St. Ambrose Church - St. Ambrose on the Hill

LEARN SANSKRIT
Through English Medium
A SYSTEMATIC TEACHING AND SELF-LEARNING TOOL
Ratnakar Narale
KALIDAS SANSKRIT UNIVERSITY
NAGPUR, INDIA
1
Learn Sanskrit Through English Medium
INDEX
anukraman<[email protected]
AnauГ›maiNaka_
INTRODUCTION
paRitaP#apanama`
xii
The anus>t>ubh metre
[email protected]`-Cnd:
xvii
BOOK 1
LEARN TO READ & WRITE SANSKRIT
Lesson 1 The Sanskrit Alphabet
sa>sЛњtavaNa|maaLaa
3
Lesson 2 Reading Sanskrit (Pronunciation)
qccaara:
5
Lesson 3 The Sanskrit Characters
sa>sЛњtavaNaa|:
8
Vowels
svara:
8
Consonants
vya�janaaina
10
maaheovaraiNa saU%aaiNa
12
oabdantaa:
15
vya�janaaina
17
Sound Strings from S}iva
Word endings
Lesson 4 Writing the Sanskrit Consonants
va, ba, k (va, ba, ka) ; pa, Pa, f, Na (pa, s<a, pha, n<a)
18
ta, na, ga, ma, Ba (ta, na, ga, ma, bha); ca, ja, Г�a, La (c{a, ja, n~a, la)
19
r, sa, Sa, oa (ra, sa, kha, s{a) ; za, Za, C (gha, dha, c{ha)
20
ya, Ya; xa, Xa, Г™ (ya, tha; ks<a, jn~a, l> ),
@, #, $, d, D, G, h, Ja (t>a, t>ha, d<ha, da, d<a, ha, jha)
Lesson 5 Writing the Sanskrit Vowels
svara:
21
22
A, Aa, Aae, AaE (a, [email protected], o, au) ; }, }| (i, &)
22
q, Q, /, Вї, La\, LaВѕ (u, [email protected], r<, r<{, lr<, lr<{) ; ], ]e (e, ai)
23
Lesson 6 Writing the Vowel-Signs
svaricaГ€aina
Application of Vowel-signs
24
25
2
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Anusvara and Avagraha
Anausvaar: AvagaRh: ca
Rules for Sanskrit to English Transliteration with diacritical marks
Lesson 7 Writing Compound Consonants with :
26
27
31
k�, Sa`; ga`, za`, G`, (k, kh, g, gh, n[,) 33; ca`, C`, ja`, �a`, @`, #`, D`, $`, Na`, ta`, Ya`, Za`, (c[, c{h, j[, jh, n~,
t>, t>h, d<m d<h,[ n<, t, th, dh) 34; na`, pa`, f�, ba`, Ba`, ma`, ya`, La`, va`, oa` (p, ph, b, bh, m, y, l, v, s{) 35;
Pa`, sa`, h` (s>, s, h) 36
Lesson 8 Writing Special Compound Characters
sa>yauFoada:
37
Kta, F (kta); В±, ВЄ, &, В§, В®, ^, ВЇ, V (dr<a, dda, ddha, dga, dbha, dya, dma, dva) 37; Г›,
gaR, Ã, %a, @¼, Ä, Å (kra, gra, s{ra, tra, tra, sra, stra) 38; k–, pa| Ta Tva ² (rka, rpa, tta, ttva,
nna) 39
Lesson 9 Rapid Reading :
oaIzaRpa#nama`
46
The Sanskrit Language
sa>sЛњtaBaaPaa
46
[email protected]@yan<am
ramaayaNama`
48
A Devotional Song
BaiFgaItama`
49
[email protected]@ratam
mahaBaartama`
50
The G&[email protected]
gaItaa
51
I am S}iva
ioavaae~hma`
52
Obeisance to Motherland
vande maatarma`
53
The [email protected]& Chant
gaaya%aI-ma>%a:
54
BOOK 2
UNDERSTAND SANSKRIT, EASY WAY
Lesson 10 Introduction to Sandhi
sainZa:
57
Compounding Vowels
svarsainZa:
57
Compounding Consonants
vya�janasainZa:
64
Flowchart of Visarga-Sandhi
ivasaga|sainZa:
68
Lesson 11 Introduction to Numerals
sa>Syaa:
72
Lesson 12 Sanskrit Verbs
iГ›yaapadaina
82
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Lesson 13 Persons
pauwPaa:
87
Lesson 14 Numbers
vacanaaina
89
iLaGГђaina
93
naamaaina
95
Dictionary of Nouns
oabdkaeoa:
97
Pictorial Dictionary
ica%akaeoa:
105
Lesson 16 Pronouns
sava|naamaaina
120
Lesson 17 The Present Tense
[email protected]`
123
Use of the Particle sma
sma
126
Lesson 18 The (Past) Imperfect Tense
LaG`
133
maa sma
137
Lesson 19 The (Past) Perfect Tense
[email protected]`
138
Lesson 20 The (Past Indefinite) Aorist Tense
LauG`
140
maa
142
Lesson 21 The Indefinite Future Tense
La\@`
143
Lesson 22 The Definite Future Tense
[email protected]`
147
LakarpaRyaaega:
151
Lesson 23 Parasmaipad& and ‡tmanepad& Verbs
AatmanaepadI parsmaEpadI ca
152
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
sakma|kma` Akma|kma` ca
157
The Causative Verbs
iNajantapaRiГ›yaa
159
The Desiderative Verbs
saВІntapaRiГ›yaa
160
yaGnta-yaGLaugantapaRiГ›yae
162
Lesson 24 The 11 Classes of Verbs
gaNaa:
164
1. The First Class
Bvaaid:
167
2. The Second Class
Adaid:
175
3. The Third Class
jauhaetyaaid:
181
4. The Fourth Class
idvaaid:
188
5. The Fifth Class
svaaid:
191
Genders
Lesson 15 Nouns
Use of the phrase [email protected] sma
Use of the Particle [email protected]
WHICH TENSE TO USE?
The Frequentive Verbs
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6. The Sixth Class
taudaid:
195
7. The Seventh Class
WZaaid:
202
8. The Eighth Class
tanaaid:
206
9. The Nineth Class
Г›yaaid:
213
10. The Tenth Class
cauraid:
217
11. The Eleventh Class
kNDГ”aid:
221
karka: ca ivaBaFya: ca
225
The Nominative (1st) Case
paRYamaa
230
The Accusative (2nd) Case
iVtaIyaa
232
The Instrumental (3rd) Case
ta\taIyaa
237
The Dative (4th) Case
catauYaI|
243
The Ablative (5th) Case
pa�camaI
248
The Possessive (6th) Case
PaP#I
254
The Locative (7th) Case
saptamaI
251
The Vocative Case
sambaaeZanama`
265
paRyaaegaa:
267
The Active Voice
kta|irpaRyaaega:
267
The Passive Voice
kma|iNapaRyaaega:
269
The [email protected] Voice
BaavaepaRyaaega:
272
AYaa|:
275
The Negative Mood
nakaraYa|:
275
The Interrogative Mood
paRonaaYa|:
277
The Imperative Mood
[email protected]`
279
The Potential Mood
ivaiZaiLaG`
282
The Benedictive Mood
AaioaiLa|G`
286
The Conditional Mood
La\G`
287
ivaoaePaNaaina Г—dntaaina ca
289
ivaoaePaNaaina
290
Lesson 25 The Cases
Lesson 26 The Voices
Lesson 27 The Moods
Lesson 28 The Adjectives and Participles
The Adjectives
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The Degree of Comparison
tar-tama-BaavaaE
296
The Participles
Г—dntaaina
299
Past Passive Participle, ppp\
F
299
Past Active Participle
Fvatau
302
Present Active Participle
oata\-oaanaca`
304
Potential Participle
AnaIyar`
310
Future Active Participle
310
Future Passive Participle
311
Indeclinable Past Participle
Ktvaa, Lyapa`
314
The Infinitive
taumauna`
318
set> and anit> verbs
[email protected]` [email protected]`
321
icva
322
Creating Existance of Non-existent
Lesson 29 The Adverbs and Conjunctions
324
Adverbs
iГ›yaaivaoaePaNaaina
Dictionary of Adverbs
324
327
Conjunctions
yaaEigakoabda:
340
Lesson 30 The Prepositions
AaEpasaiga|koabda:
344
Lesson 31 The Compound Words
samaasaa:
348
Lesson 32 Conversations
BOOK 3
SPEAK SANSKRIT
vaataa|lapaa:
363
Lesson 33 Correct Speaking
oau&samBaaPaNama`
372
Lesson 34 Prose Reading
ga^pa#nama`
377
LazaukYaa:
377
Mother and the Baby Parrot
oaukIoaavakaE
377
Unnecessary Advice
inarYa|k: qpadeoa:
379
The Inherant Nature
jaaitasvaBaava:
381
Short Essays
LazauinabanZaa:
383
Short Stories
6
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The Horse
Aova:
383
The Sun
saUya|:
384
The Knowledge
iva^a
386
Poetic Sayings
sauBaaiPataaina
388
The Words of Wisdom
sadupadeoaa:
389
Good Sayings
sauvacanaaina
391
Parsing and Analysis
ivaoLaePaNama`
393
[email protected]&kih
vaaLmaIik:
393
[email protected]& Chant
gaaya%aI-ma>>%a:
398
saamaanyaXaanama`
399
The Days of the Week
vaasara:
399
The Names of the Months
maasaa:
400
The Measurements
pairmaaNaaina
401
The Names of the Directions
idoa:
402
Time
samaya:
403
Relationships
sa>banZaa:
405
Lesson 36 Antonyms
ivalaemaoabda:
408
Lesson 37 Words with Suffixes
paRtyayaantaoabda:
409
Words with Primary Suffixes
Г—tapaRtyayaantaoabda:
810
Words with Secondary Suffixes
tai&ta`-oabda:
415
naamaZaatau:
422
Lesson 35 General Knowledge
Using Nouns as Verb Roots
Amazing Sanskrit Creations
423
APPENDICES :
(i) Charts of conjugations of the Tenses
429
Ten Parasmaipad& tenses, Active voice
429
Ten Г€tmanepad& tenses, Active voice
438
Ten Passive Voice tenses
445
(ii) Charts of declensions of the Cases
448
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rama (A), vana (A), gaaepaa (Aa) 448; maaLaa (Aa), kiva (}) 449; vaair (}), maita (}), sauZaI (}|) 450; nadI (}|),
gauw (q) 451; maZau (q), Zaenau (q), svaBaU (Q) 452; vaZaU (Q), ipata\ (/) 453; kta\| (/), Zaata\ (/), maata\ (/) 454;
rE (]e), gaae (Aae), gLaaE (AaE) 455; naaE (AaE), oak� (k`)456; iLaSa` (Sa`), vaaca` (ca`) 457; raja` (ja`), Qja|` (ja`), Äja`
(ja`) 458; paRa�ca` (�ca`) 459; Sa�ja` (�ja`), mawta` (ta`),Bagavata` (ta`) 460; Bavata` (ta`), kÖva|ta` (ta`), jagata` (ta`) 461;
mahta` (ta`), sairta` (ta`) 462; sauГЉd` (d`), ГЉd` (d`), xauZa` (Za`) 463; oaioana` (na`), Baaivana`` (}na`) 464; Aatmana` (na`),
kma|na` (na`) 465; gaupa` (pa`), LaBa` (Ba`) 466; car` (r`), vaar` (r`) igar` (r`) 467; idva` (va`), naoa` (oa`), ivaoa` (oa`) 468;
idoa` (oa`), icakIPa|` (Pa`), ZanauPa` (Pa`) 469; AaioaPa` (Pa`), ca>dRmasa` (sa`) 470; OaReyasa` (sa`), payasa` (sa`) 471; garIyasa` (sa`),
pau>sa` (sa`) 472, mauh` (h`), qpaanah` (h`) 473.
(iii) Declensions of Pronouns
474
Asmad`, yauPmad`, tad` (asmad, yus<mad, tad) 474; yad`, (yad) 475; ]tad`, }dma` (etad, idam) 476,
Adsa`, sava| (adas, sarva) 477; ikma` (kim) 478; kiocata` (kas{c{it) 479.
(iv) Declensions of Numerical Adjectives
480
]ktar, ]ktama (ekatara, ekatama)
482
(v) Dictionary of 2000 Verbs
Zaatauoabdkaeoa:
(vi) Which verb to use?
484
570
(vii) Charts of Verb Declensions
577
ГѕAd`, ГѕAca|, ГѕAsa` 577; ГѕAasa`, Гѕ} 578; Гѕ}Pa`, Гѕ/cC` 579; Гѕ]Za`, ГѕkYa`, Гѕkma` 580; ГѕГ—, ГѕГ›ya`, ГѕГ›ID`, Гѕixa
581; ГѕxauBa`, ГѕgaNa` 582; Гѕgad`, Гѕgama`, ГѕgaRh` 583; ГѕzaRa 584; ГѕcaLa`, Гѕicanta`, Гѕcaur` 585; Гѕjana`, Гѕija ГѕXaa 586; DI,
Гѕtana`, Гѕtapa` 587; Гѕtaud`, ГѕtauPa`, Гѕtyaja`, Гѕ%aE 588; Гѕdd`, Гѕdh` 589; Гѕda 590; Гѕidva`, ГѕdIpa`, ГѕdU, ГѕВ±oa` 591; ГѕZaa
592; ГѕZa\, ГѕZaava` 593; ГѕZva>sa` 594; Гѕnand`, Гѕnaoa`, ГѕnaI 595; Гѕpaca` 596; Гѕpad` 597; Гѕpaa, ГѕpauPa` 598; ГѕpaUja`, ГѕbauZa`
599; ГѕpaRcC`, ГѕbaRU 600; ГѕBaxa`, ГѕBaja` 601; ГѕBaa, ГѕBaI 602; ГѕBauja` 603; ГѕBaU, ГѕBa\, ГѕBaRma` 604; ГѕBaR>sa` 605; Гѕmana`,
þimaLa` 606; þmau�ca` 607; þma\, þma\oa`, þmLaE, þyaja` 608; þyaa 609; þyauja`, þrxa` 610; þrma` 611; þwca`, þwd` 612;
ГѕwZa`, ГѕLaa, ГѕiLaSa` 613; Гѕpad`, Гѕivaja` 614; Гѕivad` 615; Гѕivaoa`, Гѕva\ 617; Гѕva\ta` 618; ГѕvaRja`, Гѕvah` 619; Гѕoauca`, ГѕoauBa`
620; ГѕoauPa`, ГѕГѓu 621; Гѕsad`, Гѕsau, ГѕsaU, Гѕsa\ja` 622; ГѕsYaa 623; Гѕsnaa, ГѕГ„>sa`, Гѕhna` 624; Гѕhsa`, Гѕha 625; Гѕih>sa`,
Гѕhu, ГѕГЉ 626; ГѕГЉPa`, ГѕГ‰I 627, ГѕГЊe 628.
