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1 2005.8.24 第㸮章 ベヴァリッジの福祉社会論:三部作の

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2005.8.24
➠㸮❮ ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ⚗♬♣ఌㄵ㸯୔㒂షࡡ⤣ྙ*
➠㸦⟿ ࡢࡋࡴ࡞
⚗♬ᅗᐓమโࡢ⏍ࡀṟࡾ࠾ࠉ࡛࠷࠹ၡ࠷࡞ᑊࡌࡾ➽࠻ࡢᵕࠍ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ᪜࡞⤂
ↁࡊࡒ࡛࠷࠹୹ᘿࡵ࠵ࡿࡣࠉᢀึⓏᒈ㛜ࢅ┘ᣞࡌモࡲࡵ࠵ࡾ1ࠊᮇ❮ࡢ⚗♬ᅗᐓ
⌦ᛍࡡスゝ⩽ࡱ࡚Ṍྍࢅ㐫ࡽࠉᙴࡡᛦ⩻ࢅよ㔐ࡌࡾࠊ⤎ㄵ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴ
ࢩ㸝William Beveridge 1879-1963㸞ࡡᛦᝫࡢ㏳ᖏࡡよ㔐ࢅ㉰࠻ࠉ⚗♬♣ఌࡡ⩻
᱄⩽࡛ࡊ්࡙フ౮࡚ࡀࡾ࡛ㄵࡍࡾࠊࡐࡿ࡞ࡢᙴࡡᚃ᭿୔㒂షࢅ༎ฦ࡞්⩻ࡊ࡝
ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊ➠㸧⟿࡚♣ఌಕ㝸ㄵࢅࠉ➠㸨⟿࡚Ᏸධ㞘⏕ㄵࢅࠉ➠㸩⟿࡚⮤
ⓆⓏὩິㄵࢅཱིࡽ୕ࡅࠉ➠㸪⟿࡚୔㒂షࡡ⤣ྙࢅモࡲࡾࠊ
➠㸧⟿ ࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࠗ
ࠖ♣ఌಕ㝜࠽ࡻࡦ㛭㏻ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪࠗࡢ 1942 ᖳ 12 ᭮㸦᪝࡞ฝ∟ࡈࡿࡒࠊ࢕࢟ࣛ
ࢪᅗẰࡢ⇍≤Ⓩ࡞ࡆࡡࠔᡋᚃࡡ්ᘋゝ⏤ࠕ2ࢅུࡄථࡿࡒࠊ㸧᫤㛣࡚㸬୒㒂࠿኉
ࡿࠉ㸦ᖳ㛣࡚ 62 ୒㸪༐㒂኉ࡿࡒ࡛ゕࢂࡿࡾࠊ㸧ࣧ᭮ᚃࡡୠㄵㄢᰕ࡚ࡢࠉࡆࡡሒ
࿈᭡ࢅ▩ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾ⩽ࡢ 95㸚ࠉ㈰ᠺࡡ⩽ࡢ 88㸚ࠉཬᑊࡡ⩽ࡢ㸫㸚࡚࠵ࡖࡒ3ࠊࡆ
ࡡࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࠗࡢᡋ᫤࡞࠵ࡖ࡙ࠉᑑᮮゝ⏤ࡡᥞ♟࡛࠷࠹ᡥṹ࡚࢕࢟ࣛ
ࢪᅗẰࢅ⤣ୌࡊࡒࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ௧ୖ࡚ࡢࠉࡱࡍࡆࡡሒ࿈᭡ࡡහᐖࢅ␆㏑ࡊࠉࡗ࠷
࡚ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ㸝John Maynard Keynes 1883-1946㸞࡛ࡡ༝഼㛭౿ࢅᣞᦤࡌࡾࠊ
2-1 ሒ࿈᭡ࡡහᐖ࡛๑ᥞ
*
ࡆࡡ◂✪ࡢࠉ⛁Ꮥ◂✪㈕⿭ຐ㔘࣬ᇱ┑◂✪ Cࠔ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ⤊ῥᛦ᝷ࠕ
㸝15530132ࠉ2003-2004㸞࡞ࡻࡖ࡙㈠㔘ᥴຐࡈࡿࡒࠊ
1 ⚗♬ᅗᐓㄵࡢⓊᐓண㫾࡚࠵ࡽࠉ⠾༟࡝ᒈ᭻ࡢ୘ྊ⬗࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡡโ⣑࡚ḗࡡᩝ
⊡ࢅᣪࡅ࡙࠽ࡂࠊᑙථ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡢᑚᯐ㸝1990㸞
ࠉᐋᮇ㸝1999: ᗆ❮㸞ࠉ⚗♬ᅗᐓᢀ
ึࡡᴣふ࡛ࡊ࡙ Pierson㸝1991: Ch.2㸞ࠉ⚗♬ᅗᐓࡡ㢦ᆵ࡛ࡊ࡙ Esping-Andersen
㸝1990: Ch.1㸞ࠉ⚗♬ኣඔ୹⩇࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࡢ Johnson㸝1987: Ch.3㸞ࠉ⚗♬ࡡᬉ㐚
Ⓩ࣬ူᏕⓏ⩻ᐳࡢ Spicker㸝2000: Ϫ.2㸞࣬ሲ㔕ㆺ㸝2002: ➠㸫❮㸞ࢅཤ↯ࠊ
2 ࠔᆀ୕ࡡᴞᅧゝ⏤ࠕNew Jerusalem ࡡୌ⎌࡚࠵ࡾࠊDurbin㸝1985: 5㸞
ࠉCockett
㸝1995: 59㸞ࠉClarke㸝1997: 146㸞ࠊ
3 ᩐᏊ࡞㛭ࡊ࡙ࡢ Cockett㸝1995: 60㸞
ࠉẗฺ㸝1990: 220㸞ࡻࡽࠊኬⶮ┤ࡢ࢓࣒
ࣛ࢜∟ࢅ᛬㑁༰ใࡊࠉ5000 ࢺࣜࡡ⣟─ࢅ୕ࡅࡒ㸝Beveridge 1955: 320㸞ࠊ
1
ࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࠗࡢໜᣋⓏ࣬㔕ᚨⓏ࡝♣ఌスゝゝ⏤࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡡゝ⏤ࡢ
ࡌ࡬࡙ࡡ஥㇗࡞┘ࢅ㒼ࡽ࡝࠿ࡼࠉ⃨Ὲ࠿௛ࡄࡼࡿࡒᑊ➿⩄࠿ࡥ࡛ࡱ࡛ࡱࡽ࡞࡝
ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢࡱࡍெ㢦ࡡ஫ኬᝇࢅฦ㢦ࡌࡾࠊ❋இ Wantࠉ⑄⑋
Diseaseࠉ↋▩ Ignoranceࠉ㜼㝴㸝୘₡㸞Squalorࠉ↋Ⅵ㸝ᛨ᝴㸞Idleness ࡚࠵
ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1942: 170, para.456㸞ࠊืࡡᡥṹࢅ⤄ࡲྙࢂࡎࡒ♣ఌᨳ➿࡚㸪ࡗ
ࡡᕠᝇࢅ಻ࡌ࡬ࡀࡓ࠿ࠉ㡨ᗆࡵ㔔さ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ❋இࡢ᭩ᝇࡡᝇᚠࡓ࠿ࠉྜྷ᫤࡞⤧
⁓ࡈࡎࡷࡌ࠷ࠊࡹ࠻࡞ᅗᐓࡢࠔ❋இ࠾ࡼࡡ⮤⏜ࠕࢅ➠ୌ┘ᵾ࡛ࡌࡾ㸝Beveridge
1942: 7, para.11㸞ࠊࡆࡡ❋இࢅ᰷⤧ࡌࡾᡥἪࡢ♣ఌಕ㝸 social security ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
♣ఌಕ㝸࡛ࡢරమⓏ࡞ࠉ཭ථࡡ୯᩷࣬✄ᚋງࡡ႕኶࣬≁ืᨥฝࡡ᫤࡞ࠉ᭩఩㝀
ᗐࡡᡜᚋ࠿ಕッࡈࡿࡾࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡽࠉ࡚ࡀࡾࡓࡄ㏷ࡷ࠾࡞ᡜᚋࡡ୯᩷ࢅ⤂ࢂࡼࡎ
ࡾࡻ࠹࡞᥈⨠ࢅㅦࡋࡾࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1942: 120, para.300㸞ࠊࡒࡓࡊࡆ
ࡆ࡞㔔ኬ࡝๑ᥞ࠿࠵ࡾࠊሒ࿈᭡ࡡᥞ᱄࠿Ᏸ㐑ࡌࡾ࡞ࡢࠉ (1)ඡ❲ᡥᙔࠉ(2)ໜᣋ
Ⓩ༈⒢ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪࠉ(3)Ᏸධ㞘⏕ ࠿๑ᥞ࡛ࡈࡿ࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷㸝Beveridge
1942: 120, para.301㸞ࠊ(1)ࡢ 15 ṋࡱࡒࡢ 16 ṋ௧ୖࡡඡ❲࡞ᑊࡊ࡙ᨥ⤝ࡈࡿࡾࠊ
㈜㔘࠿ኰࡡຘ഼࡞ᑍࡼᇱࡘ࠷࡙࠷ࡾ㝀ࡽࠉኬᐓ᪐ࡢ┞ᑊⓏ࡞❋இ໩ࡌࡾࠊࡐࡆ
࡚♣ఌಕ㝜࡛ࡢืᯗ࡚ඡ❲ᡥᙔ࠿ᚪさ࡞࡝ࡾࠊ(2)ࡢ⑄⑋ࡡ஢㜭࣬἖⒢࠽ࡻࡦຘ
഼⬗ງࡡᅂᚗ࡚࠵ࡽࠉ࡚ࡀࡾࡓࡄ㏷ࡷ࠾࡞ຘ഼ᕰሔ࡞ᕰẰࢅᡘࡌࡆ࡛ࢅ┘Ⓩ࡛
ࡌࡾࠊ኶ᴏࡢ᭩ᝇࡡᾁ㈕ᙟឺࡓ࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ(3)ࡢ㛏᭿ࡡ኶ᴏ࡞ᶊฺ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡡ↋
᮪௲⌟㔘ᨥ⤝ࢅ⾔࠹ࡆ࡛ࡢࠉ㐠⩇ᚨࢅ఩ୖࡈࡎࡾࡒࡴ࡞ይࡱࡊࡂ࡝࠷࡛࠷࠹ึ
࡚᩷࠵ࡾࠊ༟࡝ࡾᡜᚋಕ㝸ࡢெ㛣ࡡᖶ⚗࡞ࡢ୘༎ฦ࡚࠵ࡽࠉᏰධ㞘⏕࡛࠷࠹ᖲ
