The Declaration of Independence Let’s Review! • What is mercantilism? • What was the impact of the French & Indian War? • Name two ways the Colonists “protested” the Acts. (Think Stamp Act & Tea Act) • What “letter” did the First Continental Congress draft? • What is significant about “Lexington and Concord” • What is “Common Sense”? Today’s Goal Explain the origin of the Declaration of Independence as well as summarize and interpret this as a important founding document in American history. The Declaration of Independence • Thomas Jefferson was the main author of the Declaration, though he received some help from other notable Americans. • The initial document was presented…. • 86 Changes were made in 1 day! • Nearly 1/5 of the document was eliminated • Leaving 1,337 powerful words What Was at Risk? • The Second Continental Congress decided that the DOI was needed and approved the document after revisions were made. • 56 Signers (at least one from each of the 13 colonies) were in attendance • By signing their name to the document, each man was committing an act of treason against the crown. • “We must indeed all hang together, or most assuredly, we shall all hang separately.” - Benjamin Franklin Who Were the Risktakers? Jefferson, Franklin, Hancock, and Adams are well known – but many of the other men have compelling stories as well… Franklin was the oldest, eighteen were under 40, three were in their 20s, half were lawyers, 9 were landowners, 11 were merchants, the rest were doctors, ministers, & politicians… What Did They Have to Lose? But Above All Else… • These 56 signers risked the ultimate… Their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor The Signers of the Declaration • The signers, as representatives of the American people, declared American Independence from Great Britain on July 4, 1776!!!! • (Most members actually signed on August 2 though) • Was this treasonous? Why or Why not? Food for Thought… Why are these statements significant? • “My hand trembles, but my heart does not.” - Stephen Hopkins • “I am no longer a Virginian, Sir, but an American.” - Patrick Henry Why is this Significant? The Title says… The unanimous Declaration of the united States of America Declaration of Independence • There are four major components of the DOI: • Introduction • Rights of the People (Natural Rights) • Complaints of the Colonists (Grievances) • Declaration of a new Nation – the united States Parts of the Declaration • The Colonists were tired of the how they were being treated by the British – they were IRCD (annoyed) • I – introduction • R – rights of the people • C – complaints against the king • D – declaration of a new nation Introduction • Explains why the Continental Congress drew up the Declaration • “When in the Course of Human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another……………. a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation…” Rights • The second part of the Declaration lists the natural rights of the citizens. • It explains that in a republic, people form a government to protect their rights. LET’S ANALYZE THIS! “We hold these truths to be self-evident (clearly true), that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable (inalienable) rights (Cannot be taken away), that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness… That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed! (permission of the people)… that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new government. (Social contract = natural rights + the role of the government) According to this, what is the relationship between natural rights and the role of the government? Complaints • Lists the colonists grievances against the British government • Who is singled out? • Examples- WRITE THESE DOWN • He refused assent to laws (laws written by the Colonies) • He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without Consent of our legislature (quartering soldiers) • He…has imposed taxes on us without our consent • He has taken away our right to a trial by jury • He has limited our judicial powers • He has dissolved our legislatures Overall the colonists were oppressed (unjust treatment) by the tyranny of the King. What is the connection between these grievances and natural rights? Declaration of a New Nation • The final section declares that the colonies are “13 Free and Independent States”. • What is significant about that statement? • The states now had the power to wage war, to form alliances and to trade with other nations. How Do You Feel? • Now that we’ve discussed the DOI… How confident do you feel about your understanding of IRCD? SHR: Fireworks http://www.bing.com/videos/search ?q=school+house+rocks+fireworks &FORM=VIRE1#view=detail&mid= 7F411EE8BC213D5561A77F411EE 8BC213D5561A7 Now it’s Your Turn! • Acting as a modern day “Thomas Jefferson” – you now have a chance to rewrite the Declaration of Independence. • Let’s take a look at the project instructions. • Due on Wednesday, September 30!
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