(viii) Chart of Participles
Г—dnta>
629
(ix) Breakdown, Transliteration and Meaning of the Verses
630
(x) Answers to the Exercises
References
qTaraiNa
647
inade|oa:
653
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LESSON 1
Prathamah< [email protected]< paRYama: AByaasa:_
THE SANSKRIT ALPHABET
sam~skr<ta-varn<[email protected]@ sa>sЛњtavaNa|maaLaa_
Vowels ([email protected]< svara:)
A Aa } }| q Q / Вї La\ LaВѕ ] ]e Aae AaE
A> A:
a
m[ h<:
[email protected]
i
&
u [email protected] r<
r<{
l>
l<}
e
ai o au
Consonants ([email protected] vyaГ�janaaina)
1 - the Gutterals
k
Sa
ga
za
G
ka
kha
ga
gha
n[a
ca
C
ja
Ja
Г�a
c{a
c{ha
ja
jha
n~a
@
#
D
$
Na
t>a
t>ha
d<a
d<ha
n<a
ta
Ya
d
Za
na
ta
tha
da
dha
na
pa
f
ba
Ba
ma
pa
pha
ba
bha
ma
ya
r
La
va
oa
Pa
sa
h
ya
ra
la
va
s{a
s<a
sa
ha
2 - the Palatals
3 - the Cerebrals
4 - the Dentals
5 - the Labials
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NOTES
** In these lessons, the pronounciation of Sanskrit character �ch’ is transliterated as c{ in order to
distinguish it from the common English character c (which = k).
eg\ The car moves. karyaana> caLaita [email protected]@nam[ c{alati ([email protected]@nam[ calati).
PRONOUNCIATIONS
(1) GUTTURALS : The consonants from k-class (k, kh, g, gh, n[) are pronounced by touching the hind
part of the tongue to the THROAT (Gutter).
(2) PALATALS : The consonants from c{-class (c{, c{h, j, jh, n~) are pronounced by touching the middle
part of the tongue to the middle roof of the mouth i.e. the PALATE.
(3) CEREBRALS : The consonants from t>-class (t>, t>h, d<, d<h, n<) are pronounced by momentarily
touching tip of the tongue against roof of the mouth i.e. the CEREBRUM.
(4) DENTALS : The consonants from t-class (t, th, d, dh, n) are pronounced by touching tip of the
tongue against the base of the TEETH.
(5) LABIALS : The consonants from p-class (p, ph, b, bh, m) are pronounced by touchning the LIPS
together.
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LESSON 2
dvit&yah< [email protected]< iVtaIya: AByaasa:_
Pronouncing Sanskrit Characters
(1) Guttural
kN#В№
(kan<t<hya)
=
with throat
(2) Palatal
taaLavya
([email protected])
=
with palate
(3) Cerebral
maUZa|nya
([email protected]nya)
=
with cerebrum
(4) Dental
dntya
(dantya)
=
with teeth
(5) Labial
AaeP#В№
(os<t>hya)
=
with lips
(6) Nasal
Anaunaaisak
([email protected])
=
with nose
(1) THE VOWELS :
Vowel
a
Stands for
Sounds like
As in
Pronounciation
(A)
A
American
[email protected]
(Aa)
a
car
Guttural
i
(})
I
India
Palatal
&
(}|)
ee
peel
Palatal
u
(q)
u
put
Labial
[email protected]
(Q)
oo
moon
Labial
Vowel
Stands for
Sounds like
As in
Pronounciation
r<
r<{
(/)
ri, ru
(Вї)
r&, [email protected]
ring, crucial
Guttural
Cerebral
Cerebral
11
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lr<
(La\)
lri, lru
Dental
lr<{
(LaВѕ)
lr&, [email protected]
Dental
e
(])
e
grey
Guttural+Palatal
ai
(]e)
ai
aisle
Guttural+Palatal
o
(Aae)
o
go
Guttural+Labial
au
(AaE)
au
gauge
Guttural+Labial
(2) THE SEMIVOWELS :
m{
(A>)
a~
nasal
h<:
(A:)
half-h
breath
(3) THE CONSONANTS :
Vowel
Stands for
Sounds like
As in
Pronounciation
(k�)
k
kit
Guttural
kh
(Sa`)
kh
khyber
Guttural
g
(ga`)
g
god
Guttural
gh
(za`)
gh
ghost
Guttural
n[
(G`)
n
ring
Guttural
c{, c
(ca`)
ch
rich
Palatal
c{h
(C`)
chh
c{ with breath Palatal
j
(ja`)
j
jug
Palatal
jh
(Ja`)
dgeh
hedgehop
Palatal
n~
(Г�a`)
n
hinge
Palatal
Vowel
Stands for
Sounds like
As in
Pronounciation
k
t>
(@`)
t
cut>
Cerebral
t>h
(#`)
th
t> with breath Cerebral
d<
(D`)
d
red
Cerebral
d<h
($`)
dh
adhere
Cerebral
12
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n<
(Na`)
n
band
Cerebral
t
(ta`)
t
(soft t)
Dental
th
(Ya`)
th
thunder
Dental
d
(d`)
th
other
Dental
dh
(Za`)
dh
buddha
Dental
n
(na`)
n
no
Dental
p
(pa`)
p
cup
Labial
ph
(f�)
ph, f
photo
Labial
b
(ba`)
b
rub
Labial
bh
(Ba`)
bh
abhore
Labial
m
(ma`)
m
mug
Labial
y
(ya`)
y
yes
Palatal
r
(r`)
r
rub
Cerebral
l
(l`, La`)
l
love
Dental
v
(va`)
v, w
wave
Dental + Labial
s{
(oa`)
sh
shoot
Palatal
s<
(Pa`)
sh
should
Cerebral
s
(sa`)
s
sun
Dental
h
(h`)
h
hug
Guttural
l<
(Г™`)
soft l
Cerebral
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LESSON 3
tr<t&yah< [email protected]< ta\taIya: AByaasa:_
THE SANSKRIT CHARACTERS
sam~skr<ta-varn<[email protected]< sa>sЛњtavaNaa|:_
The character (varn<ah< vaNa|:) that can be pronounced independently is called a VOWEL (svarah< svar:).
eg\ A, }, q (a, i, u) ...etc.
The characters that can NOT be pronounced independently (without the help of a vowel), are called the
CONSONANTS ([email protected] vyaГ�janaaina). yaePaa> vaNaa|naama` qccaarNa> svata>%a> na Bavaita tae vyaГ�janaaina kYyantae **_
eg\ k�, Sa`, ga` (k, kh, g) ...etc. Therefore,
k� + A = k; Sa`, + A = Sa
k + a = ka;
kh + a = kha ...etc.
3.1
THE VOWELS
[email protected]< svara:_
In Sanskrit, the vowels are of three types. sa>sЛњtasvara: i%aivaZaa: sainta_
(A) The SHORT vowels ([email protected]< [email protected]< Г‰svaa: svara:) are those which take one unit of time to pronounce
them. A, }, q, /, La\ (a, i, u, r<, lr<) are the five basic short vowels.
(B) The LONG vowels (d&[email protected]< [email protected]< dIzaa|: svara:) are those which take two units of time to pronounce
them. Aa, }|, Q, Вї, ], ]e, Aae, AaE, LaВѕ ([email protected], &, [email protected], r<{, e, ai, o, au, lr<{) are the nine long vowels. Each long
vowel is made up of two or more short vowels.
The Short vowels A, }, q, /, La\ (a, i, u, r< and lr<) and the Long vowels Aa, }|, Q, Вї and LaВѕ ([email protected], &, [email protected], r<
and lr<{) are together called SIMPLE vowels (AimaOaRsvara:)
The four Long vowels ], ]e, Aae AaE (e, ai, o, au) composed of two dis-similar vowels, are called
DIPTHONGS (imaOaRsvara:)
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EXAMPLES : Long Vowels
(1) Long vowel
Aa
=
short vowel A + short vowel A
(2) Long vowel
}|
=
short vowel } + short vowel }
(3) Long vowel
Q
=
short vowel q + short vowel q
(4) Long vowel
]
=
short vowel A + short vowel }
(5) Long vowel
Aae
=
short vowel A + short vowel q
(C) The PLUTA vowels ([email protected]< [email protected]< pLautaa: svara:) are those that take at least three units of time to
pronounce them. The long expressions such as vowel Aa ([email protected]) in the word ra~~~ma, form the pluta vowels.
TABLE : VOWELS (What we learned so far)
1.Short vowels
A, }, q, /, La\ a, i, u, r<, lr<
2.Long vowels
Aa, }|, Q, Вї, ], ]e, Aae, AaE, LaВѕ [email protected], &, [email protected], r<{, e, ai, o, au, lr<{
3.Simple vowels A, Aa, }, }|, q, Q, /, Вї, La\, LaВѕ a, [email protected], i, &, u, [email protected], r<, r<{, lr<, lr<{
4.Dipthongs
], ]e, Aae AaE e, ai, o, au
5.Pluta vowels
~
EXERCISE 1 :
A. Read the following characters:
(1) A, q, }, /
(2) }, /, A
(3) q, }, A
(4) Q, Aa, }|
(5) AaE, ], Aae
(6) ], ]e, Q, Aa
B. Fill in the blanks:
(1) A + A = --------
(2) A + q = -------- (3) A + } = -------3.2
THE CONSONANTS
In Sanskrit there are 25 class consonants ([email protected] vaga|vyaГ�janaaina) and there are nine non-class
(avarga Avaga|-) consonants. sa>s˜tae pa�caiva>oaita: vaga|vya�janaaina nava ca Avaga|vya�janaaina sainta_
(1) The 25 Class Consonants from kвЂ� to ma` are grouped phonetically into five classes ([email protected]< vagaa|:)
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consisting of five consonants each. These 25 consonants from k to m are also called �Contactuals’
(spars{[email protected]< spaoa|-vyaГ�janaa: kadyaa: maavasaanaa: spaoaa|:)
1. Class k (k) k�Sa` ga` za` G` k kh g gh n[ 2. Class c{ (ca) ca` C` ja` Ja` �a` c{ c{h j jh n~
3. Class t< (@) @` #` D` $` Na` t> t>h d< d<h n<
4. Class t (ta) ta` ya` d` Za` na` t th d dh n
5. Class p (pa) pa` f� ba` Ba` ma` p ph b bh m
(2). The next 4 characters ya`, r`, La`, va` are semi-consonsnts or semi-vowels ([email protected]< yarLavaa: A>tasYaa:)
(3). Remaining four characters oa`, Pa`, sa`, h` are the вЂ�warm breath characters’ (us<[email protected]<ah< qPmaaNa: oaPasaha:
qPmaaNa:) of which the first three oa`, Pa`, sa` are called �sibilants’ and the last one h` is an aspirate.
THE PRONOUNCIATIONS
(1) GUTTURALS are A, Aa, : kвЂ�, Sa`, ga`, za`, G`, h` a, [email protected], h<, k, kh, g, gh, n[, h.
They are pronounced from the throat
(2) PALATALS are }, }|, ca`, C`, ja`, Ja`, Г�a`, ya`, oa` (i, &) c{, c{h, j, jh, n~, y, s{.
They are pronounced from the palate
(3) CEREBRALS are /, Вї, @`, #`, D`, $`, Na`, r`, Pa` r<, r<{, t>, t>h, d<, d<h, n<, r, s<.
They are pronounced from the roof of the mouth
(4) DENTALS are La\, LaВѕ, ta`, Ya`, d`, Za`, na`, La`, sa` lr<, lr<{, t, th, d, dh, n, l, s.
They are pronounced from the teeth
(5) LABIALS are q, Q, pa`, fвЂ�, ba`, Ba`, ma` u, [email protected], p, ph, b, bh, m, v.
They are pronounced from the lips. Character va v is dental-labial; ], ]e e, ai are guttural-palatal
and ], ]e e, ai are guttural-palatal.
(6) THE HARD CONSONANTS
The first two consonants from each class (k�, Sa`; ca`, C`; @`, #`; ta`, Ya`; pa`, f� k, kh, c{, c{h, t>, t>h, t, th, p, ph)
and three sibilants (oa`, Pa`, sa` s{, s<, s) are Hard Consonants (kat>[email protected] k#aer-vyaГ�janaaina)
(7) THE SOFT CONSONANTS
The rest of the consonants, namely, the last three consonants from each class (ga`, za`, G`; ja`, ja`, Г�a`; D`,
$`, Na`; d`, Za`, na`; ba`, Ba`, ma` g, gh, np, j, jh, n~, d<, d<h, n<, d, dh, n, b, bh, m) the semi-vowels (ya`, r`, La`, va` y, r,
l,v) and the aspirate (h` h) are Soft Consonants (mr<[email protected] ma\duvyaГ�janaaina)
(8) THE NASAL CONSONANTS
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The last character from each of the five classes (G`, Г�a`, Na`, na`, ma`), are the Nasal Consonants
([email protected]@ni Anaunaaisakaina)
(9) THE ANUSV‡RA AND THE VISARGA
[email protected] ( > ) and visarga (:) are two more sounds in Sanskrit. The [email protected] (Anausvaar:) is the
modification of nasal consonants G`, Г�a`, Na`, na` and ma`; where as the visarga (ivasaga|:) is the modified
form of consonant sa` or r`_ So the [email protected] and visarga are counted among the consonants, even
though they are not counted as separate characters, but they are sometimes treated as semi-vowels.