➴ࡡᶭఌ࠿࡝ࡄࡿࡣࠉࡆࡡཋ์ࢅ㈇ࡄ࡝࠷ࠊ
ࡆࡡ๑ᥞࡡୖࠉḗࡡ㸨ࡗࢅ⤣ྙࡈࡎࡒโᗐ࠿♣ఌಕ㝸మโ࡛࡝ࡾࠊࡆࡆ࡞ࠉ
Ẓ㔔ࡡ㐢࠹୔ṹ㝭ฦ㢦࡛࠷࠹࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ≁ᚡ࠿᭩ኬ㝀࡞ฝ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ௧ୖ࡚
㸨ࡗࡡ≁ᚡ࡛㛭㏻ᛮࢅ㏑࡬ࡾࠊ
➠㸦࡞୹ࡡᡥṹ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉᇱᮇⓏᚪ㞺∸ needs ࡞ᑊࡌࡾ♣ఌಕ㝜࠿࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡿ
ࡢᙁโⓏ࡝ᣈฝཋ์ࢅᣚࡗࠊಕ㝜ᩩࡡᣈฝ࡛ᘤࡀ᭨࠻࡞ࠉᕰẰධဤ࠿᭩఩㝀⏍
ὩỀ‵ subsistence ࡱ࡚ᡜᚋಕ㝸ࢅᶊฺ࡛ࡊ࡙ᣚࡗࠊ♣ఌಕ㝜ࢅᐁ⾔ࡌࡾࡒࡴ࡞
ḗࡡ㸫ࡗࡡཋ์ࢅᏬࡾ࡬ࡀ࡚࠵ࡾࠊᆍୌ⤝௛㸝᭩఩⏍Ὡ㈕㸞ࠉᆍୌᣈฝ㸝ಕ㝜ᩩ㸞ࠉ
⾔ᨳ㈈௴ࡡ⤣ୌࠉ㐲ḿ࡝⤝௛㢘ࠉ
ໜᣋᛮࠉ⿍ಕ㝜⩽ࡡฦ㢦࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1942:
9, para.17㸞ࠊ㸦␊┘ࡡᆍୌ⤝௛࡛ࡢࠉᡜᚋࡡኣᐵ࡞࠾࠾ࢂࡼࡍࠉ᭩఩㝀ᗐࡡ⏍
Ὡ㈕ࡡࡲࢅᅗᐓ࠿࡜ࢆ࡝᫤ࡵಕ㝸ࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾࠊ㸩␊┘ࡡཋ์࡛භ࡞ࠉࡆࡿ
ࡢᅗẰ᭩఩㝀ಕ㝸 National Minimum ࢅណ࿝ࡌࡾࠊࡆࡡỀ‵ࡢࣚࢗࣤࢹ࣭ࣛࡷ
2
࣭࣍ࣝ࢕➴ࡡአ㒂ᑍ㛓ጟဤ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙රమⓏ࡞⟤ᏽࡈࡿࡒࠊౚ࠻ࡣ኶ᴏ⤝௛ࡢ㐄
࡞ 40 ࢨࣛࣤࢡࠉ㏝⫃ᖳ㔘ࡵྜྷ㢘࡚࠵ࡖࡒ4ࠊࡆࡿ࠿ධᕰẰ࡞ಕ㝸ࡈࡿࡾᶊฺ࡚
࠵ࡾࠊࡒࡓࡊࡆࡡ⤝௛Ề‵ࡢྜྷ᫤࡞ࠉᕰẰࡡ⩇ຸࡵྱࡳࠊ࡝ࡏ࡝ࡼ᭩఩㝀Ề‵
௧୕ࡡಕ㝸ࡢ⾔ࢂࡿ࡝࠷࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1942: 121, para.304㸞ࠊ⚶Ⓩ࡝
ಕ㝜ࡡఴᆀ࠿ṟࡽࠉᕰẰࡢ㇇࠾࡝⏍Ὡࡡࡒࡴࠉ⮤ࡼ⢥㐅ࡊ࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊ
㸧␊┘ࡡᆍୌᣈฝ࡛ࡢࠉ㈠⏐ࡡኣᐵ࡞࠾࠾ࢂࡼࡍࠉࡌ࡬࡙ࡡᕰẰ࠿ྜྷୌࡡಕ㝜
ᩩࢅᡮ࠹ࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾࠊ᮪௲࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ࠉ㸦㐄࡚᭩ኬ㸩ࢨࣛࣤࢡ㸨࣋ࣤࢪ࠾ࡼ᭩ᑚ
㸦ࢨࣛࣤࢡ㸫࣋ࣤࢪࡱ࡚ࡡಕ㝜ᩩ࡛࡝ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1942: 152, para.403㸞ࠊࡆ
ࡡ㸧ࡗࡡᆍୌཋ์ࢅᣚࡗ♣ఌಕ㝜࡝ࡼࡣࠉ಴ெ࡞࠽࠷࡙ࡵᅗᐓ࡞࠽࠷࡙ࡵᨥฝ
࡛཭ථ࠿㔦ࡽྙ࠹ࠊ಴ெࡢᣈฝࡡ⩇ຸࢅㇿࡖࡒ୕࡚ࠉ⤝௛ࡡᶊฺࢅ⋋ᚋࡌࡾࠊ
ࡱࡒቌኬࡌࡾ⚗♬஢⟤ࡢࠉಕ㝜ᩩࡡᣈฝ࡛⤝௛࡚ᆍ⾦ࡌࡾࡻ࠹࡞スᏽࡈࡿࡾࠊ
ࡗࡱࡽࠉ♣ఌಕ㝜ࡢ࠵ࡾ⛤ᗐໂຫ࡚ࠉ⮤❟ྊ⬗࡝ᵾ‵ⓏᕰẰാࢅ᝷ᏽࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
ࡊ࠾ࡊࠉࡌ࡬࡙ࡡᕰẰ࠿ಕ㝜ࡡᣈฝࢅ⾔࠻ࡾࢂࡄ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠊౚ࠻ࡣ㌗మⓏ࣬
⢥♼Ⓩ࡝⌦⏜࡚ࠉ♣ఌಕ㝜ࡡ⥑࠾ࡼࡆ࡯ࡿⴘࡔࡾெࠍ࠿࠷ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1942:
12, para.23㸞ࠊࡐࡆ࡚➠㸧࡞ᚉࡡᡥṹ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉ≁Ṟ஥ౚ࡞ᑊࡌࡾපⓏ᡿ຐ࠿࠵ࡾࠊ
ࡆࡿࡢᅗᗔ࠾ࡼᨥᡮࢂࡿࡾ⌟㔘⤝௛࡚࠵ࡾࠊᨾ㈃Ἢࡡఎ⤣ࢅᣚࡗ࢕࢟ࣛࢪࡢࠉ
㈠ງ㸝㈠⏐㸞ㄢᰕ means test ࡞ᙁ࠷ᢤᢘ࠿࠵ࡖࡒ㸝Beveridge 1942: 11, para.12㸞ࠊ
ᨾ㈃Ἢ࡞ࡻࡾ᪃ࡊ࠿ࠔ㈃Ằࡡỗྞࠕࢅఔࡖࡒ࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡊ࠾ࡊࡆࡡපⓏ᡿ຐ
ࡢࠉཚ᰹࡝㈠ງㄢᰕࢅఔࢂ࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊಕ㝜ࡻࡽ᭻ࡱࡊࡂ࡝࠷ࡵࡡࡓ࠾
ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1942: 141, para.369㸞ࠊᅗᐓࡢහᡥࡡᑚᵌ࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉಕ㝜
ᩩࢅᨥᡮ࠹⩽࡞ᛨࡄ⒯ࢅြࡊ࡙ࡢ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊරమⓏ࡞ࡢḗࡡࡻ࠹࡝ᡥᙔ࣬ୌ᫤
㔘࠿࠵ࡾࠊฝ⏐⤝௛࡛ᮅஷெ⤝௛㸝ࡐࡿࡑࡿ 13 㐄㛣ࡱ࡚㸦㐄 36 ࢨࣛࣤࢡ㸞ࠉಕ
㆜⩽⤝௛ࠉ᡿㣬ᡥᙔ㸝16 ࢨࣛࣤࢡ㸞ࠉඡ❲ᡥᙔ㸝㸭ࢨࣛࣤࢡ㸞ࠉ⤎፡ୌ᫤㔘㸝10
࣎ࣤࢺࡱ࡚㸞ࠉฝ⏐ୌ᫤㔘㸝㸩࣎ࣤࢺ㸞ࠉⴷ⚅ࠉᴏຸⅇᐐ࡝࡜࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡿࡼࡢ
ᅗᐓࡡୌ᪁Ⓩ࡝⤝௛࡝ࡡ࡚ࠉࡆࡡሔྙࡓࡄ⤝௛ࡡ㐲วᛮࡡࡒࡴࠉッ᪺᭡ࡷ㈠ງ
ㄢᰕࢅᚪさ࡛ࡌࡾࠊ
➠㸨ࡡ⿭Ᏸᡥṹࡢࠉሒ࿈᭡ධమࢅ㈇ࡂཋ⌦࡛㛭౿ࡌࡾࠊࡱࡍ⿭Ᏸ࡛ࡢࠉᇱᮇ
Ⓩ࡝᥈⨠࡞௛ຊࡌࡾ⚶Ⓩ㈋⵫ࡡዜທ࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1942: 143, para.375㸞ࠊ
ࡆࡿࡢ⮤ຐຑງࡡ഼ࡂఴᆀࢅṟࡊࠉ᭩఩㝀⏍Ὡࡡ୕࡞⮤⏜࡞⏍Ὡスゝ࡚ࡀࡾࡆ
࡛࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡡᡥṹࡢḗࡡᛦ᝷㸝➠㸨ࡡᣞᑙཋ⌦㸞࡛ᐠ᥃࡞㛭㏻ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡌ
1938 ᖳ౮᰹࡚ゝ⟤ࠊኣࡂࡡぞᏽ᮪௲࠿࠵ࡾ࠿ࠉࡆࡆ࡚ࡢ┤ࡂࠊୌの⾪ࡢ
Beveridge㸝1942: 150, para.401㸞ࠊ
4
3
࡝ࢂࡔࠉ♣ఌಕ㝸ࡢᅗᐓ࡛಴ெࡡ༝ງ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙㐡ᠺࡈࡿࡾ࡬ࡀ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡒࡓࡊ
⾔ິណḟࡷᶭఌࡷ㈈௴វࢅᢒᅸࡊ࡙ࡢ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊࡱࡒᅗẰ᭩఩㝀ಕ㝸ࢅỬࡴࡾ
㝷ࠉࡐࡡ᭩఩㝀௧୕ࡡങ࠻ࢅ⮤ⓆⓏ࡞⾔࠹ఴᆀࢅṟࡊࠉࡈࡼ࡞ࡐࡿࢅዜທࡌ࡬
ࡀ࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1942: 6-7, para.9㸞ࠊ
ࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࠗࡢ⚗♬ᅗᐓࡡ⌦ᛍࢅ☔❟ࡊࡒࠊ♣ఌಕ㝸࡞ࡻࡾᅗẰ᭩
