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1: 倒置構文
① SVM
MVS: The bus comes here.
Here comes the bus.
SVC
CSV/ CVS: She is beautiful.
Beautiful she is./
SVO
Beautiful is she.
OSV: Macho loves Angelina.
Angelina Macho loves.
SVO1O2
SVO2 to O1: Macho gave his girlfriend a song.
Macho gave a song to his girlfriend.
SVOC
SVCO: Her assistance made my realization of dream possible.
Her assistance made possible my realization of dream.
SV
v’SV: I never dreamed of it.
Never did I dream of it.
② 1) 英文のバランスを整える(初めスッキリ、後コッテリ)
2) 旧[既知]情報(←文頭の方へ)
新[未知]情報(→文末の方へ)
3) 感情を強調する
2: 挿入構文
① a) ,<挿入>, / b) ― <挿入> ―
② a) S, <挿入>, v’V… / Sv’, <挿入>, V… / SV…, <挿入>
③ a) 補足説明
b) 同格
3: 省略構文
① a) 文法上の省略
b) 構造上の省略 (同じ形の繰返しを避ける為)
② a) that(接続詞・関係詞)/ 倒置によるIfの省略/ 代不定詞/ 比較構文…
b) 全て: 動詞/名詞/形容詞/副詞/SV,,,
4: 等位(共通)関係構文
① FANBOYS: for/ and/ nor/ but/ or/ yet/so
② 1) 直後の品詞/構造を確認
③ (and, but, or, nor)
2)
って等しい品詞/構造を発見する
語~節(SV)まで等しく結ぶことができる
④ (for, yet, so) 等しく結ぶことはできるのは節(SV)のみ
⑤ both A and B/ not A but B/ not only A but (also) B/ either A or B/
neither A nor B
5: 強調構文 vs 仮(形式)主語構文
① 強調構文の型: It is(was) [強調要素] that(who, which)…
② 強調可能な要素×3
a) 名詞(節・句)
後ろは[不完全文]
b) 副詞(節・句)
c) 疑問詞( *It is(was)…thatの間に挟み込まれることは無い)
③ 仮(形式)主語構文との相違点×2
1) 形容詞を挟みこむ 2)名詞を挟み込んでも後ろは[完全文]
仮(形式)主語が指せるもの×トップ4
a) toV…
b) that…
c) 疑問詞…
比)仮(形式)目的語が指せるもの×2
d) if/whether…
a) toV…
b) that…のみ
(A) 次の英文のカッコ内に入れるのに最も適切なものを一つ選択しなさい。
1) “ It doesn’t often happen.” “ No, I suppose (
① right ② that ③ too ④ not
2) She was surprised at the news. Not a word (
① did ② but ③ that ④ as
).
[上智大]
) she say.
[上智大]
3) They are not crazy, ( ) are they fools.
① or ② nor ③ both ④ either
[上智大]
4) ( ) she hung up than she remembered what she’d meant to tell him.
① No sooner had ② When ③ Much later did ④ As soon as
[法政大]
5) Mom always says it is kindness ( ) plays a very important part in human
relationships.
[明治大]
① what ② that ③ who ④ whose ⑤ it
6) I haven’t watched a new movie yet, (
paper.
① or ② and ③ because ④ if ⑤ nor
) will I until I have finished my term
[明治大]
7) ( ) you have any questions, please do not hesitate to ask us.
① Should ② Had ③ May ④ Unless
[明治大]
8) Having listened to our story, Mary said that he was indeed such a fool
and I was ( ).
[中央大]
① another ② each ③ either ④ other
9) I wasn’t expecting to have a good time at the party, but (
① it was ② I did ③ it had ④ I was ⑤ it did
).
[昭和大]
10) Then the funeral procession began to move. The car following the hearse
was the family car, [ ] sat the niece and her parents.