Together they are called ‡[email protected]/ ([email protected]@hau AayaaegavaahaE)
3.5
THE WORD ENDINGS
oabdantaa:_
Below is how consonants and vowels are joined to form words. The last character of a word shows
how the word ends. eg\ in the word rama (r` + A + A + ma` + A) the last letter is A, therefore, the
word rama is Akaranta ([email protected]@nta = ending in character A)
(A) Ajanta (ending in Aca` , ending in a vowel)
(1) rama
= r` + Aa + ma` + A
Akaranta
(2) vana
= va` + A + na` + A
Akaranta
(3) maaLaa
= ma` + Aa + La` + Aa
Aakaranta
(4) kiva
= k� + A + va` + }
}karanta
(5) vaair
= va` + Aa + r` + }
}karanta
(6) maita
= ma` + A + ta` + }
}karanta
(7) nadI
= na` + A + d` + }|
}|karanta
(8) Baanau
= Ba` + Aa + na` + q
qkaranta
(9) maZau
= ma` + A + Za` + q
qkaranta
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(10) Zaenau
= Za` + ] + na` + q
qkaranta
(11) vaZaU
= va` + A + Za` + Q
Qkaranta
(12) ipata\
= pa` + } + ta` + /
/karanta
(13) Zaata\
= Za` + Aa + ta` + /
/karanta
(14) maata\
= ma` + Aa + ta` + /
/karanta
(B) hLanta (ending in a consonant)
(15) vaaca`
= va` + Aa + ca`
cakaranta
(16) raja`
= r` + Aa + ja`
jakaranta
(17) mawta`
= ma` + A + r` + q + ta`
takaranta
(18) jagata`
= ja` + A + ga` + A + ta`
takaranta
(19) sauГЉd`
= sa` + q + h` + / + d`
dkaranta
(20) oaioana`
= oa` + A + oa` + } + na`
nakaranta
(21) Aatmana` = Aa + ta` + ma` + A + na`
nakaranta
(22) kma|na`
= k� + A + r` + ma` + A + na`
nakaranta
(23) idoa`
= d` + } + oa`
oakaranta
(24) ca>dRmasa` = ca` + A + na` + d` +r` + A + ma` + A + sa`
sakaranta
(25) payasa`
sakaranta
= pa` + A + ya` + A + sa`
EXERCISE 2 : A. Fill in the blanks
(1) rama =
------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
(2) saItaa =
------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
(3) pauPpa =
------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
(4) ЛњPNa =
------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
(5) sa>sЛњta = ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
(6) manasa` =
------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
(7) Baanau =
------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
(8) vaZaU =
------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
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(9) vaed =
------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
(10) vaE^ =
------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
(11) baRMa = ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ + ------ _
LESSON 4
c{aturthah< [email protected]< catauYa|: AByaasa:_
WRITING SANSKRIT WORDS
PRACTICING SIMPLE CONSONANTS
asam~yukta-varn<[email protected]@m [email protected]< Asa>yauFvaNaa|naama` AByaasa:_
Study the order of the Sanskrit consonants given in Lesson 1, and do the following exercises. Uniquely
in this book, the characters are grouped according to their shapes, and not according to their usual
aplhabetical order. For, we have observed that with this novel method it is easy for a new learner to corelate and remember the Hind& characters.
4.1
Letters : va va (wa), ba ba, k ka
v
va
b
v (w) # va (wa)
b
#
ba
v
ba
v
EXERCISE 3 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following in Sanskrit :
1. ka, ba, ka
2. ba, va, ba
3. va, ka, ba
4. ba, va, ka
7. k, ba, va
10 vava, vak, vaba
5. ka, va, ba
8. kk, kba, kva
11 kkk, kbava, kvaba
6. va, ba, ka
9. baba, bak, bava
12 vabak, bakva
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va
k
# va # ka
4.2
Letters : pa pa, Pa s<a, f pha (fa), Na n<a
p pa
P
Pa
p # pa
s< # s<a
p
pa f
N Na
p # pa # pha, fa
n< # n<a
EXERCISE 4 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following in Sanskrit :
1. pa, pha 2. pha, ba 3. va, pa, ka
4. pa, s<a, n<a 5. pha, s<a, pa
6. ba, pa, pha
7. Pa, pa, f 8. k, Na, f, va
9. ba, Na 10. kNa, baba, kpa, fNa, bava, kba, NaNa, PaNa, Papa, baf, kf, paPa,
bak, vak, pak, baf, vaf, paba, vaNa, baPa, NaPa, pava, kva
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4.3
Letters : ta ta, na na, ga ga, ma ma, Ba bha
t
ta
n na
g ga
m
ma
t # ta
n # na
g # ga
m # ma
B Ba
bh # bha
EXERCISE 5 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following in Sanskrit :
(A) 1. ma, bha 2. bha, ga
(B) 1. ta, na, Ba 2. ma, Ba, na, ta
3. ma, na
4. ka, ta, ga
5. va, s<a
6. pa, na
3. ga, ta, k, ba 4. tana (body) , mana (mind), naga (mountain), kNa
(particle), vana (forest), Bagata (devotee), tama (darkness), bak (stork), mata (opinion), gagana (sky), patana
(downfall)
4.4
Letters : ca c{a, ja ja, Г�a n~a, La or l la
c
ca
c{ (ch)# c{a (cha)
j ja
Г� Г�a
L La
j
n~ # n~a
l # la
# ja
EXERCISE 6 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following characters in Sanskrit
1. ka, c{a, n<a, pa
2. la, ma, ja, ta 3. bha, pha, s<a 4. mana, manana
6. labha, c{ala
7 ja, ca, Г�a
8. La, ja, ca
9. l, La
10. jaLaja, capaLa
5. kan<a, vana
11. jaLa, caLa 10. LavaNa
(mana mind, manana meditation, kNa particle, vana forest, LaBa get, caLa moving, jalja water-born, capal quick, jal water,
lvaNa salt)
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4.5
Letters : r ra, sa sa, Sa kha, oa s{a
r
s sa
S
Sa
ra
s # sa
kh # kha
o oa
s{ # s{a
EXERCISE 7: Only on what we have learned so far
Read and write the following in Sanskrit :
1. c{a, ja, la 2 n~a, ja, c{a 3. la, c{a, ja 4. sa, kha, ra 5. sa, s{a, kha 6. ra, sa, s{a
7. ca, ja, Г�a, La 8. r, sa, Sa, oa 9. caLa, jaLa, jaga 10. kLaoa, carNa, rsa, oar, rsa, sama, fLa,
kmaLa, sarLa, Barta 11. caNak, carma, samar, tana, mana, kNa, parma, capal, pata, nar 12. naBa, nark, jaLa, SaLa,
oar, par, sama, caLa, oarNa, sabaLa_
4.6
Letters : za gha, Za dha, C c{ha
z
za
Z
Za
C
gh #
gha
dh #
dha
c{ha
EXERCISE 8 : Only on what we have learned so far
Read and witer in Sanskrit :
1. c{a, ga, c{ha
2. na, c{a, ma, c{ha
3. bha, c{a, gha
4. za, Za, na, ga
5. C, ca, Ba, ta
6. ma, C, Ba, ca
7. naga, zana, Zana 8. tana, manana, gata
9. mama, vacana, knak
10. CLa, vaZa, ZavaLa, marNa, vamana, Sar, baLa, paLa, fl, maLa_
(for meanings of the words, see Answers in Appendix 10)
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4.7
Letters : ya ya, Ya tha; xa ks<a, Xa jn~a
y
ya
Y
Ya
x
xa
X
Xa
y #
ya
th #
tha
ks< #
ks<a
jn~ #
jn~a
EXERCISE 9 : Only on what we have learned so far. Write the following in Sanskrit :
(A) 1. c{ha, gha, dha 2. dha, gha 3. ya, tha 4. ks<a, jn~a 5. gha, jn~a, ya, tha 6. jn~a, dha, tha, gha. (B) 1.
za, Za, C 2. ya, Ya 3. xa, Xa 4. xaya, oar, yaxa 5. yaXa, rYa, Zana 6. zana, yama, xar 7. tana maya Zana, vaZa,
jaya, lya, yajana, CLa, saZana, zana, sama, oarNa; 8. Baya, oayana, rNa, rxaNa, kxa, xaNa, paxa, lBa, tarLa, sarLa, garLa;
9. caLa, mata, yaXa, BaxaNa, kr, var, Zar, Bar, Sar, car, nar, hr, oar; 10. Baxa, yaxa, rxa, taxak, taXa, kxa, yama, oama,
xaNa, rxaNa, saXa, yaXa, kxa, paxa, Baxa, Laxa, vaxa, rxak, Baxak, sayaXa_ (for the meanings, see Answers in Appendix
10)
4.8
Letters : t>a, t>ha, d<a, n[a, d<ha, da, Jha, ha
@, #, D, G, $, d, Ja, h
@
#
$
d
D
G
Ja
h
t>a
t>ha
d<ha
da
d<a
n[a
jha
ha
EXERCISE 10 : On what we have learned. Write the following characters in Sanskrit
1. t>ha, t>a, d<a, ha
2. d<a, t>a, t>ha
3. n[a, d<a, t>ha 4. d>ha, da, jha
5. da, d<ha, jha
6. t>a, t>ha, d<a, d<ha
7. @, #, $, d, D, G, Ja, h, Ja, dLa, dma, LaBa, janana_ 8. Dyana, rma, bak, JaPa, hta, kr, tamasa, taLa, dma,
oama, pavana, hr_ 9. JaPa, var, nar, mad, [email protected], [email protected], pad, baLa, vana, satata, Saga, caLa_ 10. Bava, mana, bak, Baja, vaoa,
Laxa, LaxaNa, zana, Zana, varNa, hya_
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LESSON 5
pan~c{amah< [email protected]< paГ�cama: AByaasa:_
STUDY OF SANSKRIT VOWELS
sam~skr<[email protected]<[email protected] [email protected]< sa>sЛњtasvaraByaasa:_
5.1
Letters : A a, Aa [email protected], Aae o, AaE au
A a Aa
A
ae Aae
a
a
#
#
[email protected]
A
o
a
aE AaE
#
au
EXERCISE 11 : Only on what we have learned so far. Write the Sanskrit characters :
1. A, Aa, Aae, AaE
2. Aa, A, AaE
3. Aae, AaE, Е’
4. Axa Aagama Aagaar
5. Aaeza Aaeja
6. AaEdk AaExa
(for meanings, see Answers in Appendix 10)
5.2
Letters : } i, }| &,
}
}|
i
&
EXERCISE 12 : Only on what we have learned so far. Write the following in Sanskrit :
1. a, [email protected]
2. i, &
3. [email protected], [email protected]
4. a, &
5. [email protected], &, i
6. [email protected], &
7. }, }|, }|rNa, }h, }|D, }|oa: }|xak, }tar, }xava, }|xaNa, }va_
(for meanings, see Answers in Appendix 10)
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5.3
Letters : q u, Q [email protected], / r<, Вї [email protected]<, La\ lr<, LaВѕ lr<{
q
Q
u
[email protected]
/
Вї
La\
r<
r<{
lr<
EXERCISE 13 : Only on what we have learned so far
Write the following Sanskrit characters and words :
1. q, Q, q, /, Вї
2. qxaNa, qdr
3. qpa, qpaga, Лњpaa
4. qpapad, Avakr
5. qpamaana, qpaLa
6. Qta, QPak
5.4
Letters : ] e, ]e ai
]
]e
e
ai
EXERCISE 14 : Only on what we have learned so far
(A) Write the following Sanskrit words :
1. ], ]e
2. ]k, ]ktar
3. ]PaNa, ]exava
4. ]eravata, ]eLa
5. ]tad`, ]kadoa
6. ]eravaNa, ]eoa
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LESSON 6
s<as<t>hah< [email protected]< PaP#: AByaasa:_
THE SANSKRIT VOWEL-SIGNS
SANSKRIT VOWEL-SIGNS
Vowels : A
Aa
}
}|
signs :
a
i
I
[email protected]
i
&
sound:
eg\ pa
p
a
aa
q Q
u
/ Вї
U
\
u [email protected]
ee
oo
u
]
Вѕ
r>
r<{
ri
r&
U
]e
Aae
AaE
E
ae
aE
ai
o
au
e
e
a
i
I
\
Вѕ
e
E
ae a
[email protected]
i
&
u
[email protected]
r<
r<{
e
ai
o
au
paa
ipa
paI
pau
paU
pa\
paВѕ
pae
paE
paae
paaE
[email protected]
pi
p&
pu
[email protected]
pr<
pr<{
pe
pai
po
pau
pau paU
kÖ k”
w W CВЅ
Г— ta\
ГЉ
В±
Oa\ taВѕ
pu
ku
ru
kr<
hr<
dr<
s{r<
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
c{hru
tr<
tr<{
EXERCISE 15 : On what we have learned. Read and write the following in Sanskrit :
1. jayaI, jayaita, ijagaIPaa 2. ijagaIPau, kita 3. Oa\Nau, Лњpaa 4. dIpa, ГЉdya, paUta, paUita 5. paUjak, paUjana 6. В±ita,
В±$ 7. XaanaI, maha, sauSa, du:Sa, В±oa`, dUPaNa, va\Yaa, pa\Yaa, pa\iYavaI 8. Xaanayaaega, mahaBaartaIya, sa>oaya, naILa, paaEraiNak,
iBaxau, ipataВѕNaama, gauw, Wpa, taw, tawNa, kwNa_
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CHART OF
VOWEL-SIGNS APPLICATION
A
k
xa
Sa
ga
za
G
ca
C
ja
Xa
Ja
Г�a
@
#
D
$
Na
ta
Ya
d
Za
Aa
}
}|
a
i
I
[email protected]
ka
xaa
Saa
gaa
zaa
Ga
caa
Ca
jaa
Xaa
Jaa
Г�aa
@a
#a
Da
$a
Naa
taa
Yaa
da
Zaa
i
ik
ixa
iSa
iga
iza
iG
ica
iC
ija
iXa
iJa
i�a
[email protected]
i#
iD
i$
iNa
ita
iYa
id
iZa
&
kI
xaI
SaI
gaI
zaI
GI
caI
CI
jaI
XaI
JaI
Г�aI
@I
#I
DI
$I
NaI
taI
YaI
dI
ZaI
q
Q
/
Вї
u
U
\
Вѕ
u
kГ–
xau
Sau
gau
zau
Gu
cau
Cu
jau
Xau
Jau
Г�au
@u
#u
Du
$u
Nau
tau
Yau
du
Zau
[email protected]
k”
xaU
SaU
gaU
zaU
GU
caU
CU
jaU
XaU
JaU
Г�aU
@U
#U
DU
$U
NaU
taU
YaU
dU
ZaU
r<
Г—
xa\
Sa\
ga\
za\
r<{
kВѕ
xaВѕ
SaВѕ
gaВѕ
zaВѕ
ca\
C\
ja\
caВѕ
CВѕ
jaВѕ
Ja\
JaВѕ
@\
#\
D\
$\
Na\
ta\
Ya\
В±
Za\
@Вѕ
#Вѕ
taВѕ
YaВѕ
dВѕ
ZaВѕ
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]
]e
Aae
AaE
e
E
ae
aE
e
k’
xae
Sae
gae
zae
Ge
cae
Ce
jae
Xae
Jae
Г�ae
@e
#e
De
$e
Nae
tae
Yae
de
Zae
ai
k“
xaE
SaE
gaE
zaE
GE
caE
CE
jaE
XaE
JaE
Г�aE
@E
#E
DE
$E
NaE
taE
YaE
dE
ZaE
o
kae
xaae
Saae
gaae
zaae
Gae
caae
Cae
jaae
Xaae
Jaae
Г�aae
@ae
#ae
Dae
$ae
Naae
taae
Yaae
dae
Zaae
au
kaE
xaaE
SaaE
gaaE
zaaE
GaE
caaE
CaE
jaaE
XaaE
JaaE
Г�aaE
@aE
#aE
DaE
$aE
NaaE
taaE
YaaE
daE
ZaaE
na
pa
f
ba
Ba
ma
ya
r
La
va
oa
Pa
sa
naa
paa
fa
baa
Baa
maa
yaa
ra
Laa
vaa
oaa
Paa
saa
ina
ipa
if
iba
iBa
ima
iya
ir
iLa
iva
ioa
iPa
isa
naI
paI
fI
baI
BaI
maI
yaI
rI
LaI
vaI
oaI
PaI
saI
nau
pau
fГ–
bau
Bau
mau
yau
w
Lau
vau
oau
Pau
sau
naU
paU
f”
baU
BaU
maU
yaU
W
LaU
vaU
oaU
PaU
saU
na\
pa\
f\
ba\
Ba\
ma\
ya\
h
ha
ih
hI
hu
hU
ГЉ
La\
va\
oa\
Pa\
sa\
naВѕ
paВѕ
baВѕ
BaВѕ
maВѕ
LaВѕ
vaВѕ
oaВѕ
saВѕ
nae
pae
f’
bae
Bae
mae
yae
re
Lae
vae
oae
Pae
sae
naE
paE
f“
baE
BaE
maE
yaE
rE
LaE
vaE
oaE
PaE
saE
naae
paae
fae
baae
Baae
maae
yaae
rae
Laae
vaae
oaae
Paae
saae
naaE
paaE
faE
baaE
BaaE
maaE
yaaE
raE
LaaE
vaaE
oaaE
PaaE
saaE
he
hE
hae
haE
ANUSWARA AND AVAGRAHA
A> m[, A: h<
pa>
pa:
pam[
pah<
EXERCISE 16 : On what we have learned so far. Read and write the following words.