఩㝀ಕ㝸࠿ࡐࡡᰍ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡊ࠾ࡊྜྷ᫤࡞ࠉሒ࿈᭡ࡢؐؐ⿭Ᏸ࡚ࡢ࠵ࡾ࠿ؐؐᕰ
Ằഁࡡ⩇ຸ࡞ࡵゕཀྵࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ಴ெ࠿ᅗᐓ࡞㐛ᗐ࡞౪Ꮛࡊ࡝࠷ࡻ࠹࡞࡛࠷࠹៟
៎࠾ࡼࡓࡖࡒ5ࠊᐁ㝷ࠉ♣ఌಕ㝸ࢅᨥ࠻ࡾ಴ெ࣬౐⏕⩽࣬ᅗᐓࡡㇿᢰẒ⋙ࡢࠉ28㸯
20㸯50 ࡞࡝ࡽ㸝ฺᏄ࠿㸧㸞ࠉ⌟⾔ࡡโᗐࡻࡽࡵ಴ெㇿᢰ⋙࠿ቌ࠻ࡾ㸝⾪ࢅཤ↯㸞ࠊ
ࡆࡡណ࿝࡚ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ⚗♬ᅗᐓ⌦ᛍࡢࠉᙔิ࠾ࡼ಴ெ࡛ᅗᐓࡡ┞பຑງ
ࢅ๑ᥞ࡞ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒ࡛ึ࡚᩷ࡀࡾ6ࠊ
⌟⾔ࡡโᗐ
ࡐࡡ๪ྙ
ᥞ᱄ࡡโᗐ
ࡐࡡ๪ྙ
ᅗᐓ
2 ൦ 6500 ୒
61.3㸚
㸨൦ 5100 ୒
50.3㸚
⿍ಕ㝜⩽
6900 ୒
15.9㸚
㸦൦ 9400 ୒
27.8㸚
౐⏕⩽
8300 ୒
19.2㸚
㸦൦ 3700 ୒
19.6㸚
ྙゝ
㸩൦ 3200 ୒ 100.0㸚
㸫൦ 9700 ୒
100.0㸚
⾪ 1945 ᖳࡡ஢⟤Ẓ㍉7
2-2 ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡ㛭୙
ࢪ࢞ࢸࣜࢪ࣭࢞ࡢఎオࡡ୯࡚ࠉ
ࠔࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢỬࡊ࡙᝗⇍Ⓩ࡝♣ఌᨭ㠁ᐓ࡚ࡢ࡝
࠾ࡖࡒࠕ࡛ࡊࠉ
ࠔ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࡡᵋ㏸࡞రࡡᙫ㡢ࡵ୙࠻࡝࠾ࡖࡒࠕ࡛᩷ゕࡊ
࡙࠷ࡾ㸝Skidelsky 2000: 264, 266㸞ࠊᮇ⟿ࡢࡆࡡぜよ8࡞ཬㄵࢅモࡲࡾࠊࡱࡍࢢ
≁࡞ Beveridge㸝1942: 170, para.455㸞ࢅཤ↯ࠊࠔᠻࠍࡡゝ⏤ࡢུ͐⤝⩽࠿ࡐ
ࡿ௧ᚃࠉ಴ெⓏ㈈௴࠾ࡼ㏠ࡿࡈࡎࡾࡻ࠹࡝ࡵࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠊࠕ
6 ⚗♬ᅗᐓࢅᏭ᪾࡞ᢀึࡌࡾୌ⯙ࡡㄵㄢ࡛␏࡝ࡽࠉ
ࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࠗࡡ◂✪
᭡ࡢࡆࡡⅤࢅぜ㏠ࡊ࡙࠷࡝࠷ࠊౚ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉኬ๑㸝1983: 226㸞
ࠉẗฺ㸝1990: 217㸞ࠉ
ᆀ୹㸝1995: 46㸞ࠊ
5
7
Beveridge㸝1942: 112ࠉ⾪ 13㸞ࡻࡽషᠺࠊ༟నࡢ࣎ࣤࢺࠊ๪ྙࡢวࡽᤖ࡙ࠉ
ฺᏄࢅྱࡱ࡝࠷ࡡ࡚ࠉྙゝࡊ࡙ࡵ 100㸚࡞࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊ
8 ࢪ࢞ࢸࣜࢪ࣭࢞ࡡ❟ሔࡢୌ㈇ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
ࠔࣀ࣭ࣥ࢘࢕࣭ࣞࢺࡡぞᏽᴣᛍࠕ
㸝♣ఌ
ᨭ㠁࡞ྡྷ࠾࠹පⓏ⩇ຸវ㸞ࡻࡽࡵࠔࢢࣤࣇࣛࢴࢩᩝ໩ࡡぞᏽᴣᛍࠕ
㸝ᐼ⨶࣬យᬓ
࡛࠷࠹⚶Ⓩ⏍Ὡࢅඁ඙ࡌࡾಘ᮪㸞࠿ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡞ࡢ㔔さ࡛࡝ࡾࠊ㐪࠷ᑑᮮࡡኅኬ
4
࢕ࣤࢫ࠿ᅗẰ᭩఩㝀ಕ㝸ࢅ᪺☔࡞ᨥᣚࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ♟ࡌࠊḗ࡞࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ
࡛ࡡ༝഼షᴏ࠿Ửࡊ࡙⾪㟻Ⓩ࡚࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡆ࡛ࢅౚ♟ࡌࡾࠊ
᭩ิ࡞ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢሒ࿈᭡ࡡᅗẰ᭩఩㝀ಕ㝸࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࠉධࡂཬᑊࡊ࡙࡝࠷ࠊ
ࡐࡿ࡜ࡆࢀ࠾✒ᴗⓏ࡞ᨥᣚࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊኣࡂࡡಕᏬὬ࡞࡛ࡖ࡙ࠉࡆࡡ㒂ฦࡢ 19 ୠ
⣎Ⓩ⮤⏜୹⩇࠾ࡼᏰධ࡞วࡽ㞫ࡈࡿࡒᴣᛍࡓࡖࡒࠊኣࡂࡡ㠁᩺Ὤ࡞࡛ࡖ࡙ࠉࢗ
࢘ࢴࣇࡡᥞ၌௧ᮮ 45 ᖳࢅ⤊࡙ࠉࡻ࠹ࡷࡂᕰẰᶊ࠿ᐁ⌟ࡈࡿࡒࠊ௙᪁ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ
ࡢࠖୌ⯙⌦ㄵ࡚ࠗ᪜࡞ࠔ⤊ῥ♣ఌࡡ㢟ⴥ࡝Ḗ㝏ࡢࠉ͐ᐣ࠽ࡻࡦᡜᚋࡡᜓណⓏ࡚
୘පᖲ࡝ฦ㒼࡚࠵ࡾࠕ㸝CW7 1973/1936: 372㸞࡛ႍ◒ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊࡐࡊ࡙ᾐ㈕࣬
ᢖ㈠ࢅႋ㉫ࡊ୘Ὡິ㈠㔘ࢅ΅ᑛࡈࡎࡾᨳ➿࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ࠉࠔฺᏄ⏍Ὡ⩽ࡡᏭᴞṒࠕ
㸝CW7 1973/1936: 376㸞ࢅ㢢ࡖ࡙࠷ࡒࠊࡆࡡᇱᮇ⥲ࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡᥞ၌࡛㔔
࡝ࡾࠊࡐࡡࡒࡴࠉࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࠗࢅ⢥ᰕࡊࡒ 1942 ᖳࡡṹ㝭࡚ࡵࠉࢢ࢕ࣤ
ࢫࡢᵕࠍ࡝ሔ㟻࡚㈃⩽࡫ࡡฦ㒼ࢅ๑ᥞ࡞ࡊࡒ㆗ㄵࢅᒈ㛜ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ➠㸦࡞ࠉࢢ
࢕ࣤࢫࡢ᭩఩㈜㔘᮪㡧ࡡᏋᅹࢅ๑ᥞ࡞ࡊࠉࡆࡡỀ‵ࢅ⥌ᣚࡊ࡝࠿ࡼ㈕⏕ࡡᏭ࠷
᪁➿ࢅ᥀ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ9ࠊ➠㸧࡞ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢᰜ㣬㟻࠾ࡼぜࡒ᭩఩㝀ᡜᚋಕ㝸࡞ࡗ࠷
࡙ࡵࠉ࠵ࡾỀ‵ࢅ๑ᥞ࡞ࡊ࡝࠿ࡼࠉࡻࡽ㈀ᨳㇿᢰࡡᑛ࡝࠷㐽ᢝ⫝ࢅ᥀ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ10ࠊ
➠㸨࡞ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ⩹㱃ᖳ㔘ུ⤝⩽࣬኶ᴏ⩽࣬ࡐࡡ᡿㣬ᐓ᪐ࡌ࡬࡙࡞ᑊࡊ࡙ࠉ
⏍ᏋỀ‵ࢅ୙࠻ࡾ࡛࠷࠹ࡆ࡛ࢅヾࡴ࡙࠷ࡾ11ࠊ➠㸩࡞ࠉຘ഼⩽ࡡ⏍ὩᏭᏽࡢࢢ࢕
ࣤࢫࡡࠖᡋ㈕ㄢ㐡ㄵࠗ
㸝1939㸞࡛ᐠ᥃࡞㛭㏻ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡆࡡࣂࣤࣆࣝࢴࢹ࡚ࢢ࢕
ࣤࢫࡢࠔ⧖ࡽᘇ࡬ᡮ࠷ࠕ12ࢅᥞ၌ࡊࡒࠊ࢕ࣤࣆࣝ࠿⌟ᐁ໩ࡌࡾ୯࡚ࠉᡜᚋࡡୌ㒂
ࢅᡋ᫤୯ࡢ෼⤎ࡊ㸝ᙁโ㈋⵫㸞ࠉᡋᚃࡡ୘Ἓ᭿࡞ࡐࡡཾᗑࢅ㸝ฺᏄ௛ࡀ࡚㸞㛜ᨲ
ࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡚⥪㞺さࡡㄢᩒࢅᅒࡾᕝኰ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ࢕ࣤࣆࣝᅸງࢅ㈄ᖨ㈜㔘࡞㌹໩ࡌ
ࡾ௥ࢂࡽ࡞ࠉ⿭ຐ㔘ᨳ➿࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ඡ❲ᡥᙔ࡛ᚪ㞺ဗࡡᏭ౮࡝๪ᙔ࠿ᚋࡼࡿࡒ13ࠊ
ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡ⥪㞺さ⟮⌦࡛࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ᭩఩㝀ಕ㝸࠿ᐠ᥃࡞㛭౿ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾౚ࡚
࠵ࡾࠊ➠㸪࡞ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ᱄ࡡ᳠ゞ୯࡞࣐࣭ࢺ࠿ᥞ㉫ࡊࡒ㈠ᮇㄚ⛧࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࠉ
࡝ゝ⏤ࡢ㏝ࡄࡼࡿࡾࡆ࡛࠾ࡼࠉ⚗♬ᅗᐓ࡫ࡡ⪦⁊ࡢ࠵ࡽ࠻࡝࠷ࠊ
9 CW27㸝1980: 207㸞
ࠉ࣐࣭ࢺ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸪᭮㸭᪝ࠊ
10 CW27㸝1980: 221㸞
ࠉ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸬᭮㸬᪝ࠊඡ❲ᡥᙔࡡ㢘
ࢅ๎΅ࡌࡾ࠾ࢂࡽ࡞ࠉᩅ⫩ᑻࡡ⤝㣏➴ࢅᣉᘿࡌࡾࠊ
11 CW27㸝1980: 245㸞
ࠉࣉ࢕ࣜ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸭᭮ 24 ᪝ࠊ
12 ᖲ஬㸝2003: 718-719㸞ࡵཤ↯ࠊ
13 ࣓ࢡࣛࢴࢩࡢຘ഼ඨெ⬞࡛ࡡஹῦ࡚ࠉᐓ᪐ᡥᙔࡡᥞ၌࠿ฝࡒ࡛ࡌࡾ
㸝Moggridge 1980/1976: 125-126ࠉゼ 149-150㸞ࠊࣀࣞࢴࢺࡵᚪ㞺∸ࡡ౮᰹Ꮽᏽ
໩ࢅᣞᦤࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ㸝Harrod 1982/1951: 493ࠉゼ 547-548㸞ࠊ
5
ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢࠔࡐࡿ࠿ࡈࡼ࡝ࡾ♣ఌᨭⰃ࡞⼝㈠ࡌࡾࡡ࡞౐⏕ࡈࡿࡾࠕ14ሔྙࢅヾࡴ
࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡗࡱࡽฺᏄ⏍Ὡ⩽࡞㔔ࡂࡡࡊ࠾࠾ࡾ㈠ᮇㄚ⛧ࢅ⾔࠷ࠉ㈃⩽࡞ᅂࡌࠔ♣
ఌᨭⰃࠕ࠿ᐁ᪃ࡈࡿࡾࡆ࡛࠿᝷ᏽࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ15ࠊ➠㸫࡞ࠉࠔ⤝௛㔘ࡷᣈฝ㔘ࢅධ
ᅗẰ࡞ᣉᘿࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࠕ࡞ࡢࠔ㈰ᠺࡌ࡬ࡀ஥⏜࠿㟸ᖏ࡞ኣࡂ࠵ࡾ࡛࠷࠹ࡆ࡛࡞⚶
ࡢྜྷណࡌࡾࠕ16࡛࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡡⓆゕࡢ♣ఌಕ㝜ࡐࡡࡵࡡ࡞ᑊࡌࡾ᪺☔࡝ᨥᣚ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
௧୕ࠉࡌ࡬࡙ࡡሔྙ࡚ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡᅗẰ᭩఩㝀ಕ㝸㸝ࡱࡒࡢ㈃
⩽࡫ࡡ්㒼ฦ㸞ࢅུㅑࡊࡒ㆗ㄵᒈ㛜ࢅࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ
ḗ࡞ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡛࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ㛭౿ࡢࠉぜ࠾ࡄ௧୕࡞㛏ࡂ⥥ᐠ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ୦
⩽ࡡஹὮࡢ㐔ࡂ࡛ࡵᡥ⣤୕ࡢ 1914 ᖳ㸨᭮17ࠉᐁ㝷࡞ఌࡖࡒࡡࡢ 1914 ᖳ㸪᭮ࡱ
࡚㐫ࡿࡾࠊᡋ᫤୯ࠉ୦⩽ࡢ㣏⣂㒼⤝࣬Ⅵ᭨⟮⌦ࢅ᡽࠹ᐁຸᐓ࡛ࡊ࡙ฝఌࡖࡒ18ࠊ
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿ LSE Ꮥ㛏࡞࡝ࡽࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿ࢢࣤࣇࣛࢴࢩ࡞ᡘࡾ࡛ࠉࣞࣤࢺࣤ࣬
ࢢࣤࣇࣛࢴࢩ⤊ῥࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ࡛࠷࠹㏻ྙమ19 ࡚୦⩽ࡢ௥⾪࡛ࡊ࡙ࡒࡦࡒࡦఌ࠹ࡻ
࠹࡞࡝ࡖࡒࠊ1923 ᖳ࡞ࡢ୦⩽ࡡ㛣࡚ெཾㄵࢅᕙࡽ⃥ࡊ࠷ㄵண࠿⤾࠷ࡒ㸝Toye
2000: 172-180㸞ࠊࡒࡓࡊஹὮࡢ῕ࡱࡽࠉ⮤⏜ඨኚ᭿Ꮥᰧ࡫ࡡཤຊࡷࠉᶭ㛭ヽࠖࢾ
࣭ࢨࣘࣤࠗࡡ්ᘋ࡝࡜ࠉ⮤⏜ඨࢅ㍂࡛ࡊࡒཤ㞗ࡵ࠵ࡖࡒ㸝Moggridge 1992: 390㸞ࠊ
ࠔ⤊ῥཤㅓㄵࠕ࡛࠷࠹ᴣᛍࢅ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿ 1923 ᖳ࠾ࡼᙁࡂᥞ၌ࡊࡒ᫤ࠉࢢ࢕
ࣤࢫࡵኬ࠷࡞ྜྷㄢࡊࠉ⤊ῥᏕ⩽ࡡࢨࣤࢠࢰࣤࢠ໩ᐁ⌟࡞⭁ᚨࡊࡒࠊ1924 ᖳ࡞ࢢ
࢕ࣤࢫ࠿ิࡴ࡙኶ᴏᑊ➿࡛ࡊ࡙පභ஥ᴏࢅᥞ၌ࡊࡒ᫤ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡵ㈰㎙ࢅ
㏞ࡖࡒ㸝Harrod 1982/1951: 346ࠉゼ 388㸞ࠊ1930 ᖳ㸧᭮࡞ࡢ୦⩽ࡢ⋜❟⤊ῥᏕ
ఌࡡ⌦஥ఌ࡞ฝᖆࡊࠉ࣭ࣛ࢜ࢺධ㞗ࡡ⥽⧡࡛࠷࠹㔔さ࡝Ửᏽ࡞❟ࡔఌࡖ࡙࠷ࡾ20ࠊ
1932 ᖳ࡞ࡢࠖୠ⏲ᜅុ࠾ࡼࡡ⬲ฝ࡛ࠗ㢗ࡊ࡙ࠉ୦⩽ࡡㅦⁿ࠿ྜྷ᫤࡞཭㘋ࡈࡿࡒࠊ
CW27㸝1980: 215㸞ࠉ࣐࣭ࢺ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸫᭮ 30 ᪝ࠊ
ࡵࡖ࡛ࡵᩝ⬞࠾ࡼࡢ✒ᴗⓏ࡝㈰ᠺࢅࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࢂࡄ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠊ
16 CW27㸝1980: 252㸞
ࠉ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ 10 ᭮ 13 ᪝ࠊ
17 BP 2a-13ࠉ1914.3.15ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠾ࡼࡡᡥ⣤ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿ࣅࢡ࣭ࡡࠖ኶
ᴏࠗ㸝1913㸞ࢅ᭡フࡊࡒ࠽♡ࠊ
18 ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿㍲ථ࣭࣊ࢤࣤࡡ㈑࠷௛ࡄࢅኬⶮ┤࡞㢏ࡲ࡞⾔ࡖࡒ᫤ࠉ࠷ࡖࡒ
ࢆࡢ᩷ࡖࡒࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿ⴘ⫱ࡌࡾ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࢅぜ࡙ࠉ100 ୒ࢺࣜࢅᢖࡅ࡙ࡻࡆ
ࡊࡒࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢࡐࡡᶊງ࡞វ㖥ࢅུࡄࡒࠊBP 9a-52, “Some Memories of
Maynard Keynes”ࠊ
19 1923 ᖳ࡞ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿ス❟ࠊࣄࢩࢾࢪ࣏ࣤࡷ㔘⼝ฦᯊᐓ࡞ಘ㢏ࡌ࡬ࡀ᝗ሒࢅ୙
