inappropriate jokes. Identify one of these, and explain
why Azar tells it.
13. As Alpha Company recovers Kiowa’s body, Jimmy Cross has a conversation with a
young, unnamed soldier. Describe their discussion, and explain how it characterizes
both Cross and the young soldier.
14. Describe Azar’s reaction to recovering Kiowa’s body, and explain the irony of his
reaction.
15. Over the course of the chapter, Jimmy Cross continually composes and revises a letter
to Kiowa’s father in his mind. By the end of the chapter, what decision does Cross arrive
at about this letter? How does he arrive at this decision?
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