1. Ama`, A:, ANDja: (born from egg), va>oa: (linage), pa>kja> (lotus), r>ga: (colour), dND: (punishment), Ba>ga: (breaking),
ga>Za: (smell), 2. sa>ga: (attachment), sa>oaya: (doubt), h>sa: (swan), käsa: (a glass), svata: (oneself), käpana> (shaking), Sa>ja:
(bald), Baya>kr: (terrible), ca>dna> (sandlewood), kädr> (cave) 3. kä#: (throat), pata>ga: (moth), Ba>jana> (breakage), ga>Zak:
(sulphur), tar>ga: (wave), vadna> (mouth), va>dna> (salute), oa>Sa: (conch-shell), sa>kLana> (weaving), sa�caya: (assembly), sa>pada
(wealth), ma�ca: (a stage) 4. PaD>ga> (of six organs), A>ba (mother), ma>jana> (rubbing compound), A>bar> (sky), oa>kr: (Shiva),
sacaya: (gathering), r>jana> (entertainment), balva>ta: (powerful), Bagava>ta: (god), sa>jaya (Sanjaya), sa>gar: (battle), sa>za:
(group), sa�ca: (gathering), sa>ta: (saint) , ma>d (slow), Ana>tar> (after) 5. C>d: (meter), d>Ba: (pretending), r>k: (poor),
sa>gama: (meeting), sa>kr: (admixture).
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RULES FOR PROPER TRANSLITERATION OF
SANSKRIT CHARACTERS INTO ENGLISH
with diacritical signs
m~ (A>),
m[, m (ma`);
ma (ma),
n[ (G`),
n~ (Г�a`),
n< (Na`),
n (na`), na (na)
Character m~ (A>) or m[ (ma`) is the nasal dot (Anausvaar:) placed over any chacter in a word :
(i) m[ Within a sentence, when character m (ma`) comes at the end of any word that is followed by a word
that begins with any consonant, only that nasal dot means m[ (ma`)
eg\ aham kim kromi = aham[ kim[ kromi Ahma` ikma` kraeima = Ah> ikä kraeima_
(ii) m Within a sentence, when m (ma`) comes at the end of the sentence, it stays as ma` (m).
eg\ kim kromi aham = kim[ kromi aham ikma` kraeima Ahma` = ikä kraeima Ahma`_
(iii) m[ Within a word, when the nasal dot is followed by any consonant from p-class (p ph b bh m pa f
ba Ba ma), then that nasal dot means half character ma` (m).
eg\ sam[[email protected] sa>pada = sama`pada = sampada_ gum[phana gau>fna = gauma`fna = gaumfna, am[bara A>bar = Ama`bar =
Ambar_ dam[bha d>Ba = dma`Ba = dmBa_ sam[mati sa>maita = sama`maita = sammaita_
(iv) m~ Within a word, when the nasal dot is followed by any non-class consonant (y r l v s{ s< s h ya r l va
oa Pa sa h), that nasal dot means m~ A> (just a nasal sound, even though it is generally inaccurately
transliterated as m[). eg\ sa>sГ—ta> pa# = sam~skr<tam[ pat>ha NOT sam[skr>tam[ pat>ha samsГ—ta> pa# or
sanskr<tam pat>ha sansГ—ta> pa# (NOTE: the nasal dots in sams sa>sa` and in kr<tam Г—ta> both have
different pronounciations, and thus must be transliterated differently (as m~ and m[), but NOT both
as m[)
Similarly, sa>yama = sam~yama, not sama`yama sam[yama; sa>rxaNa = sam~raks<an<a, not sama`rxaNa sam[raks<an<a; sa>Lagna
= sam~lagna, not sama`Lagna sam[lagna; sa>vaad = [email protected], not sama`vaad sam[vada; va>oa = vam~s{a, not vama`oa
vam[s{a; kГ¤sa = kam~sa, not kma`sa kam[sa; sa>har = sam~hara, not sama`har sam[[email protected] ...etc.
(v) m The half character m ma` may come (1) at the end of any word that is followed by any word that is
starting with a vowel, eg\ bho [email protected] [email protected][ tvam uddhara! Baae rama maa> tvama` q&r! or (2) it may come at
the end of a sentence. eg\ bho [email protected] [email protected][ uddhara tvam! Baae rama maama` q&r tvama`! Baae rama maamau&r tvama`!
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(vi) The full character ma ma (ma` + A = ma m + a = ma) may come anywhere in a sentence. eg\ bho [email protected]
[email protected][ tvam uddhara! Baae rama maa> tvama` q&r! Baae rama maa> tvamau&r! Baae rama maama` q&r tvama`! Baae rama maamau&r
tvama`! Baae ramaae&r tva> maama`_ Baae rama tvamau&r maama`_
AGAIN REMEMBER
Anuswara = n[ (G`),
n~ (Г�a`),
n< (Na`),
n (na`),
m[ (ma`),
m~ (A>)
For transliterating the nasal dot ([email protected]< Anausvaar:) within a word, into English,
following six rules apply.
(1) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from k-class (k�, Sa`, ga`, za` k, kh, g, gh), that
nasal dot is transliterated as # n[ (G`)
(2) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from c{-class (ca`, C`, ja`, Ja` c{, c{h, j, jh), that nasal
dot is transliterated as # n~ (Г�a`)
(3) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from t>-class (@`, #`, D`, $` t>, t>h, d<, d<h), that nasal
dot is transliterated as # n< (Na`)
(4) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from t-class (ta`, Ya`, d`, Za` t, th, d, dh), that nasal
dot is transliterated as # n (na`)
(5) When the nasal dot is followed by any character from p-class (pa`, f�, ba`, Ba` p, ph, b, bh), that nasal
dot is transliterated as # m (ma`)
(6) When the nasal dot is followed by any non-class character (ya` r` La` va oa` Pa` sa h`` y, r, l, v, s{, s<, s),
that nasal dot is transliterated as # m~ (A>)
EXERCISE 17 : What we learned so far. Read and write the following words
(answers are on the next page)
(1) Ahma` Aavaama` vayama` maama` mayaa mae mama na: maiya tava sa: tama` taena tae saa taama` ya: yaaE yae yama` yaana` yaena yaa yaa: yaama` yayaa
]Pa: ]tae ]tama` ]taana` ]taena ]taE: ]taePau ]Paa ]taa: ]taama` ]tayaa ]taasau ]tata` ]tad` ]taaina k: kaE k’ kma` k’na k’Pau ka
ka: kyaa kaiBa: ikma` kaina Ayama` }mae }mama` Anaena ]Paama` ]Pau }dma` }maaina AsaaE rama: vanama` maaLaa kiva: vaair maita:
nadI maZau Zaenau: vaZaU ipataa Zaata\ maataa vaakвЂ� [email protected]` jagata` oaioana` idkвЂ� paya: BaU Asa` Ad` taud` tana`_
(2) Ahma` kraeima_ AZaunaa oaItama` AnauBavaaima_
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(3) ]tata` kdaipa na kraeima_ sa: k:? sa: mama banZau:_
(4) Baaejanae LavaNa> kYa> na Bavaita?
(5) ]tata` Ah> na jaanaaima_ maatar> namaaima_
(6) mama ga\he ]k: oauk: AasaIta`_ saItaa ]ka cataura baaiLaka_
(7) sa: Avadta` mama LaeSanaI na iLaSaita }ita_
(8) Лњpayaa tasmaE inajaLaeSanaI> deih_ Ahma` }danaIma` qpaivaoaaina ikma`?
(9) sada mahaBaarta> ca ramaayaNa> ca pa#_
(10) tava vaEvaaihkjaIvana> sauSamaya> BaUyaata`!
(11) mayaa sah Baaejana> caayapaana> ca kГ–w_
(12) maU$vata` va\Yaa maa vad_ ga>gaa paavanaa nadI_
(13) baIjama` Ah> BaUtaanaa> sanaatanama` }ita k’oava: qvaaca_
(14) paRyaaNakaLae manasaa AcaLaena yaaegabaLaena ca par> pauwPama` qpaEita_
(15) ramae vanae gatae tae sakLaa: Aipa wwdu:_
(16) taata! k: Ayama`? Aya> yaacak:_ yaacak: ikä kraeita?
(17) kaiLadasa: mahakiva: AasaIta`_
(18) paura imaiYaLaayaa> janak: naama mahana` rajaa baBaUva_
ANSWERS TO THE PREVIOUS EXERCISE
(1) aham [email protected]@m vayam [email protected] [email protected] me mama nah< mayi tava sah< tam tena te [email protected] [email protected] yah< yau ye yam [email protected]
yena [email protected] [email protected]< [email protected] [email protected] es<ah< ete etam [email protected] etena etaih< etes<u es<[email protected] [email protected]< [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] etat etad [email protected]
kah< kau ke kam kena kes<u [email protected] [email protected]< [email protected] [email protected]< kim [email protected] ayam ime imam anena es<[email protected] es<u idam [email protected]
asau [email protected]< vanam [email protected]@ kavih< [email protected] matih< nad& madhu dhenuh< [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]< [email protected]@ [email protected] [email protected]> jagat
s{as{in dik payah< [email protected] as ad tud tan.
(2) aham[ karomi. [email protected] s{&tam [email protected]
(3) etat [email protected] na karomi. sah< kah<? sah< mama bandhuh<
(4) bhojane lavan<am kahtam[ na bhavati?
(5) etat aham[ na [email protected]@mi. [email protected][ [email protected]
(6) mama gr<he ekah< s{ukah< [email protected]&t. s&[email protected] [email protected] c{[email protected] [email protected]@>
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(7) sah< avadat mama lekhan& na likhati.
(8) kr<[email protected] tasmai nijalekhan&m[ deh&. aham [email protected]&m upavis{[email protected] kim?
(9) [email protected] [email protected]@ratam[ c{a [email protected]@yan<am[ c{a pat>ha.
(10) tava [email protected]&vanam[ sukhamayam[ [email protected]@t!
(11) [email protected] saha bhojanam[ c{[email protected]@nam[ c{a kuru!
(12) [email protected]<havat vr<[email protected] [email protected] vada. gan[[email protected] [email protected]@ nad&.
(13) b&jam aham[ [email protected]@[email protected][ [email protected] iti kes{avah< [email protected]{a.
(14) [email protected]<[email protected] [email protected] ac{alena yoga-balena c{a param[ purus<am upaiti.
(15) [email protected] vane gate [email protected]< ruruduh<.
(16) [email protected]! kah< ayam? ayam[ [email protected]{akah<. [email protected]{akah< kim[ karoti?
(17) [email protected]@sah< [email protected]< [email protected]&t.
(18) [email protected] [email protected]@m[ janakah< [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]@ [email protected]
LESSON 7
saptamah< [email protected]< saptama: AByaasa:_
COMPOUND CONSONANTS
[email protected]@m [email protected]< sa>yauFvyaГ�janaanaama` AByaasa:_
Very well, now that you have studied the chart of simple consonants and vowels, let us study
compounding of the consonants and application of vowel-signs, through proper examples.