࠻ࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ┘Ⓩ࡛ࡌࡾࠊࣉࣤࢱ࣭ࢮࣤ㸝ᚃ࡞ࣞࣁ࣭ࢹࢮ࡛ࣤஹ௥㸞
࣭࣬࣌ࣝ࢕ࡵ
ᇮ⾔ఌ㆗࡞ྞࢅ㏻ࡠࡒࠊMoggiridge㸝1992: 383㸞ࠉSkidelsky㸝1994/1992: 106㸞ࠊ
20 BP 2a-29ࠉ1930.2.13ࠉ⋜❟⤊ῥᏕఌࡡ㆗஥㘋ࡻࡽࠊ
14
15
6
1934 ᖳ㸦᭮࡞ࡢ࢙ࢤࢿ࣐ࢴࢠ࣬ࢩ࣭ࣔࢻࣜ⥽㞗ఌ㆗࡞ࡵ୦⩽ࡢฝᖆࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ21ࠊ
1936 ᖳ࡞ࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ⭶ኬ࡝∸౮ࡡṌྍ࠿ྜྷヽ࡞㍍ࡾ࠾࡜࠹࠾ࡡࡷࡽ࡛ࡽ
ࢅࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ22ࠊࡐࡊ࡙ 1940 ᖳ㸨᭮࡞ࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿୹ᑙࡊࠉࣅࢡ࣭ࡡᚃ⤽࡛ࡊ࡙
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࢅ⋜❟⤊ῥᏕఌఌ㛏࡞㐽ࢆࡓ23ࠊࡐࡡᚃࡵⱝᅗ࢓࢜ࢸ࣐࣭⤊ῥ㒂ࡵ
ྱࡴࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࢅ❟࡙࡝࠿ࡼࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿ᐁຸ࡛㆗᱄ࡡ୹ᑙᶊࢅᥩࡖ࡙࠷
ࡒࠊ1940 ᖳ㸩᭮࡞ࡢࡗ࠷࡞ࣝ࢕ࢹࣤ࣬ࢮࣜࢰ࣭࡛භ࡞ࠔཿᙁ⩽ࠕࡡఌྙ࠿ጙࡱ
ࡽࠉᡋ᫤⤊ῥ࡚හ㛮ࢅᢀフࡌࡾ㞗ࡱࡽ࠿തࡈࡿࡒ24ࠊࡆࡡࡻ࠹࡞ࠉ୦⩽ࡢୌ᭽ୌ
ኟࡡஹὮ࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉ᫠㣏࣬ኟ㣏࡞ᣅᙽࡊྙ࠷භ࡞㆗ㄵࡌࡾ௯㛣࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊ
ࡆࡡ⥥ᐠࡈࡢࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࠗࢅᕙࡾஹὮ࡚ࠉࡱࡌࡱࡌᇻ∴࡞࡝ࡖࡒࠊ
୦⩽ࡡ㛭୙ࡢ 1942 ᖳ㸨᭮࡞ጙࡱࡖࡒࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠾ࡼሒ࿈᭡ࡡゝ
⏤࣒࣓ࢅ㏞௛ࡈࡿࠉḗࡡ㏁஥ࢅ᭡࠷ࡒࠊ
ࠔ࠵࡝ࡒࡡて᭡ࢅㄖࢆ࡚ࠉࡐࡡධ⯙Ⓩ࡝ゝ⏤࡞ᑊࡊ⚶࠿ࡥ࡜ࡂវ⃥ࡊࡒࡆ࡛
ࢅఎ࠻࡙࠽ࡂࠊࡐࡿࡢ㟸ᖏ࡞㔔さ࠾ࡗ㞕ኬ࡝ᘋスⓏゝ⏤࡚࠵ࡾࠉ࡛⚶ࡢᛦ࠹ࠊ
ࡊ࠾ࡵࡐࡿ࠿༎ฦ࡞㈠㔘ࡡ⼝㏳㟻࠾ࡼྊ⬗ࡓ࡛ฦ࠾ࡽࠉᏭᚨࡊࡒࠊࠕ
㸝CW27 1980/1942: 204㸞
ᮇெ࡫ࡡ♡≟ࡹ࠻࡞ࠉࡆࡡវ᝷ࡢൢ♡Ⓩ࡛ࡡཬㄵࢅུࡄࡾྊ⬗ᛮ࠿࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡆ
࡚࣐࣭ࢺ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࢅぜࡾ࡛ࠉ
ࠔ಴ெⓏ࡞ࡢࠉ⚶ࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡᥞ᱄࠿࡛ࡖ࡙࠷
ࡾ㊪⥲࡞ኬ㈰ᠺ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ25࡛࠵ࡾࠊୌ㒂࡞㈰ᠺࠉࡊࡩࡊࡩུㅑࠉ࡛࠷ࡖࡒឺᗐ࡚
ࡢ࡝࠷ࡆ࡛࡞Ἰណࡊࡒ࠷ࠊࡐࡿࡹ࠻ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ⤊ῥ㒂ࡡ࣐࣭ࢺ࡛♣ఌಕ㝜ࡡྊ
⬗ᛮࢅ㆗ㄵࡊࡒᚃࠉ⮤ࡼ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡛᥃りࡊࡒࠊ
ࠔ࠵࡝ࡒࡡᥞ᱄ࡡ᭩᩺∟ࢅୌ
㒂࠷ࡒࡓࡄ࡝࠷࠾ࠊ͐௙᪁࡚⚶ࡢࡐࡿࢅࡴࡃࡾᢀึࢅུࡄཱིࡖ࡙࠽ࡽࠉࡐࡿࡼ
࡞ᑊฌࡊ࡙࠷࠾ࡠࡣ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊཋᩝࡡ୯࡞ర࠿᭡࠷࡙࠵ࡾࡡ࠾ࢅᐁ㝷࡞▩ࡼ࡝
BP 2a-33ࠉ1934.1.30ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡫࣬ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠾ࡼࡡᡥ⣤㸧㏳ࠊ
22 BP 2a-35ࠉ1936 ᖳ㸬࡛᭮ 10 ᭮ࡡᡥ⣤㸩㏳ࠊ
23 BP 2a-39ࠉ1940.3.20ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠾ࡼࡡᡥ⣤ࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ⋜❟⤊ῥᏕఌࡡ⛆
᭡ࡡࡻ࠹࡝ᙲ๪ࢅᯕࡒࡊࠉ஥๑࡞ᵕࠍ࡝㆗㢗ࡡ᰷ᅂࡊࢅࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ
24 BP 2a-29ࠉ1940.4.15ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠾ࡼࡡᡥ⣤ࠊཿᙁ⩽ the Old Dogs ࡛࠷࠹⾪
⌟ࡢ➠ୌḗୠ⏲ኬᡋ࡞ᏻേ࡛ࡊ࡙ኬὩ㌅ࡊࡒ⩽࠿ࠉ1940 ᖳṹ㝭࡚ࡢరࡡපຸࡵ
௴ࡈࡿ࡙࠷࡝࠷࡛࠷࠹ሔ㟻ࢅᣞࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
21
25
CW27㸝1980: 204㸞ࠉ࣐࣭ࢺ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸫᭮ 16 ᪝ࠊ
7
࠷࡛ࠉࡱࡍ࠷ࡆ࡛࡞࡝ࡾࠕ26ࠊኬⶮ┤࡞ᗀ࠿ࡖࡒᠩᛍ࡞ᑊࡊࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿✒ᴗⓏ
࡞㛭୙ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࡆ࡛࠿ࢂ࠾ࡾࠊኬⶮ┤㧏ᏻࡡ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪ࡞ࡵࠔපᖲ࡞フࡌࡾ࡛ࠉ
㸣㸣㸣
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡞ࡢ஢⟤ࢅᅏࡼࡎࡾࡗࡵࡽࡢ࡝࠷ࠕ27࡛ᘒ᪺ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ1942 ᖳ㸭
᭮࡞ࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࣬ࣞࣄࣤࢫ࢙࣬ࢴࣈࢪ㸝ಕ㝜⤣ゝᑻ㛏㸞
࣬࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ㸩ெ࡚ࠉ
࠵ࡾ࠷ࡢ㸧ெࡡࡲ࡚ఌ࠷ࠉሒ࿈᭡ࡡ⣵㒂ࡱ࡚⥝ᐠ࡞᳠ゞࡊࡒࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ㏪ୌ
ࡐࡿࢅኬⶮ┤࡞ሒ࿈ࡊࠉࠔ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿ࡆࡿࡼࡡ㆗ㄵ࡞㟸ᖏ࡝វ㖥ࢅུࡄࡒࠕ
28࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉ᭯─࡝ゞㄵࢅᣲࡽ㏁ࡖࡒࠊ1942
ᖳ 10 ᭮࡞Ᏸᠺࡊࡗࡗ࠵ࡖࡒ᭩⤂∟࡞