[専修大]
① that ② in which ③ from which ④ who
(B) 次の英文のカッコ内を並び替え、英文を完成させなさい。
1) I wonder [ what/ that/ is making/ it is/ the noise] upstairs.
[センター試験]
2)「あなたの言うことが正しいかどうかは後になって見ないと分かりません」(一語不要)
[ after/ are/ be/ it/ remains/ right/ seen/ to/ whether/ you]
[東京理科大]
3) 「私を傷つけたのは上司の言ったことではなく、その言い方だった」
[立命館大]
It [ boss/ not/ said/ that/ the/ was/ what] offended me, but how he said it.
4) Only [ did/ meant/ I/ what/ then/ he/ had/ understand]
[専修大]
5) 「富も幸運もそのような奇跡をもたらさない」
[四天王寺国際仏教大]
Riches do not work [ a miracle/ nor/ does/ good/ such/ luck/ ,]
6) [ did/ he/ would/ I/ little/ of/ think/ win] the first prize. (1語不要)
[東京理科大]
(C)次の英文中の文法上取り除く必要がある語を指摘し、和訳しなさい。
Among the many consequences of those political developments was for one that in the
end turned out to be too complicated for the government to handle.
[東京大]
(D) 次の英文の下線部を和訳しなさい。
1) Most women do not think that they’ve been unfairly treated. Although the vast
majority of American women believe that women in general suffer discrimination, in
study after study researchers can find very few women who say that they themselves
have experienced discrimination. If you’re one of that majority, you might want to check
again. You may be the victim of a phenomenon called “the denial of personal
disadvantage,” in which members of a particular group recognize that other members of
their group have suffered unfair treatment but believe that they themselves have not.
[中央大]
2) In Britain, a spinning jenny cost less than a five months’ wages, while in
low-wage France it cost more than a year’s wage. It was cheap French labor
that accounted for the machine’s slow adoption on the continent.
[名古屋大]
3) *Sheは時代の変遷に伴う文明化を嫌う老女である*
She wouldn’t have an electric food processor or have a credit card. She liked,
she said, chopping vegetables, and when she paid for something, she wanted
to feel, on the tips of her fingers, on the palms of her hands, the cost. [東京大]
4) Looking at the picture, I see a woman who had she been twenty-three in the
1980s would have had limitless options available to her. I look at the picture,
and I know that had she decided to pursue personal pleasure or professional
accomplishment, doors would have been open to her. In the picture she is a
person whom, had I been a young man in 1942, I would have wanted to know.
[藤田保健衛生大]
5) (1)Not only had Elena managed to calm Gracie, but she also dressed her in
the exact clothes we failed to get her to wear twenty minutes earlier. Friends
don’t have to be the same in order to get along. Sometimes, (2)it is the
differences that makes a friendship work. In Gracie and Elena’s case, it is also
what makes them perfect for each other.
[慶應大]
6) Democracy assumes the protection of the values that contemplative reading
makes possible―the self-awareness of citizens, their privacy, and their
capacity to understand for themselves. Only because of such reading is each
person a center of knowing, thinking, choosing, and acting.
[産業医科大]
7) In the beginning, our remote ancestors had no traditional knowledge of the
regularity of the motions of the sun and the moon to guide them. Only after they
had learnt to count and do simple arithmetic, and after many nights of careful
observation of the heavens, did the calendar begin to take shape.
[慶應大]
8) It is precisely because journalists appear to have this power to reconstruct
reality according to their preferences and biases that they have come under
increasing attack by politicians and critics. In 1969, it will be recalled, then
Vice President Spiro T. Agnew directed his fury at newsmen’s “instant
analysis” of presidential statements and suggested that this analysis distorted
issues of vital importance to the nation.
[中央大] 9) An examination of sports’ values and ethics is fruitful in the further
understanding of culture. It is the idea that sports are a mirror of society that
gives the field one of its best claims for existence.