THE HALF CONSONANTS : ([email protected]< hLantaa:) - The Chart shown in Lesson 1 containes the full
consonants i.e. each base consonant with vowel a (A) added to it. Let us now see the consonants without
this vowel (A) a. These consonants are called Half-consonants ([email protected]< hLantaa:) and they are either
written by attaching a small slant at the bottom of the character or by writing their half-letter shapes.
A half-consonant can not be pronounced by itself, unless a vowel is added to it. A vowel can be
pronounced by itself. A consonant can be added to another consonant or consonants, and, at least one
vowel must be added to it, to make it a complete compound character that can be pronounced.
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7.1
The Sanskrit Half-Consonants
EXERCISE 18 : Write the following
Half Consonants (pure consonants without a vowel)
k� K
Sa` S
ga` g
za z
G`
k
kh
g
gh
n[
ca` c
C`
ja` j
Ja` J
Г�a` Г�
c{
c{h
j
jh, z
n~
@`
#`
D`
$`
Na` N
t>
t>h
d<
d<h
n<
ta` t
Ya` Y
d`
Za` Z
na` n
t
th
d
dh
n
f� Ý
ba` b
Ba` B
ma` m
p
ph, f
b
bh
m
ya` y
r`
La` L
va` v
y
r
l
v, w
oa` o
Pa` P
sa` s
h` Г†
s{
s<
s
h
pa`
p
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7.2
COMMON COMPOUND CHARACTERS
With the use of half characters such as:
k� k, Sa` kh, ga` g, za` gh, G` n[,
ca` c{, C` c{h, ja` j, Г�a` n~,
ta` t, Ya` th, Za` dh, na` n,
@` t>, #` t>h, D` d<, Na` n<,
pa` p, f� ph, ba` b, Ba` bh, ma` m,
ya` y, r` r, La` l, va` v, oa` s{, Pa` s<, sa` s, h` h
EXERCISE 19 : Read, study and write the following groups of Sanskrit Compound characters.
Compare each of them with the corresponding full-character.
(1) Character k (k� K )
K
paKva, pak�va (pakva ripened), KlIbama`, k�LaIbama`, (kl&bam weakness) KLaed: k�led: (kledah<
wettness), vaaKyama`, vaakвЂ�yama` ([email protected] speech), rKtama`, rkвЂ�tama` (raktam blood), wiKmaNaI,
k
wk�imaNaI (rukmin<&), Kvaicata`, k�vaicata` (kvac{it sometimes)
(2) Character kh (Sa` S )
Syaaita: Sa`yaaita: ([email protected]< fame), AaSyaa AaSa`yaa ([email protected]@ saying), saSyama` saSa`yama` (sakhyam
S
friendship)
kh
(3) Characters g and gh (ga` g ; za` z )
g
g;
z
gLaaina: ga`Laaina: ([email protected]< downfall), Aigna: Aga`ina: (agnih< fire), Baagyama` Baaga`yama`
gh
([email protected] fortune), Bagna Baga`na (bhagnam broken), ivaznama` ivaza`nama` (vighnam
obstacle)
(4) Characters n[ (G`)
G`
GГ‘
n[
n[gha
GГЌ
GГ’
n[ka
n[ma
GГЋ
GГ“
GГЏ
GГ•
n[kta
n[la
n[kha
n[ks<a
GГђ
GГџ
n[ga
n[ks<va
LaGГЌa LaG`ka (lan[[email protected] Sri Lanka), paiGГЋ: paG`iKta: paG`kвЂ�ita: (pan[ktih< line, row), oaGГЏ: oaG`Sa: (s{an[khah<
conchshell), rGГђ: rG`ga: (ran[gah< colour), saGГ‘: saG`za: (san[ghah< group), vaaGГ’yama` vaaG`mayama` ([email protected][mayam
literature), AaGГ“ AaG`La ([email protected][la English), kaGГ•a kaG`xaa ([email protected][ks<[email protected] desire), BauGГџ (bhun[ks<va please enjoy)
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(5) Characters c{ and c{h (ca` c ; C`)
c
C`
c{ ;
Acyauta: Aca`yauta: (ac{yutah< Krishna), Avaacya Avaaca`ya ([email protected]{yah< unspeakable),
c{h
sauvaacya sauvaaca`ya ([email protected]{ya well said), qcCГ”asa: qca`Cvaasa: (uc{c{[email protected]< breath)
(6) Characters j and n~ (ja` j ; Г�a` Г� )
j
Г�
j;
rajyama` raja`yama` ([email protected] kingdom), sajja saja`ja (sajja ready), qjjvaLa qja`ja`val
n~
(ujjvala bright), jyaaeita: ja`yaaeita: (jyotih< light) pa�ca pa�a`ca (pan~c{a five)
(7) Characters t>, t>h (@`, #` )
@`
t> ;
#`
paВЈk: [email protected]`@k: (pat>t>akah< plate), paВЈnama` [email protected]`@nama` (pat>t>anam town), kN#В№ kNa`#`ya
t>h
(kan<t>hya guttural)
(8) Character d<, d<h (D`, $`)
D`
d< ;
$`
qВҐyanama` qВҐyanama` (ud<d<ayanam flight), qiВҐta (ud<d<ita flown), caГ—$Г”e (c{akr<d<hve
d<h
(9) Character n< (Na`, N )
N
you all had done)
paaNDva: paaNa`Dva: ([email protected]>d<vah<), kN#: kNa`#: (kan<t>hah< throat), [email protected]: kNa`@k: (kan<t>akah<
n<
thorn), PaNmaasa: PaNa`maasa: (s<an<[email protected]< six-months)
(10) Characters t, th and dh (ta` t ; Ya` Y ; Za` Z )
t
t;
Y
th ;
Z
dh
satkar: sata`kar: ([email protected]< honour), dugZama` duga`Zama` (dughdam milk), rtnaakr:
rta`naakr: ([email protected]< ocean), qtpaata: qta`paata: ([email protected]< rise), Aatmaa Aata`maa
([email protected]@ soul), satyama` sata`yama` (satyam truth), tyaaga: ta`yaaga: ([email protected]< sacrifice), tvara ta`vara ([email protected] rush);
taYyama` taYa`yama` (tathyam reality); baaZya baaZa`ya ([email protected] binding)
(11) Character n (na`, n )
n
Aanand: Aanana`d: ([email protected]< joy), AВІma` Ana`nama` (annam food), janma jana`ma (janma birth), Anya
n
Ana`ya (anya other), Anvaya: Ana`vaya: (anvayah< relation), iBaВІ iBana`na (bhinna different),
vandnama` vana`dnama` (vandanam salute), banZanama` bana`Zanama` (bandhanam bondage)
(12) Characters p, ph (pa` p ; f� Ý )
p
p;
Гќ
ph
samaapta samaapa`ta ([email protected] ended), Apsara Apa`sara ([email protected] celestial maid), svapnama`
sa`vapa`nama` (svapnam dream), paapmana` paapa`mana` ([email protected] sin), wpyakma` wpa`yakma`
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(rupyakam Rupee).
(13) Characters b, bh and m (ba` b ; Ba` B ; ma` m )
b
b;
B
bh ;
m
m
oabd: oaba`d: (s{abdah< word), oaEbya: oaEba`ya: (s{aibyah<), saBya saBa`ya (sabhya
gentle), sampada sama`pada ([email protected] wealth), samyak` sama`yakвЂ� (samyak right),
Za\[email protected] Za`/Pa`@ (dhr<s<t>a courageous), Aml Ama`l (amla sour)
(14) Characters y and l (ya` y ; La` L )
y
y;
L
l
oayyaa! oaya`yaa! (s{[email protected] bed), qLka ql`ka ([email protected] meteor), qLLaeSa: qLa`LaeSa: (ullekhah<
reference), ALpa Al`pa (alpah<, short), kLyaaNama` kl`yaaNama` ([email protected]<am benefit)
vaLganaa val`ganaa ([email protected] chatter)
(15) Character v (va` v )
v
vyaya: va`yaya: (vyayah< expense), vyaayaama: va`yaayaama: ([email protected]@mah< exercise), vyaaema va`yaaema (vyoma
v
sky), vyaU$ va`yaU$ ([email protected]<ha, arranged), vyaGГђma` va`ya>gama` (vyangam deformity), vyavasaaya:
va`yavasaaya: ([email protected]< business)
(16) Chararacter s{ (oa` o O )
o O
s{
ivaOvaasa: ivaovaasa: ivaoa`vaasa: (vis{[email protected]< trust), inaOcaya: inaocaya: inaoa`caya:` (nis<c{ayah< firm
resolution), paOcaata` paocaata` paoa`caata` (pas{c{[email protected] after), kaomaIr: kaoa`maIr: ([email protected]{m&rah<),
Avaoyama` Avaoa`yama` (avas{yam certainly), Aomak: Aoa`mak: (as{makah< stone), ivaolePaNama` ivaoa`lePaNama`
(vis{les<an<am analysis)
(17) Character s< (Pa` P )
P
s<
[email protected] APa`@ (as<t>a eight), }[email protected] }Pa`@ (is<t>a desired), [email protected]` kPa`@ma` (kas<t>am trouble), AaivaPkar:
AaivaPa`kar: ([email protected]<[email protected]< discovery), manauPya: manauPa`ya: (manus<yah<, man), pauPpama` pauPa`pama` (pus<pam
flower), qPmaa qPa`maa (us<[email protected] heat), AaeP#: AaePa`#: (os<t>hah< lip), qPNa: qPa`Na: (us<n<ah< hot), ЛњPNa: Г—Pa`Na:
(kr<s<n<ah<), baaPpama` baaPa`pama` ([email protected]<pam vapour), BaivaPyama` BaivaPa`yama` (bhavis<yam future)
(18) Character s (sa` s )
s
s
taskr: (taskarah< thief), Astau Asa`tau (astu let it be), isYaita: sa`iYaita: (sthitih< state), [email protected]:
sa`[email protected]: (sphat>ikah< crystal), snaayau: sa`naayau: ([email protected], muscle), [email protected] sa`paPa`@` (spas<t>a clear),
Asya Asa`ya (asya of this), hasyama` ([email protected]m laughter), ismatama` (smitam a smile), svata: sa`vata: (svatah<
oneself), svadeoa: sa`vadeoa: (svades{ah< motherland), svaagatama` ([email protected] welcome), sknd: sa`kna`d:
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(skandah<), sma\ita: sa`ma\ita: (smr<tih< memory, rememberance)
(19) Character h (h` Г† )
Г† h
M hma
ГЉ
Г‰
hr<
hra
Г‡
Г‹
hn<a
hla
Г€
ГЊ
hna
H hya
hva
ГЉdyama` h`/dyama` (hr<dayam heart), baaH baah`ya ([email protected] external), baRM ba`rh`ma (brahma Brahma), AaГ‹ad:
Aah`Laad: ([email protected]@dah joy<), ga\Г‡aita ga\h`Naaita (gr<hn<[email protected] he takes), Г‰sva h`rsa`va (hrasvah< short) icaГ€ma` icah`nama`
(c{ihnam sign), vaiГ€: (vahnih< fire), ijaГЊa ivaГЊa ([email protected] toung)
LESSON 8
as<t>amah< [email protected]< [email protected]: AByaasa:_
8.1
STUDY OF SPECIAL COMPOUND CHARACTERS
Characters k� + ta can be written as Kta (kta), but there is a special single character F for this purpose.
eg\ rKtama` rFma` (raktam blood), BaiKta: BaiF: (bhaktih< devotion), vaKtaa vaFa ([email protected] speaker), yauKta: yauF:
(yuktah< equipped)
Kta F
kta
Character da (d`) has following common compounds
1. d + da = dda Г» d` + d = ВЄ (qВЄeoa: uddes{ah< objective, taВЄanama` [email protected] that charity)
2. d + dha = ddha # d` + Za = & (yau&ma` yuddham war, baui&: buddhih< thinking)
3. d + ga = dga # d` + ga = В§ (qВ§ma: udgamah< rise, BagavaВ§Itaa bhagavadg&[email protected])
4. d + bha = dbha # d` + Ba = В® (saВ®ava: [email protected]< goodness; qВ®va: udbhavah< rise)
5. d + ya = dya written as : d` + ya = ^ (Aa^: [email protected]< first; ^Utama` [email protected], gambling)
6. d + ma = dma written as : d` + ma = ВЇ (paВЇma` padmam lotus, CВЇI c{hadm& cunning)
7. d + va = dva written as : d` + va = V (V>V: dvandvah< duality, ivaVana` [email protected] learned)
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ВЄ dda
В® dbha
В© dgha
^ dya
&
ВЇ
В§ dga
Vdva
ddha
dma
Letter ra (r) forms following two groups of compounds:
(A) When full-consonant r (ra) comes after any half-consonant, it is written as a slanted line (
R)
attached to that half-consonant.
1. k + ra (kвЂ� + r = Г›) caГ›ma` c{akram wheel, Г›ainta: [email protected]< revolution, Г›aeZa: krodhah< anger, iГ›yaa
[email protected] deed, Û”r: [email protected]< cruel, Û’taa [email protected] buyer
2. g + ra (ga` + r = gaR) AgaRma` agram tip, AgaResar: agresarah< leader, gaRamama` [email protected] village, gaRIvaa gr&[email protected]
neck
3. d + ra (d` + r = dR) BadR: bhadrah< gentle, sauBadRa [email protected], dRivaD dravid<a, dRaeNa: dron<ah<, dRaeh:
drohah< treachery, dRuma: drumah< tree
4. s{ + ra (oa` + r = Oa` + r = Гѓ) Гѓ&a s{[email protected] faith, ivaГѓa>ita: vis{[email protected]< rest, ГѓI s{r& divine, ГѓeP#:
s{res<t>hah< superior, Гѓaetaa s{[email protected] listner, Гѓutama` s{rutam heard
5 t + ra (ta` + r = %a) ya>%ama` yantram machine, rai%a: [email protected]< night, pa%ama` patram leaf, %aetaa [email protected] saviour,
i%aZaa [email protected] in three ways, %aeZaa [email protected] in three ways.