ᑊࡊ࡙ࡢࠉ
ࠔࡐࡡᩝ᭡ࡢ㟸ᖏ࡞ࡌࡣࡼࡊࡂࠉ✔ᙔ࠾ࡗᗀ⠂ᅑ࡞ཀྵࢆ࡚࠽ࡽࠉᴗࡴ
࡙ㄕᚋⓏ࡚Ἰ┘ࡌ࡬ࡀ᪁Ἢ࡚ㄵࡋࡼࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠕ29࡛ᡥᨲࡊ࡚ႌࢆࡓࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴ
ࢩᮇெ࡞ࡵࠔࡆࡡሒ࿈᭡ࡢᇸࠍ࡛ࡊࡒࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠕࠉࠔᮇ㈻Ⓩ࡝㒂ฦ࠿࠵࡝ࡒࡡ
ᵋ᝷ࡊࡒ࡛࠽ࡽ࡞ᐁ㈻Ⓩ࡞᤿⏕ࡈࡿࡾࡆ࡛ࢅࠉ⚶ࡢ㢢ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠕ30࡛ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ
ఎ࠻ࡒࠊ௧୕ࡡᡥ⣤ࡢࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࡡᮇ㈻࡞භ㫾ࡊࡒࡆ࡛ࢅ
♟ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡛ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ⣵࠾࠷Ⅴ࡚ណぜࢅ␏࡞ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ31ࠊඡ❲ᡥᙔࠉᖳ㔘ࠉ
㏝⫃᮪㡧࠿௥⾪Ⓩ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ࡝ࡏ࠾ඡ❲ᡥᙔ࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࠉ㸦ெ┘ࡢ
㝎አࡊࡒ୕࡚32ࠉ㸧ெ┘௧㜾ࡢ㐄㸭ࢨࣛࣤࢡ࠿ᚪさ࡚࠵ࡾ࡛㆙ࡼ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࠊࢢ࢕
ࣤࢫࡢࡳࡊࢀ㸦ெ┘ࢅ㝎አࡌࡾࡡࡢᨳ἖Ⓩ࡞㞬ࡊ࠷ࡡ࡚ࠉ㸦㐄㸫ࢨࣛࣤࢡ࡝࡜
࡞΅㢘ࡊࡒࡼ஢⟤୕⟿⣑࡚ࡀࡾ࡛୹ᘿࡊࡒࠊ୦⩽࡛ࡵ࡞኶ᴏ⩽ࡡඡ❲࡞ࡢ≁ื
࡝㒼៎࠿ᚪさ࡝ࡆ࡛ࠉ㏳ᖏࡡᐓ᪐ࡡሔྙࡢඡ❲ᡥᙔࡓࡄ࡚ඡ❲ࡡ⏍ᏋỀ‵ࢅ☔
ಕࡌࡾᚪさ࠿࡝࠷ࡆ࡛ࠉࡆࡡ㸧Ⅴࡢヾࡴ࡙࠷ࡾࠊᖳ㔘࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࡢࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ᱄ࡡ㸨ฦࡡ㸧ࡡ⤝௛㢘࡛ࠉ༳᫤ධဤ࡞ࡢ㸝ࡗࡱࡽᣈฝࡊࡒࡆ࡛࠿
࡝࠷⩽࡞ࡢ㸞⤝௛ࡊ࡝࠷ࡆ࡛ࢅ୹ᘿࡊࡒࠊ㏝⫃᮪㡧࡛ࡢࠉᖳ㔘ུ⤝ᖳ㱃࡞㐡ࡊ
ࡒ᫤࡞㏝⫃ࡊ࡝ࡄࡿࡣࠉᖳ㔘ࢅቌ㢘ࡌࡾ࡛࠷࠹᥈⨠࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡱࡒ㏝⫃㏳▩ᚃ࡞
ᡜᚋࢅ✄ࡅࡣᖳ㔘࠿΅㢘ࡈࡿࡾࠊெࠍࢅຘ഼࡞ᘤࡀ⏻ࡴࡾㄇᅄ࡞࡝ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒
ࣛࢴࢩࡢࡆࡡ᮪㡧࡞ᅖᇮࡊࡒ࠿ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ᪡ࡂ㏝⫃ࡊࡒ࠷ெ࡞ㇿᢰࢅ࠾ࡄࡌ
CW27㸝1980: 219㸞ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸫᭮ 25 ᪝ࠊ
27 CW27㸝1980: 228㸞
ࠉ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸭᭮ 20 ᪝ࠊ
28 CW27㸝1980: 239㸞
ࠉࢗ࢔ࣜࢮࣤ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸭᭮ 11 ᪝ࠊ
29 CW27㸝1980: 252㸞
ࠉ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ 10 ᭮ 13 ᪝ࠊ
30 CW27㸝1980: 255㸞
ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ 10 ᭮ 14 ᪝ࠊ
31 ࡆࡡṹⴘࡢᖲ஬㸝2003: 745-760㸞ࡵཤ↯ࠊ
32 ࡆࡡ⌦⏜ࡢ୘᪺࡚࠵ࡾࠊ㸦ெ┘ࡱ࡚ࡢ୦ばࡡ㈈௴ࠉ㸧ெ┘࠾ࡼࡢᅗᐓ⿭ຐ࠿
ᚪさ࡛⩻࠻ࡼࡿࡒࡒࡴࡓࢀ࠹࠾ࠊ
26
8
ࡁࡾࡆ࡛࠾ࡼࠉࡐࡡ๎㝎ࢅ୹ᘿࡊࡒࠊࡒࡓࡊ᭩ᚃ࡞ࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡ᪁࠿㆙Ṅࡊ࡙
࠷ࡾࠊ௧୕ࡡ┞㐢Ⅴࡢ㍇᚜࡚࠵ࡽࠉ᫤㛣ࢅ㈕ࡷࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ๪࡞ࡢᮇ㈻Ⓩ࡝ㄵⅤ࡚
ࡢ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࠊ
୦⩽ࡡ༝഼ࡢྜྷࡋୠ⏲ふࢅභ᭯ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࡒࡴ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡡౚࢅḗࡡ㸩Ⅴᣪࡅ
࡙࠽ࡆ࠹ࠊ➠㸦࡞ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡ࣏ࢠࣞ⤊ῥᏕࢅ๑ᥞ࡞ࡊ࡙
ᵋ⠇ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ≁࡞⏤᭿Ⓩ࡝ 1941 ᖳ஢⟤㸝࢕ࣤࣆࣝ࢟ࣔࢴࣈ࣬⥪㞺さ࣬⥪౩
⤝ࡡ᥆ゝ㸞࡚ࡵ⏕࠷ࡼࡿࡒᅗẰᡜᚋ᥆ゝࡷࠉ㞺⤝㛭౿ࡡ୦㟻⩻៎࡝࡜࠿㢟ⴥ࡝
≁ᚡ࡚࠵ࡾ33ࠊࡐࡿࡹ࠻ࠔ♣ఌಕ㝸஢⟤ࠕ࠿⤄ࡲ㎲ࡱࡿࡒሒ࿈᭡࠿ྊ⬗࡞࡝ࡖࡒࠊ
➠㸧࡞ࠉ኶ᴏࢅ㍇΅ࡌࡾ᱄࡞ྜྷណ࠿࠵ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢᙔิࠔよ㞘⛧ࠕdismissal
tax ࢅᥞ᱄ࡊࡒࠊࡆࡿࡢよ㞘ࡊࡒ஥ᴏ୹࡞ᠤ⨡Ⓩ࡝ᣈฝࢅịࡴࡾࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࢢ
࢕ࣤࢫࡢࡆࡡ᱄࡞ධ㟻Ⓩ࡞㈰ྜྷࡊࡒ34ࠊࡱࡒ࣐࣭ࢺࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ᱄ࢅぜ࡙ࠉಕ
㝜ᩩ࡛ᬊẴࢅ㏻ິࡈࡎࡒⓆᒈ᱄ࢅషࡖࡒࠊ♣ఌಕ㝜ࡡమโࢅᬊẴንິࡡ⥾࿰࡞
⏕࠷ࡻ࠹࡛ࡊࡒࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ්⩻ࡊ࡙㈰ᠺ࡞ᅂࡽࠉ኶ᴏ⋙㸭㸚ࢅᇱ‵
࡞ࡊ࡙ࠔࡐࡿ௧ୖ࡚ࡢᣈฝ㔘ࢅቌຊࡈࡎࠉࡐࡿ௧୕࡚ࡢ᛬㏷࡞΅ᑛࡈࡎࡾࠕ
㸝CW27 1980/1942: 208㸞࡛࠷࠹⿚㔖ᨳ➿ࢅ⇍ᚨ࡞ㄕ࠷ࡒ35ࠊ➠㸨࡞ࠉ⮤ຐຑງ
࡛ᅗᐓᨾῥࡡ㐲ว࡝⤄ࡲྙࢂࡎࢅ୦⩽ࡢᶅ⣬ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊࡆࡡሔ㟻ࡢࠉཪយ⤄ྙ
࡫ࡡᨥᣚ࡛ᣈฝཋ์࡫ࡡᇻᣚ࡞❒࠻ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢཪយ⤄ྙࢅࡆࡡ᫤᭿ࡢ
ᙁງ࡞ᨥᣚࡌࡾࡻ࠹࡞࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡒ36ࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡵྜྷㄢࡊࠉࠔ⚶ࡢெ࠿⑋Ẵࡷ୘ර