[同志社大]
10) Silence is an act of nonverbal communication that transmits many kinds of
meaning dependent on cultural norms of interpretation. Silent behavior occurs
in all societies, although its message varies both between and within different
groups. It conveys meaning, as does all communication, partly from the
situational and interactional contexts of its use. Emphasizing the “use” of
silence uses on the fact that silence does not simply exist but is actively
created by participants.
[大阪大]
11) When we are in the grasp of an illusion ― or, for that matter, whenever we
have a new idea ― instead of searching for ways to prove our ideas wrong, we
usually attempt to prove them correct. Psychologists call this the confirmation
bias, and it presents a major barrier to our ability to break free from the
misinterpretation of randomness.
[横浜市立大]
12) So where does the resilience come from? It comes from the wisdom our
children have always had but do not know they have until they need it.
Ultimately, resilience comes from the gift of life itself; we get wounded and then
we heal. It is almost inevitable.
[千葉大]
13) The paper was published in 1866 in the Brunn Natural History Society’s
journal, but Mendel’s work was largely ignored during his lifetime. It was only
in 1900, 16 years after his death, that other researchers rediscovered
Mendel’s laws and realized that he had anticipated them.
[九州大]
14) Any policeman will tell you that four witnesses at the scene of an accident
will give four different stories of what happened; so we must accept that every
contemporary account is one person’s account, filtered through subjectively
and the often unreliable channel of memory. Nevertheless it is impossible not
to be gripped, absorbed and often moved by letters, diaries and court records.
It is a quite different experience from reading novelized versions of the events,
and even historical accounts of them. The consciousness that the writer was
there makes a big difference.
[京都大]
15) The European revolution in eating habits was gradual and varied both with
respect to timing and character from region to region. (1)To study it in detail
would require going over basic steps of the Industrial Revolution to which it
was closely linked. (2)Even in Britain and France it was only at the end of the
nineteenth century that a significant change became apparent, namely a shift
to a meat-based diet.
[福岡大]
16) The life of a physicist can be a lonely one. Imagine this: You sit down in an
airplane, and the person next to you asks you what you do for a living. You
reply that you’re a physicist. From here, the conversation can go one of two
ways. Nine times out of ten, the first thing out of his or her mouth is something
along these lines: “Physics? I hated that class!”
You’ll then spend the rest of the trip (or party, or elevator ride, or date)
apologizing for the emotional trauma that physics has apparently inflicted on
your friend. These random encounters often reveal an almost joyful contempt,
reserved specifically for the fields of physical science and mathematics.
“Oh,I’m terrible at algebra!” for example, is said in an almost boastful tone, in a
way that “I barely even know how to read!” never would. But why?
[京都大]
17) Why is it that I always feel pessimistic about the lack of drive Japanese
learners of English have toward learning English pronunciation?
[久留米大]
18) Within two years Disneyland was attracting 4.5 million visitors a year. The
average customer, according to Time magazine, spent $4.90 on a day at
Disneyland ― $2.72 for rides and admission, $2 for food, and 18 cents for
souvenirs. That seems pretty reasonable to me now ― it is awfully hard to
believe it wasn’t reasonable then ― but evidently these were shocking price.
The biggest complaint of Disney customers in the park’s first two years, Time
reported, was the cost.
[岡山大]
19) The period in development involves a tale of two children, both of whom
must acquire hundreds upon hundreds of words, thousands of concepts, and
tens of thousands of auditory and visual perceptions. These are the raw
materials for developing the major components of reading. Owing largely to
their environments, however, one child will acquire these essentials, and the
other will not.
[旭川大]
20) The authors also suggested that alcohol was integrated into the existing
social and cultural patterns of the Indian populations. Some Indians, for
instance, concluded that alcohol was an “evil supernatural agent” which
possessed the individual and was responsible for any bad behavior, and since
it was an agent, and not the individual, that was responsible, actions when
drunk were largely excused.
[自治医科大]
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