Г›
kra
gaR
Гѓ
gra
%a
s{ar
tra
6. t> or d< + ra (@Вј, DВј) : [email protected]Вј: qPa`@`r: us<t>rah< camel, [email protected]Вј: raPa`@`r: [email protected]<t>rah< country, paaENDВј: paaENa`D`r:
paun<d<rah<
7. s + ra (sa` + r = Г„) sahГ„ma` sahsa`rma` sahasram thousand, Г„aeta: sa`raeta: srotah< flown, Г„ava: sa`rava:
[email protected] < a flow
8. s+ t + ra (sa`+ta`+r = Г…) Г…I sa`ta`rI str& woman, AГ…ma` Asa`ta`rma` astram weapon, vaГ…ma` vasa`ta`rma` vastram
cloth
@Вј
tra
Г„
Г…
sra
stra
(B) When half-consonant r` (r) comes before any consonant, it is written as ( | )
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9. r` + pa = (pa|); Ak–: Ar`k: arkah< sun, saga|: sar`ga: sargah< the creation, Aca|naa Ar`canaa arc{[email protected]
worship, vaataa| vaar`taa [email protected]@ news, sapa|: sar`pa: sarpah< snake, kma| kr`ma karma deed, kaya|ma` kar`yama`
[email protected] duty
k–
rka
pa|
rpa
Character ta (ta`) makes following common compounds
1. t + ta = tta (ta`+ta = Ta, tta) qTamama` uttamam best, saTaa [email protected] jurisdiction, saTvama` sattavam truth. 2.
n + na = nna (na`+na = ВІ) iSaВІ khinn sad
3. h + ma = hma (h`+ma = M) baRMa [email protected] the Creator, baRMaNDma` brahman<d<am universe
4. h + ya = hya (h`+ya = H) baaH: [email protected]<, external, gauHma` guhyam, secret
T
tta
Tva
ttva
ВІ
nna
EXERCISE 20 : What we learned so far. Read and write the following Sanskrit words
1. Ûma: (order), ˜PNa (black), ÛÖ&: (angry), ˜paNa: (miser)
2. ca�cal: (quick), oaUcya: (pure), paUjya: (holy), jyaaetsnaa (moonlight), Zana�jaya: (Arjun)
3. svapnama` (dream), paRona: (question), paRaZaanyama` (priority), paRsaВІma` (pleased), Za\[email protected]^umna: (Draupad&’s
brother), AВІma` (food)
4. vyaazaR: (tiger), vajaRma` (thunderbolt), ABaRma` (cloud), i%alaek: (three worlds), ta\pta: (satisfied), ZaRuva:
(steady), Za\ita: (courage), paRtyaek (each), baRM (God), taIvaRma` (strong)
5. В±[email protected]: (vision), va\[email protected]: (rain), sa\[email protected]: (creation), pa\YvaI (earth), ma\taatmaa (dead person), pa\P#ma` (surface)
6. va\Tama` (news), Za\[email protected]Вј: (a king’s name), na\pa: (king), Г›a>ita: (revolution)
7. Г…I (woman), iГ…ya: (women), staae%ama` (praise), AjaГ„ma` (huge), sa\janama` (creation); paВЇnaaBa: (Vis{nu< ),
paВЇa (Laks<m&), pa^ma` (poetry), ga^ma` (prose)
8. sYaanama` (place), vayask: (old), sma\ita: (memory), snaanama` (bath), isnagZama` (viscous)
9. dRaEpadI, d`raEpadI, duyaae|Zana:, dur`yaaeZana:, Baaga|va: Baar`gava: (proper nouns)
10. gava|: (pride), sava|: (all), paUva|ma` (earlier), svaga|: (heaven), Aca|naa (worship), tak–: (guess), dpa|Na:
(mirror)
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8.2
SANSKRIT COMPOUND CHARACTERS
(WITH EXAMPLES)
[email protected]<[email protected]< sam~yukta-varn<[email protected]< saaedahrNaa: sa>yauFvaNaa|:_
A Reading and Writing Exercise :
k�
™, Kk (vau™ita, vauKkita vauk�kita vukkati, he barks), KSa (kKSaita kakkhati he laughs,
[email protected] kakkhat>a hard), Kca (tvaKcaEva tvakc{aiva skin also), F (qF ukta said), Ktya
(BaKtyaa [email protected] with devotion), K%a (vaK%ama` vaktram, mouth), Ktva (qKtvaa [email protected] having said), Ві
(oa³aeima s{aknomi, I am able), Kpa (pa\YaKpa\Yak� pr<thak-pr<thak separately), Kma (wiKmaNaI rukmin<&), Kya
(vaaKyama` [email protected] speech), Г› (Г›ma: kramah< order), kГ“ (KLaa>ta [email protected] tired), KLa\ (KLa\ipta: klr<ptih<
invention), ЕЎ (Kvaicata` kvac{it sometimes), Koa (paRaKoarIrivamaaexaNama` [email protected]{ar&ra-vimoks<an<am before
death), xa (xamaa ks<[email protected], forgiveness), Ksa (/Ksaama r>[email protected] Rigveda and [email protected])
xa`
xmya (saaExmyama` sauks<myam minuteness), xya (samaIxya sam&ks<ya having seen), xva (Iks<[email protected]
}xvaakГ–:)
Sa`
ga`
Sya (saa>Sya: [email protected][khyah<)
gd (vaagdevaI [email protected]& Sarasvat&), gZa (dgZa: dagdhah< burnt), Вґ (AiВґ: agnih< fire), gpa
([email protected]: [email protected]>uh< elouquent), gBa (pa\YagBaava: pr<[email protected]> different nature), gBya
(iLagByaama` [email protected] for two writers), jagmau: (jagmuh< they went), gya (Baagyama` [email protected] luck), gaR (gaRsanama`
grasanam eating), gLa (gLaaina: [email protected]< downfall), gva (pa\YaigvaZaa pr<[email protected] differently), gvya
(samyagvyavaisYata samyag-vyavasthita properly established)
za`
zna (ivazna> vighnam obstacle), znya (Aznya: aghnyah< not to be killed), zya (Azya| arghya
G`
GГЌ (AGГЌ: an[kah< body), GГЋ (BauGГЋe bhun[kte he eats), G`KYa (BauG`KYa bhun[gtha you all enjoy),
holy), zaR (zaRaNa> [email protected]<am nose), zva (LazvaaoaI [email protected]{& moderate eater)
GГЏ (oaGГЏ: s{an[khah< conch-shell), GГђ (gaGГђa gan[[email protected]), GГђ (saGГђItama` san[g&tam music), GГ‘ (saGГ‘:
san[ghah< attachment<), G`Zva (BauG`Zvae bhun[gdhve you all enjoy), GГ’ (vaaGГ’yama` [email protected][gmayam literature), GГ•
(kaGГ•aima [email protected][ks<[email protected] I desire), G`Bya (paRaG`Byaama` [email protected][[email protected] for two Easterners)
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ca`
cca (qccaE: uc{c{aih<, loudly), cC (}cCa ic{c{[email protected], desire), cC\ (qcC\GГЏLa uc{c{hr<n[khala unrestrained), yau&acCВјeya: ([email protected]{c{hreyah< better than war), cya (Acyauta: ac{yutah< Krishna),
qcyatae uc{yate it is called), icva (c{vi existance of non-existant)
C`
CВ№ (CВ№vatae c{hyavate he approaches), CВј (yacCВјeya: yac{c{hreyah that which is better),
ja`
jja (sajja sajja ready), jjya (tajjyaaeita: tajjyotih that light<), jXa (tajXaatvaa [email protected]@
qicCВјta (uc{c{hrita raised), qcCГ”asa: uc{c{[email protected]< exhalation)
knowing that), jya (rajyama` [email protected] kingdom), jaR (vajaRma` vajram thunderboalt), jva (jvaaLaa
[email protected]@ flame)
Г�a`
Г�ca (paГ�ca pan~c{a five), Г�C (vaaГ�Ca van~c{[email protected] desire), Г�ja (saГ�jaya: san~jayah<), Г�jya
(yauГ�jyaa^aegama` [email protected] should practice yoga), Г�Ja (qГ�Jaita un~jhati he lets it go), Г�jma
(Bau�jma bhun~jma we all enjoy), �jva (Bau�jva bhun~jva we both enjoy), �à (paoya�ÃuNvana` pas{yan~-s{run<van
while seeing and hearing), �ova (svapa�ovasana` svapan~s{vasan sleeping and breething)
@`
D`
$`
Na`
ВЈ (paiВЈka pat>t>[email protected], plate), [email protected]Вј ([email protected]Вјma` [email protected]<tram country), [email protected]Г” (В±[email protected]Г”a drs<t>[email protected], seeing)
ВҐ (qВҐyatae ud<d<ayate he flies), D`Bya (raD`Byaama` [email protected]<[email protected] for two kings), DВ№ (}|DВ№ &dya
glorified)
$В№ (Aa$В№ [email protected]<d<hya< wealthy)
[email protected] ([email protected]: kan>t>akah< thorn), N# (vaEkГ–N#ma` vaikun<t>ham heaven), ND (paaNDvaa: [email protected]<d<[email protected]<),
N$ (PaN$ s<an<d<ha impotant), NDВј (paaENDВј: paun<d<rah<), NNa (ivaPaNNa vs<an<n<a dejected), Nma
(PaNmaasaa: s<an<[email protected]< six-months), Nya (kapa|Nyama` [email protected]<yam pity)
ta`
tk (tatkaLa: [email protected]<, that time), tЛњ (AiBaBavaatЛњPNa [email protected]<s<n<a! O Krishna! from
the rise of), tГ› (kamaatГ›aeZa: [email protected]@tkrodhah< anger from desire), txa (Anyatxai%ayasya anyat-
ks<atriyasya anything else for a warrior), tca (Bayaatca [email protected]{a and from the fear), Ta (saTaa [email protected]
power), Tya (BayaaTyajaeta` [email protected] let go out of fear), t%a (tat%ayama` tat-trayam those three), Tva (taTvama`
tattvam principle), tYa (AovatYaamaa as{[email protected]@), tna (rtnaakr: [email protected]< ocean), tpa (tatparma` tatparam
that supreme), taatpaya|> ([email protected] morale), tpaR (tatpaRapya [email protected] having attained that), tma (Aatmaa
[email protected]@ soul), tmya (mahatmyama` [email protected] greatness), tya (tyaKtvaa [email protected] having renounced), %a (Zama|xae%ama`
dharmaks<etram righteous place), %ya (ra%yaagamae [email protected]@game at night), tva (tvama` tvam you), tsa (qtsaah:
[email protected] encouragement), tsYa (paoyaitsYataana` pas{[email protected] he saw the standing ones), tsna (Лњtsnama`
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kr<tsnam all), tsma (sammaaehatsma\itaivaBaRma: [email protected]<ti-vibhramah< loss of thinking as a result of
delusion) tsya (paRitayaaetsyaaima [email protected] I will defend) tsva (parZamaa|tsvanauiP#taata` [email protected]
svanus<t>[email protected] than performed others’ duty)
Ya`
d`
maYnaaita ([email protected] he churns), Yya (taYyama` tathyam truth); imaYyaa [email protected] false)
В§ (qВ§ar: [email protected]< exclamation), ВЁ (AsaВЁah: [email protected]< misunderstanding), В© (qВ©[email protected]`
[email protected]>anam inauguration), ВЄ (qВЄeoa: uddes{ah< objective), ВЄВ№ (mahВЄВ№uitakr: mahad-
dyutikarah<, sun), ВЄR (AnyaВЄ[email protected] anyad-dras<t>um-ic{c{hasi whatever else you wish to see), & (yau&ma`
yuddham war), &В№ (yau&В№sva yuddhyasva please fight), &Г” (bau&Г”a [email protected] having known) В«
(sma\itaBaR>oaaВ«ui&naaoa: smr<ti-bhram~s{[email protected]@s{ah< misunderstanding due to confusion), В¬ (tasmaaВ¬MiNa
[email protected]<i therefore in the brahma), В® (saВ®ava: [email protected]< righteousness), ®¹ (Bagava®¹ama`
[email protected] for two gods), ВЇ (paВЇma` padmam, lotus), ^ (pa^ma` padyam song), dR (dRupad:
drupadah<), V (V>V>, VnVma`ma` dvandvam duality), VВ№ (AvyaFaVВ№Fya: [email protected]<, the manifest
emerged from the unmanifest)
Za`
Zna (baZnaaita [email protected] it binds), Zma (dZmaaE dadhmau he blew), Zya (Zyaanama` [email protected]
na`
nk (samavaetaankГ–Wna` [email protected]@n to the assembled Kuru/), nga (AonangacCna` as{nan-
meditation), ZaR (ZaRuva dhruva unmoving), Zva (Zvaja: dhvajah< flag)
gac{c{han eating and going), nta (Anta: antah< the end), ntya (vyaYayantyaetae vyathayantyete
these do bother), n%ya (vAaman%ya [email protected] having invited), nYa (manYanama` manthanam churning), n%a
(yan%ama` yantram machine), ntva (saantvanaa [email protected]@ consolation), ntsya (Bantsyaita bhantsyati he will tie),
nd (Aanand: [email protected]< joy), ndR (}indRyama` indriyam organ), nV (VnVma` dvandvam duality), n& (wn&ama`
[email protected] he should resist), Awn&Г”ma` (arunddhvam you all had resisted), n&В№ (wn&В№ataama`
[email protected]@m may they stop), nZa (AnZa andha blind), AwnZmaih (arundhmahi we all had resisted),
ivanZyanta: (vindhyantah> lacking), AwnZvaih (arundhvahi we two had resisted), ВІ (AВІma` annam food),
npa (isYataanpaaYa|: [email protected]@rthah< Arjuna to the seated ones), npaR (paRaNaanpaRaNaePau [email protected]<[email protected]@n<es<u breath in
the breaths), nba (savaa|nbanZaUna` [email protected]@n to all brothers), nbaR (taanbaRvaIima [email protected]&mi I tell about
them), nBa (BavaainBaPma: [email protected]&s<mah< you Bh&shma), nBya (SanByaama` [email protected] for two lame men),
nBaR (maatauLaanBaRataВѕna` [email protected]@n-bhratr<{n to uncles and brothers), nma (janma janma birth), nya (Anya: anyah<,
other), nr (AismanrNae asmin-ran<e on this battlefield), nva (Anvaya: anvayah< following), nvya (BagavanvyaiFma`
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bhagavan-vyaktim O Lord! Your personifiction), nsa (taansamaIxya [email protected]&ks<ya having seen them), nsya
(baui&maansyaata` [email protected]@t he will be wise), nsva (Zaata|[email protected]ВјansvabaanZavaana` [email protected]@s<t>[email protected]@ndha-
[email protected], to our brother Kauravas), nh (saГ�janayanhPa|ma` san~janayan-hars<am, while increasing the joy)
pa`
pta (payaa|ptama` [email protected] limited), ptva (LaaeLauptvama` loluptvam eagerness), В¶ (svapnama`
svapnam sleep, dream), pma (paapmaanama` [email protected]@nam to the wicked), pya (Avaapya [email protected]
having obtained), paR (paRita prati towards), pLa (sa>pLautaaedkä samplutodakam full of water), psa (Apsau
apsu in the water), psya (Avaapsyaisa [email protected] you will attain)
ba`
bd (oabd: s{abdah< sound), bZa (LabZa labdha attained), bZva (LabZvaa [email protected] having), bBya
Ba`
ma`
Bya (AByaasa: [email protected]< study), BaR (BaRma: bhramah< delusion), Bvaaid ([email protected] [email protected] etc.)