࡞ങ࠻࡙᭩఩ᨾᥴ㔘ࢅ୕ᅂࡾ㢘ࢅ⏕ណࡌࡾཪយ⤄ྙ➴ࡡ⤄⧂ࢅዜທࡊࡒ࠷ࠉ࡛
࠷࠹Ⅴ࡚࠵࡝ࡒ࡛ྜྷណぜ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ
㸝CW27 1980/1942: 205㸞࡛㏑࡬ࡒࠊࡱࡒࠉ
ࠔ಴ࠍ
ࡡࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ㈕⏕ࢅࠉࡐࡿ࠿ᥞ౩ࡈࡿࡾ″ἠ࡛ྊ⬗࡝㝀ࡽ㛭㏻ࡘࡄࡾࡆ࡛࠿͐࠷
ࡖࡐ࠹㔔さ࡛࡝ࡽࠕࠉࠔ೸ධ࡝ఌゝࢅ⥌ᣚࡊࠉຝ⋙ᛮࢅῼᏽࡊࠉ⟿⣑ࢅທ⾔͐ࡌ
ࡾ။ୌࡡ᪁Ἢࠕ
㸝CW27 1980/1942: 224-225㸞࡛ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ㏑࡬ࡒࠊಕ㝜ࡡᣚࡗ
ᣈฝཋ์࡫ࡡධ㟻Ⓩ࡝ಘ㢏࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡿࡹ࠻ࠉᨳᗋⓉ᭡ࠖ♣ఌಕ㝜ࠗ
㸝1944㸞ࡡ
㉫ⲙ᱄ࢅぜࡒ᫤ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢኬ࠷࡞Ⴟ࠷ࡒࠊ
ࠔᣈฝཋ์ࡡᨲᲘ࡞ࡵ➴ࡊ࠷ࡷࡽ᪁ࡢࠉᠻࠍࢅᾇᅒࡡ࡝࠷ᾇ࡞ᑙࡂࡆ࡛࡞࡝
ࡾ͐ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩゝ⏤࠿͐ᢜ⩄࡞Ꮽࡂࡗࡂࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾ͐ࠊ͐ࡆࡿࡼࡡᥞ᱄
33
34
35
36
Moggridge㸝1980/1976: 131ࠉゼ 157㸞ࡡᣞᦤ࡞ࡻࡾࠊ
CW27㸝1980: 205, 207㸞ࡡ㸧⟘ᡜ࡞࠵ࡾࠊ
ኬⶮ┤ࡡཬᑊ࡚ࠉࡆࡡ᱄ࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈࠾ࡼ㝎አࡈࡿࡒࠊ
Beveridge㸝1942: 144, para.379㸞ࢅཤ↯ࠊ
9
࠾ࡼஊ㞫ࡊࡻ࠹࡛Ửណࡌࡿࡣࠉࡒࡓࡔ࡞⤊㈕ࡡ㔔さ࡝ቌኬࢅࡵࡒࡼࡌ͐ࠊࠕ
㸝CW27 1980/1942: 263㸞
➠㸩࡞ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ♣ఌಕ㝸మโ࠿ࠉ⮤ࡼࡡ࣏ࢠࣞ⤊ῥᏕ࣓ࢸ
ࣜࡡ୯࡚ይᚘ⎌ࢅᣅࡂ࡛⮤てࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
ࠔᠻࠍࡡᅗẰᡜᚋ࠿ࡆࡡ᱄ࡡඔ࡚ࠉㇿബ
ࡡᩐಶࡡ㏷ࡈ࡚ቌኬࡌࡾࡡࢅጄࡅࡾࡵࡡࡢరࡵ࡝࠷ࠕ37ࠊ㸩ࡗࡡッゕࡢࡌ࡬࡙ࠉ
୦⩽ࡡ㔔ኬ࡝♣ఌふ࠿භ᭯ࡈࡿࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ♟ࡌࠊ
ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ᭩఩㝀ᅗẰಕ㝸࠽ࡻࡦᣈฝཋ์࡛࠷࠹㔔ኬ࡝ୠ⏲
ふࢅභ᭯ࡊࡒࠊࡆࡡ㸧Ⅴࡆࡐࠉᅗᐓࡡ⩇ຸࢅ㧏ࡼ࠾࡞ㅳ࠷ࡗࡗࠉᕰẰࡡ⩇ຸࡷ
๭ណᕝኰࢅᚸࡿ࡝࠷ࠔ᩺ࡊ࠷⮤⏜୹⩇ New Liberalismࠕࡡ♼㧂࡚࠵ࡾࠊ಴ெ࡛
ᅗᐓࡡ㐲ว࡝⾔ິẒ⋙ࢅ୦⩽ࡢ㏛࠷ịࡴ࡙࠷ࡒࠊࡆࡡよ㔐ࢅࡌࡾ㝀ࡽࠉා㢄ࡡ
ࢪ࢞ࢸࣜࢪ࣭࢞ㄕࡢ୘㐲ว࡛࡝ࡾࠊ
➠㸨⟿ ࠖ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᏰධ㞘⏕ࠗ
ᚃ᭿୔㒂షࡡ㸧␊┘ࠉ
ࠖ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᏰධ㞘⏕ࠗࡢ 1944 ᖳ 11 ᭮࡞ฝ∟ࡈ
ࡿࡒࠊᮇ⟿࡚ࡢᮇ᭡࠿ᚉᮮࡡぜよࡻࡽࡵࠉ々㞟࡝ᵋ㏸࡞࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࡆ࡛࡞Ἰ┘
ࡌࡾࠊࡱࡍࡐࡡᠺ❟㐛⛤ࢅᴣふࡌࡾࠊḗ࡞ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡࠖୌ⯙⌦ㄵ࡛ࠗᑊẒࡌࡾࠊ
᭩ᚃ࡞ᮇ᭡≺⮤ࡡన⨠ࡘࡄࢅ⩻ᐳࡌࡾࠊ
3-1 ᮇ᭡ࡡᠺ❟㐛⛤
ᮇ᭡ࡢ々㞟࡝ᠺ❟㐛⛤ࢅ㎲ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ᫤㛣ࡡὮࡿ㏳ࡽ࡞ࠉ㸪ࡗࡡᑻ㟻࡞ฦࡄ
࡙⣵㏑ࡊࡻ࠹ࠊ
➠㸦ṹ㝭ࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ⮤㌗ࡡᙁ࠷ิ᭿ິᶭ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
ࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈࡚ࠗ
㸨ࡗࡡ๑ᥞࢅᦤฝࡊ࡙࠷ࡒᙴࡢࠉࡐࡡ᭩ኬࡡ๑ᥞ㸝Ᏸධ㞘⏕㸞ࡡ◂✪࡞⮤ࡼ❟
ࡔྡྷ࠾ࡖࡒࠊ♣ఌಕ㝸ࡡࠔሒ࿈᭡ࡡࢦ࢕ࣤࡡ࢕ࣤࢠࡵஜ࠾࡟࠹ࡔ࡞ࠉḗࡡሒ࿈
࡞ཱིࡽ⤄ࡳࡆ࡛࡞࡝ࡖࡒࠕ㸝Beveridge 1955: 327㸞ࠊ1942 ᖳ 11 ᭮࡞ࡢ᪡ࡂࡵࣆ
࢘ࣄ࢓ࣤ༝ఌ࡚ࠔ⚶௺ᴏࡡḖⅤࡢ኶ᴏࢅ㜭ࡅ࡝࠷ࡆ࡛࡚ࠉᅗᐓゝ⏤࠿୘ྊḖࡓࠕ
CW27㸝1980/1942: 259-260㸞ࠉ㈏᪐㝌࡚ࡡⁿㄕཋ✇ࠉ1943 ᖳ㸧᭮ 24 ᪝ࠊ㈏
᪐㝌࡞ิⓇᖿࡌࡾࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ⁿㄕࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡊࡒ࠿ࠉ
ࠔኬࡀ࡝ᅸງࠕ࡚᩷ᛍࡈࡿࡒࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢࠔኬⶮ┤හࡡெࠍ࡛⌟ᅹࡡ㛭౿ࢅ㟸
ᖏ࡞㔔っࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠕ࡛㏑࡬ࠉ᩷ᛍࡡ⌦⏜ࢅࡡ࡬࡙࠷ࡾࠊCW27㸝1980/1942: 256㸞ࠊ
37
10
࡛㏑࡬ࡒ38ࠊ1943 ᖳ㸦᭮ 19 ᪝࡞ࡢࣈ࣏ࣛࢪ࡚ࠔ❋இ࡛ᛨ᝴࠾ࡼࡡ⮤⏜ࠕ࡛㢗ࡊ
ࡒㅦⁿࢅ⾔ࡖࡒࠊ㸧᭮࡞ࡢ㞘⏕⥌ᣚࡡၡ㢗࡞ࡵࡖ࡛ኬࡀ࡝㛭ᚨࢅᐞࡎ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛
ᡥ⣤࡞᭡ࡀࠉ㸨᭮࡞ࡢࠔ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࡢࡵࡢࡷ⚶ࡡ㛭ᚨᑊ㇗࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠕ࡛
᩷ゕࡌࡾ࡞⮫ࡖࡒ39ࠊࡊ࠾ࡊ௑ᅂࡢᨳᗋࡡᥴຐࡢ᭻ࡴࡍࠉᏰධ࡞⚶ெࡡ❟ሔ࡚Ᏸ
ධ㞘⏕ࢅ◂✪ࡌࡾጟဤఌࢅ❟ࡔ୕ࡅࡉࡾࢅᚋ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࠊ㈠㔘ࡢ㐅ṄⓏ࡝ࣄࢩࢾ
ࢪ࣏ࣤ㸨ெ40࡞ࡻࡾ༌ྞᥴຐ࡚ర࡛࠾㈝ࢂࡿࡒࠊࡐࡊ࡙ 1943 ᖳ㸩᭮㸭᪝࡞ࡢ㟸
පᘟ࡝㞘⏕ၡ㢗ㄢᰕࡡス⨠࠿Ⓠ⾪ࡈࡿࡒ41ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ㞘⏕ၡ㢗࡫ࡡ㛭ᚨࡢ
⮤ࡼࡡහ㒂࠾ࡼ•ࡀฝࡒࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊ
➠㸧ṹ㝭ࡢⱕࡀಆⱝࡡ♣ఌ⛁Ꮥ⩽࣬ㄢᰕᏻ࡞ฝఌࡖࡒࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾ42ࠊ⚶Ⓩጟဤ
ఌ ࡞ ࡢ 㸬 ྞ㸝 ࠹ ࡔ ዥᛮ 㸨 ྞ 㸞ࡡ ᵋ ᠺ ဤ࠿ ࠷ ࡒ ࠊ ࢨ ࣭ࣖ ࣏ ࢴ ࣀ㸝 Ernst F.