(gaubByaama` [email protected] for tow defenders), bya (oaEbya: s{aibyah<), baR (baRM brahma)
В· (Za\[email protected]^umna: dhr<s<t>adyumnah<), mpa (ivakmpa: vikampah< trembling), mf (gauimfta gumphita
intertwined), mba (Ambaa [email protected] mother), mBa (AmBaisa ambhasi in the water), mBya (paumByaama`
[email protected] for two persons), mma (sammaana: [email protected]< respect), mya (rmya ramya enchanting), maR (imaRyatae
mriyate it dies)
ya`
r`
yya (tvayyaupapa^tae tvayyupapadyate it befits you)
k– (Ak–: arkah< sun), xya| (saUixya|Pyaita [email protected]<is<yati he will disrespect), Sa| (maUSa| [email protected]
foolish) ga| (vaga|: vargah< class), gBya| (QgByaa|ma` [email protected]@m with two languages), gya| (Asvagya|
asvargya un-heavenly), zya| (Azya|ma` arghyam offering) ca| (Aca|naa arc{[email protected] worship), cya| (AByaca|:
abhyarc{ah< salute), cC| (maUcC|ita [email protected]{c{hati it coagulates), ja| (BaImaajau|naaE bh&[email protected] of Bhima and
Arjuna), jya| (vajya| varjya without), jva| (vadnaEjva|LaiВ®: vadanairjvaladbih< with balzing mouths), Ja|
(JaJa|ra [email protected] prostitute), Na| (vaNa|: varn<ah< a class), Nya| (AakNya| [email protected]<ya, hearing), ta| (Zaata|[email protected]Вј:
[email protected]@s<t<rah< Kaurava), Ta| (AaTa| [email protected] afflicted) tma| (vatma|ina vartmani on the path), tya| (matya| martya
dying), Ya| (AYa|: arthah< meaning), d| (janaad|na: [email protected]nah< Kr<s<n<a), Za| (AZa| ardha half), Zna| (maUiZna|
[email protected] in the head), Znya| (maUiZnyaa|Zaayaatmana: [email protected]@[email protected]@tmanah< having fixed in one’s head), ZaR|
(ma\tyauZaR|uvama` mr<tyurdhruvam death is certain), Zva| (QZva| [email protected] up), na| (inaraoaIina|ma|ma: [email protected]&rnirmamah<
indifferent and selfless), pa| (sapa|: sarpah< snake), ba| (dubau|i&: dur-buddhih<, wicked), baR| (hivabaR|MagnaaE
[email protected] offering in the fire of brahma), Ba| (dBa|: darbhah< grass), ma| (kma| karma deed), mya|
(Zamyaa|ta` [email protected] than the righteous), ya| (oaaEya|ma` s{auryam bravery), La| (icakIPau|Laae|ksa>gaRhma` c{ik&rs<ur43
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lokasan[graham desirous of people), va| (sava| sarva all), vya| (baui&vya|itatairPyaita buddhirvyatitaris<yati
mind will transcend), oa| (spaoa|: spars{ah< contact), Pa| (hPa|: hars<ah< joy), PNa| (vaaPNae|ya: [email protected]<n<eyah<
Krishna), h| (Ah|: ahrah< worthy), Xa| (paRЛњtaeXaa|navaanaipa pr<kr<[email protected]@napi the wise also - with his own
nature)
La`
Lk (vaLkLama` valkalam bark), Lga (vaLganaa [email protected] chatter), Lpa (ALpa alpa short), qLbaena
(ulbena with umblical cord), paRgaLBa (pragalbha proud), Lma (kLmaPama` kalmas<am sin), Lya
(oaLya: s{alyah< thorn), LLa (Гѓ&avaaГЈLLaBatae s{[email protected]@m~l-labhate the faithful person attains), Lva (ibaLvama`
bilvam the Bel tree)
va`
oa`
vya (vyaazaR: [email protected]< tiger), vaR (vaRta> vratam austerity)
[a (Aaocaya|ma` [email protected]{c{aryam wonder), oC ([email protected]ВІma` bhras<t>s{c{hinnam broken and spoiled),
ona (Aonaaima as{[email protected] I eat), oma (komaLama` kas{malam delusion), oya (paoya pas{ya see), Гѓ
(ГѓI s{r& divine), {a (Aova: as{vah> horse), oLa (AoLaIl as{l&la obscene)
Pa`
Pk (inaPkama: nis<[email protected]< without desire), PЛњ (inaPЛњita: nis<kr<tih< fruitless act), [email protected] ([email protected] as<t>a
eight), [email protected]В№ ([email protected]В№kГ–oaLama` dves<t>ya-kus{alam he hates non-pleasent), [email protected]Вј ([email protected]Вјma` [email protected]<t>ram
country), [email protected]Г” (В±[email protected]Г”a dr<s<t>[email protected] seeing), P# (pa\P#ma` pr<s>t>ham surface), PNa (ЛњPNa: kr<s<n<ah< black), Ppa (pauPpama`
pus<pam flower), PpaR (duPpaRapa: dus<[email protected]< difficult to attain), PNya (AaEPNyama` aus<n<yam warmth), Pma (BaIPma:
bh&s<mah<), Pya (manauPya: manus<yah< man), Pva (kГ–wPva kurus<vah< do)
sa`
sk (skäd: skandah< chapter), sSa (sSaLaita skhalati it falls), sja` (BaRsja` bhrasj to roast), sta
(Astama` astam setting), stya (paRaNaanstyaKtvaa [email protected]<[email protected]@ having renounced their lives),
Г„ (Г„>satae sram~sate it falls), Г„aeta: (srotah< flow), Г… (Г…I str& woman), stva (kГ–tastvaa [email protected] from
where did you?), sYa (sYaanama` [email protected] place), sna (snaanama` [email protected] bath), spa (spaoa|: spars{ah< contact),
sf ([email protected]: visphot>ah< explosion), sma (tasmaata` [email protected] therefore), smya (igaramasmyaekmaxarma` [email protected]
asmyekam-aks<aram among the syllables I am the syllable of Om), sya (Asya asya its), Г„ (sahГ„ma`
sahasram thousand), sva (svata: svatah< oneself), ssa (ihnaisa hinassi you kill)
h`
ГЉ (ГЉdyama` hr<dayam heart), ГЉPyaita (hrs<yati he enjoys), Г‡ (ga\Г‡aita grhn<[email protected] he takes), Г€ (vaiГ€:
vahni fire), M (baRMa [email protected]), H (dHtae dahyate it burns), Г‰ (ijaГ‰eita jihreti she blushes),
Г‹ (paRГ‹ad: [email protected]<), ГЊ (jauГЊita juhvati he performs offering)
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LESSON 9
navamah< [email protected]< navama: AByaasa:_
RAPID READING
9.1
THE SANSKRIT LANGUAGE
sam~skr<[email protected]<[email protected] sa>sГ—taBaaPaa_
saursa-saubaaeZaa ivaovamanaaeXaa LaiLataa ГЉ^a rmaNaIyaa_
Ama\tavaaNaI sa>sЛњtaBaaPaa naEva [email protected] na ca ki#naa__1__
[email protected] vis{[email protected] [email protected] hr<[email protected] raman<&[email protected],
Amr<[email protected]<& sam~skr<[email protected]<[email protected] naiva klis<t<[email protected] na c{a kat>[email protected]
(for meaning of Sanskrit verses, please see Appendix 9)
EXERCISE 21: ONLY FOR READING PRACTICE on what we have learned so far in the previous
pages. I assume that you have understood all previous lessons, before proceeding to the following
eight exercises.
Following eight exercises are ONLY FOR A PRACTICE IN READING simpler sentences containing
easy-to-read Sanskrit compound words. Please read the exercises several times, skip the meaning at this
stage, until you finish the book up to lesson 30. Attain a comfortable Sanskrit-reading skill, so that you
may be able to tackle the subsequent difficult exercises.
sa>saare Anaeka: BaaPaa: sainta_ ([email protected] [email protected]< [email protected]<ah
@ < santi) taasau savaa|sau sa>sЛњta-BaaPaa savaae|Tamaa ca
ГѓeP#a ca Aista_ ([email protected] [email protected] sam~skr<[email protected]< @ [email protected] c{a s{res<th
> [email protected] c{a asti) ]Paa Ama\ta-vaaNaI
gaIvaa|Na-vaaNaI gaIvaa|NaBaartaI deva-vaaNaI }tyaaidiBa: naamaiBa: Xaayatae_ (es<[email protected] amr<[email protected]&< , g&[email protected]< [email protected]&< ,
g&[email protected]< [email protected]& [email protected]&< [email protected]< [email protected]< [email protected] ate) ]Paa na k’vaLa> BaartaIyaanaa> BaaPaaNaa>
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jananaI Aista (es<[email protected] na kevalam[ [email protected]&[email protected][ [email protected]< n
@ a< m
@ [ janan& asti) Aipatau vaEdeioakanaa> BaaPaanaama`
Aipa jananaI Aista_ (apitu vaides{[email protected]@m[ [email protected]< n
@ [email protected] api janan& asti) /Paya: samaaiZama` AasYaaya ]naa>
saaxaata` Лњtavanta: (r<sa< yah< [email protected] [email protected]@ya [email protected][ [email protected]<[email protected] kr<tavantah<) Ata ]va ]Paa BaaPaa
daeParihtaa ivakaroaUnyaa sa>skar-sa>paВІa ca Aista_ (ata eva es<[email protected] [email protected]< @ dos<[email protected], [email protected]{un
@ [email protected],
[email protected]@ c{a asti)
Asyaa: vyaakrNama` AВ®utama` Aista_ ([email protected]< [email protected]<am adbhutam asti) sa>sГ—ta> vaEXaainak>
savaa|GГђpaUNa|> ca Aista_ (sam~skr<tam[ vaijn~an
@ ikam[ [email protected]
[ [email protected]<am[ c{a asti) Asyaa: oabdrcanaa
ABaUtapaUvaa| Aista_ ([email protected]< s{[email protected] [email protected]@[email protected] asti) Asyaa: ca oabdkaePa: sauivaoaaLa: Aista_
([email protected]< c{a s{abda-kos<ah< suvis{[email protected]< asti) saaihtya> ca sauLaiLatama` Aista_ ([email protected][ c{a sulalitam
asti) vaaLmaIik: vyaasa: kaiLadasapaRBa\taya: mahakvaya: ivaovasaaihtyae duLa|Baa: sainta_ ([email protected]&kih<, [email protected]<,
[email protected]@saprabhr<tayah< [email protected]< vis{[email protected] [email protected]< santi)
sa>sЛњtaBaaPaayaama` AnaekivaZaXaanama` iva^tae_ (sam~skr<[email protected]< [email protected] [email protected] aneka-vidha-jn~an
@ am[ vidyate)
Asyaa> BaaPaayaa> gaiNatasya jyaaeitaPasya Aayauvae|dsya AZyaatmasya ca saUxma-ivavaecanama` qpaLaByatae_ ([email protected][
[email protected]<am
@ [ gan<itasya, jyotis<asya, [email protected] [email protected] c{a [email protected]<ma-vivec{anam
upalabhyate) sa>sЛњta> BaartaIya-sa>sЛњtae: maULama` Aista_ (sam~skr<tam[ [email protected]&ya-sam~skr<teh< [email protected]
asti)
9.2
[email protected]@yan<am
ramaayaNama`_
kivakaeikLa-vaaLmaIik-ivaricataa ramaayaNa-rmaNaIyakYaa_
AtaIva sarLaa maZaura maГ�jauLaa naEva [email protected] na ca ki#naa__2__
[email protected]&ki-virac{[email protected], [email protected]@yan<a-raman<&[email protected],
At&va [email protected] [email protected] [email protected], naiva klis<t<[email protected] na c{a kat<[email protected]
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EXERCISE 22 : ONLY A READING EXERCISE.
rama> samauidtaE: gauNaE: yauF> samaIxya doarYa: tasya yaaEvarajyama` Amanyata`_ ([email protected][ samuditaih< gun<aih< yuktam[
sam&ks<ya das{arathah< tasya [email protected] amanyat) ivaivaZaana` naagairkana` naanaa jaanapadana` Aipa savaa|> saBaama` Aaman%ya
doarYa: qvaaca_ ([email protected] [email protected]@n [email protected]@ [email protected]@n api [email protected][ [email protected] [email protected] das{arathah< [email protected]{a) ГѓeP#:
]va mama pau%a: rama: savaE|: gauNaE: yauF: Aista_ Ata: yaaEvarajyae tama` inayaaejayaaima tasmaata` Anaumanyataama`_ (S}res<th
< ah< eva mama
putrah< [email protected]< sarvaih< gun<aih< yuktah< asti. Atah< [email protected] tam[ [email protected] [email protected] [email protected])
tae Aipa doarYama` Qcau: (te api das{aratham [email protected]{uh<) na\patae! (Nr<pate!) ГѓIrama: Zama|Xa: satyasanZa: oaILavaana` AnasaUyak:
(S}r&[email protected]< dharmajn~ah< satyasandhah< s{&[email protected] [email protected]<) tasmaata` sava|oa%audmanama` }mama` ГѓIrama> yaaEvarajyae vayama` Aipa
[email protected]` }cCama: ([email protected] sarvas{atrudamanam imam[ s{r&[email protected][ [email protected] vayam api dras<t<um ic{c{[email protected]<)
EXERCISE 23: Fill in the blanks.
(1) rama> samauidtaE: gauNaE: ------------- samaIxya_ (2) savaa|> saBaama` Aaman%ya ------------- qvaaca_
(3) mama pau%a: ------------- savaE|: gauNaE: yauF: Aista_ (4) yaaEvarajyae ------------- inayaaeFa Aisma_
(5) tae Aipa ------------- qcau:_ (6) ГѓIrama> yaaEvarajyae ------------- Aipa [email protected]` }cCama:_
9.3
A Devotional Song
bhakti-g&tam BaiFgaItama`_
EXERCISE 24 :
Only a Reading and Writing exercise. Read the paragrapha and write them in Sanskrit. If you want, the
meaning of the verses is given in Appendix 9 at the end.
S}r&kr>s<n<a govinda hare [email protected], He [email protected] [email protected]@yan<a [email protected],
Jihve! [email protected]>tametadeva, Govinda [email protected] [email protected]
Jihve! sadaiva bhaja [email protected]<i, [email protected]@ni kr<s<n<asya [email protected]<i,
Samasta [email protected]@s{[email protected], Govinda [email protected] [email protected]
S}r&kr<s<n<a [email protected]@vara gokules{a, [email protected] govardhana [email protected] vis<n<o,
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Jihve! [email protected]>tametadeva, Govinda [email protected] [email protected]
EXERCISE 25 :
Fill in the blanks with the Sanskrit words used in above English transliterated verses.
(1) ijaГЊe sadEva ------------------- saundraiNa _ (2) ------------------- ЛњPNasya manaaehraiNa_
(3) ------------------- BaFaita|ivanaaoanaaina_
(4) ГѓIЛњPNa raZaavar ------------------- _
(5) gaaepaaLa gaaevaZa|na ------------------- ivaPNaae_ (6) ------------------- damaaedr maaZavaeita _
9.4
[email protected]@ratam
mahaBaartama`_
vyaasaivaricataa gaNaeoaiLaiSataa mahaBaartae idvyakYaa_
kaErvapaaNDva-saGГђr-maiYataa naEva [email protected] na ca ki#naa__6__
[email protected]{[email protected] gan<es<[email protected], [email protected]@rate [email protected],
[email protected]<d<ava-san[[email protected], naiva klis<t<[email protected] na c{a kat<[email protected]
(for meaning of Sanskrit verses, please see Appendix 9)
EXERCISE 26 : READING EXERCISE. This is only a reading exercise. Read the following Sanskrit
paragraphs. Write them for practice.
vaEoampaayana: AbaRvaIta` (Vais{[email protected]< abrav&t)
tae paaNDvaa: vaIra: ba&SaDГђa: ba&k’oapaaoaa: kaiLandI> nadIma` AiBamauSama` Лњtvaa jagmau: (te [email protected]< a< [email protected]< v&[email protected]<
baddha-khad<[email protected]< baddha-kes{[email protected]{ah< [email protected][ nad&m abhimukham[ kr<[email protected] jagmuh<) tata: tae dixaNa>
taIr> paadaByaama` ]va AnvagacCna`_ (tatah< te daks<in<am[ t&ram[ [email protected]@m eva anvagac{c{han) tada tae
paaNDvaa: ([email protected] te [email protected]< a< [email protected])< inava\Tavanavaasaa: (nivr<[email protected]<) [email protected]Вј> paRepsava: ([email protected]< r< am[
prepsavah<) igairdugae|Pau vanadugae|Pau ZanauPmanta: (giri-durges<u vana-durges<u dhanus<mantah<) tae mahaZanauZaa|irNa:
mahabaLaa:
(te [email protected]@rin<ah< [email protected]@h)<
vanaePau
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ma\gasamaUhana`
oarE:
ivanZyanta:
(vanes<u
mr<[email protected]@n s{araih< vindhyantah<) qTareNa doaaNa| deoaana` (uttaren<a das<[email protected] n<a des{[email protected]) taYaa dixaNaena
paaГ�caaLaana` deoaana` ([email protected] daks<in<ena [email protected]~ {[email protected] [email protected] des{[email protected]) AntareNa ca (antaren<a c{a) yaЛњLLaaemaana` oaUrsaenaana`
Лњtvaa (yakr<[email protected] s{[email protected]@n kr<[email protected]) matsyasya ivaPaya> deoa> [email protected]: (matsyasya vis<ayam[ des{am[
pravis<ta< h
@ )<
tata:
matsyasya
nagar>
paRapya (tatah< matsyasya nagaram[ [email protected])
Zama|rajaana>
dRaEpadI
qvaaca_
([email protected]@nam[ draupad& [email protected]{a) paoya! ]kpa^: В±oyantae_ (pas{ya! ekapadyah< dr<s{yante) Ata: Anaena
icaГ€ena vyaFГ¤ Bavaita (atah< anena c{ihnena vyaktam[ bhavati) yata` [email protected] rajanagarI }ta: dUre ]va BaivaPyaita_
(yat [email protected]> sya [email protected]& itah< [email protected] eva bhavis<yati)
EXERCISE 27 : Fill in the blanks :
(1) tae ------------- vaIra: ba&SaDГђa:_
(2) tae ------------- taIr> padaByaama` ]va AnvagacCna`_
(3) [email protected] rajanagarI }ta: ------------- ]va BaivaPyaita_
9.5
The G&[email protected] gaItaa_
kÖwxae%a-samara>GÐNa-gaItaa, ivaovavaindtaa Bagava§Itaa_
Ama\tamaZaura kma|dIipaka, naEva [email protected] na ca ki#naa__7__
Kuruks<[email protected][gan<a-g&[email protected]{[email protected] bhagavadg&[email protected],
Amr<[email protected] karma-d&[email protected] naiva klis<t>[email protected] na c{a kat<hina.
EXERCISE 28 : READING EXERCISE
saГ�jaya: qvaaca_ ta> taYaa Лњpayaa [email protected]` AГѓupaUNaa|k•lexaNama` ivaPaIdna` tama` }d> vaaKyama` qvaaca maZausaUdna:_ k•ta: tvaa
komalma` }dma` ivaPamae samaupaisYatama`_ Anaaya|[email protected]` Asvagya|ma` AkIita|krma` Ajau|na! KlEbya> maa sma gama: paaYa|! na ]tata` tvaiya
qpapa^tae_ xaudRma` ГЉdya-daEba|Lya> tyaKtvaa qiTaP# par>tapa!
San~jayah< [email protected]{a. Tam[ [email protected] kr<[email protected] [email protected]<t>am as{[email protected]<[email protected] uleks<an<am[ vis<&dan tam idam[ [email protected] [email protected]{a
[email protected]<. Kutah< [email protected] kas{malam idam[ vis<ame sam-upasthitam. [email protected]<ta> m asvargyam
ak&rtikaram arjuna! Klaibyam[ [email protected] sma gamah< [email protected]! na etat tvayi upapadyate. Ks<udram[ hr<dayadaurbalyam[ [email protected] uttis<th
> a parantapa!
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EXERCISE 29 : Fill in the blanks
(1) ivaPaIdna` tama` }d> vaaKyama` qvaaca ------------- _
(2) k•ta: tvaa komalma` }dma` ------------- samaupaisYatama`?
(3) xaudRma` ГЉdya-daEba|Lyama` ------------- qiTaP# par>tapa!
9.6
I am S{iva
s{ivo]ham ioavaae~hma`_
EXERCISE 30: Reade and write the verses as you see them. For meaning see Appendix 9.
Na me dves<[email protected] na me lobha-mohau, Mado naiva me naiva [email protected]@vah<,
Na dharmo na c{[email protected] na [email protected] na moks<ah<, C}[email protected]@pah< s{ivo]ham[ s{ivo]ham.
na mae VeParagaaE na mae LaaeBamaaehaE_ madae naEva mae naEva maatsaya|Baava:_
na Zamaae| na caaYaae| na kamaae na maaexa:_ icadanandWpa: ioavaae~h> ioavaae~hma`__8__
Na pun<yam[ na [email protected][ na saukhyam[ na duh<kham, Na mantro na t&rtham[ na [email protected] na yajn~ah
@ ,<
Aham[ bhojanam[ naiva bhojyam[ na [email protected], C}[email protected]@pah< s{ivo]ham[ s{ivo]ham.
na pauNya> na paapa> na saaESya> na du:Sama`_ na ma>%aae na taIYa|> na vaeda na yaXaa:_
Ah> Baaejana> naEva Baaejya> na BaaeFa_ icadanandWpa: ioavaae~h> ioavaae~hma`__9__
Na me mr<tyu-s{an[[email protected] na me [email protected]<, Pita naiva me naiva [email protected]@ na janma,
Na bandhurna mitram[ gururnaiva s{is<yah<, C}[email protected]@pah< s{ivo]ham[ s{ivo]ham.
na mae ma\tyauoaGГЌa na mae jaaitaBaed:_ ipataa naEva mae naEva maataa na janma_
na banZauna| ima%a> gauwnaE|va ioaPya:_ icadanandWpa: ioavaae~h> ioavaae~hma`__10__
Aham[ nirvikalpo [email protected]@[email protected]<, [email protected] [email protected]<[email protected],
[email protected] me samatvam[ na muktirna bandhah<, C}[email protected]@pah< s{ivo]ham[ s{ivo]ham.
Ah> inaiva|kLpaae inarakarWpa:_ ivaBauvyaa|pyasava|%a savae|indRyaaNaama`_
sada mae samatva> na mauiFna| banZa:_ icadanandWpa: ioavaae~h> ioavaae~hma`__11__
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PART 9.7
OBEISANCE TO THE MOTHERLAND
Vande [email protected] vande maatarma`_
EXERCISE 31: Read this beautiful prayer from Bankim Chandra Chaterji's poetry.
vande maatarma`_ saujaLaa> saufLaa> maLayaja-oaItaLaama`_
oasyaoyaamaLaa> maatarma`_ vande maatarma`__12__
Vande [email protected], [email protected][ [email protected][ malayaja-s{&[email protected],
S}asya-s{[email protected]@m[ [email protected], vande [email protected]
oauBaR-jyaaetsnaa> pauLaikta-yaaimanaIma`_ sauhaisanaI> saumaZaur-BaaiPaNaIma`_
sauSada> varda> maatarma`_ vande maatarma`__13__
S}[email protected][ [email protected]&m, [email protected]&m[ [email protected]<in<&m,
[email protected][ [email protected][ [email protected], vande [email protected]
iva^adaiyaina namaaima tvaama`_ namaaima kmaLaama` AmaLaama` AtauLaama`_
saujaLaa> saufLaa> maatarma`_ vande maatarma`__14__
[email protected]@yini! [email protected] [email protected], [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected],
[email protected][ [email protected][ [email protected], vande [email protected]
oyaamaLaa> sarLaama`_ sauismataa> BaUiPataama`_
ZarNaI> BarNaI> maatarma`_ vande maatarma`__15__
S}[email protected]@m[ [email protected], [email protected][ [email protected]<[email protected],
Dharan<im[ bharan<im[ [email protected], vande [email protected]
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9.8
THE VEDAS
The [email protected]& Chant
gaaya%aI-ma>%a:_
gaItaa gaGÐa caò gaaóyaó%aI gaaeivandeita Êòidó isYòatae_ catauga|karòsa>óyauóF’ paunaja|nma naò ivaó^òtae__16__
G&[email protected] gan[[email protected] c{a [email protected]& govindeti hr<di sthite, c{[email protected]~yukte punarjanma na vidyate.
Loftiest among all Sanskrit writings is the divine [email protected]& Mantra.
EXERCISE 32: Read, write and compare the Sanskrit and English characters.
1. Е’ BaUBau|va: sva:_ tatsaivatauva|reNya> Bagaae| devasya ZaImaih_ iZayaae yaae na: paRcaaedyaata`__17__
Om[ [email protected]< svah<, tatsaviturvaren<yam[ bhargo devasya dh&mahi, dhiyo yo nah< prac{[email protected]
2. Е’ ]kdntaaya ivaВЇhe_ vaГ›tauNDaya ZaImaih_ taВІae dntaI paRcaaedyaata`__18__
Om[ [email protected] vidmahe, vakratun<da< [email protected] a dh&mahi, tanno dant& prac{[email protected]
3. Е’ tatpauwPaaya ivaВЇhe_ mahadevaaya ZaImaih_ taВІae wdR: paRcaaedyaata`__19__
Om[ tatpurus<[email protected] a vidmahe, [email protected]@ya dh&mahi, tanno rudrah< prac{[email protected]
4. Е’ naarayaNaaya ivaВЇhe_ vaasaudevaaya ZaImaih_ taВІae ivaPNau: paRcaaedyaata`__20__
Om[ [email protected]@yan<[email protected] a vidmahe, [email protected]@ya dh&mahi, tanno vis<n<uh< prac{[email protected]
5. Е’ devyaE baRMaNyaE ivaВЇhe_ mahaoaKtyaE ca ZaImaih_ taВІae devaI paRcaaedyaata`__21__
Om[ devyai [email protected]< ai vidmahe, [email protected]{aktyai c{a dh&mahi, tanno dev& prac{[email protected]
6. Е’ mahaLaxmyaE ca ivaВЇhe_ ivaPNaupatnyaE ca ZaImaih_ taВІae LaxmaI paRcaaedyaata`__22__
Om[ [email protected]<myai c{a vidmahe, vis<nu< patnyai c{a dh&mahi, tanno laks<m& prac{[email protected]
7. Е’ Baaskraya ivaВЇhe_ mahВЄВ№uitakraya ZaImaih_ taВІae Aaidtya: paRcaaedyaata`__23__
Om[ [email protected]@ya vidmahe, [email protected] dh&mahi, tanno [email protected]< prac{[email protected]
8. gaaya%yaastau par²aista oaaeZana> paapakma|Naama`_ gaaya>ta> %aayatae yasmaa§aya%aI saa tata: sma\taa__24__
[email protected]@stu [email protected] s{odhanam[ [email protected]<[email protected], [email protected][ [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]& [email protected] tatah< smr<[email protected]
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