Schumacher 1911-1977㸞ࠉࢩ࣭ࣘࣤ࣬ࣞࣄࣤࢮࣤ㸝Joan Robinson 1903-1983㸞ࠉ
࢜ࣜࢺ࢓㸝Nicholas Kaldor 1908-1986㸞ࠉࢗࢴࢹࣤ㸝Barbara F. Wootton
1897-1988㸞ࡡ㸩ྞࡢ⤊ῥᏕ⩽࡛ࡲ࡝ࡎࡾࡓࢀ࠹ࠊṟࡽࡡࣂࢴࢢࢻ࣑㸝Frank
Packenham 1905-2001㸞
ࠉ࣭࢜ࣛࣜ㸝H.F. Carlill㸞ࠉ࣒࢓㸝Elspeth Mair㸞ࡢ
♣ఌၡ㢗ㄢᰕᏻ࡛ࡲ࡝ࡎࡾࡓࢀ࠹ࠊᙴࡼࡢ 14 ࣧ᭮࡞ῳࡖ࡙ࠉẎ᭮㸦ᅂࡢḿᘟ࡝
ఌྙࢅࣞࣤࢺࣤ୯ᚨ⾜࡚㛜ࡀࠉࡐࡿ௧አ࡞ࡵ㐄ᮆࡢ࢛ࢴࢠࢪࣆ࢚࣭ࢺኬᏕࢻࣆ
࢔࣭ࣜࢺᰧ࡚ఌྙࢅ㔔ࡠࡒࠊࢨ࣭࣏ࣖࢴࣀࡢࢺ࢕ࢵ࠾ࡼ㏠ࡿࠉΰ⟤ྜྷ┍᱄࡚ࢢ
࢕ࣤࢫ࡞Ἰ┘ࡈࡿᗂ㆜ࡈࡿࡒ43ࠊᚃ࡞ࠔᑚࡈ࠷ࡆ࡛ࡢⰃ࠷ࡆ࡛ࡓࠕ࡛࠷࠹ࢪ࣭ࣞ
࡚࢝ࣤୠ⏲Ⓩ࡞᭯ྞ࡞࡝ࡖࡒࠊࣞࣄࣤࢮࣤࡢゕ࠹ࡱ࡚ࡵ࡝ࡂࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡࠔࢦ
࣭࢜ࢪࠕࡡୌဤ࡚࠵ࡽࠉᚃ࡞␏❻ࡡ⤊ῥᏕ⩽࡛࡝ࡖࡒࠊ࢜ࣜࢺ࢓ࡢᙔิ LSE ࣞ
ࣄࣤࢫࢦ࣭ࢠࣜࡡᙫ㡢ୖ࡞࠵ࡖࡒ࠿ࠉ
ࠖୌ⯙⌦ㄵࠗࡡฝ∟ᚃࠉ᛬㏷࡞ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡞
᥃㎾ࡊ࡙࠷ࡖࡒࠊᚃ࡞᭩ࡵ᭯ງ࡝࣎ࢪࢹࢢ࢕ࣤࢩ࢓ࣤ࡞࡝ࡾࠊࢗࢴࢹࣤࡢࢢࣤ
ࣇࣛࢴࢩኬᏕ࡚ཿ඼࡛⤊ῥᏕࢅᑍᨯࡊࠉࠖ♣ఌ⛁Ꮥ࡛♣ఌ⑋⌦Ꮥࠗ㸝1959㸞࡝࡜
ḗࡡオ஥࠾ࡼࠊThe Times, “Economic Reform”, 25 November 1942ࠊ
㸧࡛᭮㸨᭮ࡡฝᮮ஥ࡢ Beveridge㸝1955: 328㸞࠾ࡼࠊ
40 ࡐࡡ࠹ࡔ㸦ெ࠿ฝ∟ெࡡࣀࣜࢹࣤ㸝Edward G. Hulton 1906-1988㸞
ࠊಕᏬඨ
ᨥᣚ࡚࠵ࡖࡒ࠿ࠉ෕┷ሒ㐠⣤ Picture Post ࢅ๭ษࡌࡾ࡝࡜Ὡ㌅ࡊࡒࠊ
41 The Times, “Plans for Employment”, 9 April 1943ࠊࡆࡡオ஥ࡢᨳᗋ࠿පᘟ
ࡡጟဤఌࢅ❟ࡔ୕ࡅࡾ࡬ࡀࡓ࡛㟸㞬ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
42 ࡆࡡ⟿ࡢධమⓏ࡞ Harris㸝1997: 432-434㸞࡞ࡵ౪Ꮛࡌࡾࠊ
43 PRO, T 247/101, “Mr E F Schumacher's paper on multilateral clearing”,
1943ࠊࢨ࣭࣏ࣖࢴࣀࡢᩓᅗெ࡛ࡊ࡙ᙁโ཭ᐖᡜ࡞࠷ࡒ࠿ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿よᨲࡊࠉ
ᚃ࡞ᨳᗋ㛭㏻ࡡ௘஥ࡵ୙࠻ࡒࠊิࡴ࡙ఌࡖࡒ 1929 ᖳ 11 ᭮௧ᮮࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢࢨ
࣭࣏ࣖࢴࣀࡡ㧏࠷⬗ງࢅ⤧㈰ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊWood㸝1984: 20,135㸞ࠊ
38
39
11
ኣᩐࡡᮇࢅⴥࡊࡒࠊᖲ➴࡞ᇱࡘࡂ♣ఌᨳ➿࣬⿚ึᨭ㠁࠿⏍ᾥࡡㄚ㢗࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊ
ࣂࢴࢢࢻ࣑ࡢಕᏬඨࡡㄢᰕᏻ࡛ࡊ࡙ฝⓆࡊࡒ࠿ࠉࡷ࠿࡙♣ఌ୹⩇࡞᥃㎾ࡊ࡙ຘ
഼ඨࡡᨳ἖ᐓ࡞࡝ࡖࡒࠊ
ࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈࡚ࠗࡢ௛㘋 F ࡡ྘ᅗẒ㍉࡚༝ງࡊ࡙
࠷ࡒࠊ࣭࢜ࣛࣜࡢၛຸ┤᫤௥ࡡྜྷേ࡚ࠉỀງ″ጟဤఌ Water Power Resources
Committee㸝1919㸞ࡷ಻⏐ጟဤఌ Bankruptcy Committee㸝1924-1925㸞ࡡጟ
ဤ࡛ࡊ࡙Ὡ㌅ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊࡆࡡ᫤ࡢ᪜࡞ᘤ㏝ࡊࠉ⚶ெ࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊ࣒࢓ࡢጏࡡᮆፃ
࡚࠵ࡾࠊᙴࡼࡢኣᵕ࡝⫴ᬊ࡛ណぜࢅᣚࡖ࡙࠷ࡒࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ⌦ㄵࢅ⇅▩ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒ
ࢨ࣭࣏ࣖࢴࣀ࣬ࣞࣄࣤࢮࣤ࣬࢜ࣜࢺ࢓ࡡᙫ㡢ງࡢゝࡽ▩ࡿ࡝࠷ࠊ୯࡚ࡵࢨ࣭ࣖ
࣏ࢴࣀࢅؐؐࢢ࢕ࣤࢫྜྷᵕؐؐ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢኬࡀࡂ㢏ࡖࡒ44ࠊ
➠㸨ṹ㝭ࡢ㧏⣥ᏻേ࡛ࡡ᥃り࡚࠵ࡾ45ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢᏻേࡡ୯࡞ࡵኣࡂࡡཪ
ெࡷᓤᣇ⩽࠿࠽ࡽࠉ୯࡞ࡢ┤හࡡᨳ➿Ửᏽ࡞ᙫ㡢ࢅཀྵ࡯ࡎࡾ❟ሔࡡ⩽ࡵ࠷ࡒࠊ
ࡐࡡౚ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉၛຸ┤ࡡ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤ㸝G. L. Watkinson㸞࡛ኬⶮ┤ࡡ࢕࣭ࢸ࢔
㸝Wilfrid Eady 1880-1962㸞ࢅᣪࡅࡾࠊ๑⩽ࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡛ୌ⥬࡞⇖ᩩ㒼⤝
ၡ㢗࡚ୌ⥬࡞഼࠷ࡒࡆ࡛࠿࠵ࡾࠊၛຸ┤ኬ⮟࠾ࡼḿᘟ࡞኶ᴏၡ㢗ࢅゞ㆗ࡌࡾセ
ྊࢅᚋࡒ46ࡡ࡚ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ⤄⧂ࡊࡒ⚶Ⓩጟဤఌ㸝⤊ῥᏕ⩽ࡡᢇ⾙ጟဤఌ the
Technical Committee of Economists㸞࡞ฝᖆࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊၛຸ┤ࡡහ㒂㈠ᩩ࡞ࡻ
ࡾ࡛ࠉ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤࡢ㟸ᖏ࡞⇍ᚨ࡚ࠉ⮤㌗ࡓࡄ࡚࡝ࡂ㸪ெࡡྜྷേࢅ㏻ࡿ࡙ఌྙ
࡞ཤຊࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡊࡒ47ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡵ⚶Ⓩጟဤఌス⨠ࡡ├ᚃ࡞࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤ࡞
ᡥ⣤ࢅ㏞ࡽ48ࠉࡱࡒืࡡᶭఌ࡞ࡢᏰධ࡝⚶Ⓩ᠋ㄧఌࡓ࠿ࠉㄙ࡞࡚ࡵ㛜࠾ࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ
ࡡ࡚ࡏࡥᮮ࡙ḟࡊ࠷࡛ㄇࡖ࡙࠷ࡾ49ࠊ࢕࣭ࢸ࢔ࡢຘ഼┤࡞Ễᖳ࠷ࡒ࠿ࠉ࠷ࡂࡗ࠾
ࡡ┤ᖿ࡞⛛ິࡊࠉ᭩ᚃࡢኬⶮ┤ࡡྙྜྷ஥ຸḗᏻ⿭ joint second secretary ࡛ࡊ࡙
44
ࠔᙴࡢࢨ࣭࣏ࣖࢴࣀ࡛࠷࠹ྞࡡⱕ࠷⤊ῥᏕ⩽ࡡぜよ࡞ᙫ㡢ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠕࠊ࣠ࢹ
࢞ࣤࢮࣤࡡ࣒࣓㸝1943.9.17㸞ࠊPRO, BT 64/3393ࠊࢨ࣭࣏ࣖࢴࣀࡡፃ࡞ࡻࡾఎ
オ࡞ࡻࡿࡣࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ᭩ᚃ࡞ࡢㄵ◒ࡈࡿ࡙ሒ࿈᭡ࡡᅰྋ࡛ࡊུ࡙ࡄථࡿ
ࡒࠊࡒࡓ⤊ῥㄵண࡚ࡢົฺࡊࡒࢨ࣭࣏ࣖࢴࣀࡢࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ኶ᴏ⩽࡫ࡡຘ
ࡽࡡᚨ࡞㟸ᖏ࡞ᙫ㡢ࢅུࡄࡒࠊWood㸝1984: 162, 164㸞ࠊ
45 ࡆࡡ⟿ࡢ Beveridge㸝1955: 329㸞ࡵཤ↯ࠊ
46 ࣂࢴࢢࢻ࣑࡛ၛຸኬ⮟࠿リࡊࡒ⤎ᯕࠉ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤࡢ௑ࡱ࡚㏳ࡽ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴ
ࢩࡡఌྙ࡞ฝᖆࡊ࡙ࡻ࠷ࠉ㍲ฝ࡞㛭ࡌࡾࢸ࣭ࢰࢅᥞ౩ࡊ࡙ࡻ࠷࡛ᏽࡴࡼࡿࡒࠊ
PRO, BT 64/3393ࠉ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤࡡ࣒࣓ࠉ1943 ᖳ 10 ᭮ 23 ᪝ࠊ
47 PRO, BT 64/3393ࠉ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤ࠾ࡼ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ⛆᭡࡫ࠉ1943 ᖳ㸫᭮
30 ᪝ࠊ
48 PRO, BT 64/3393ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ⛆᭡࠾ࡼ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤࣉࠉ1943 ᖳ㸩᭮
10 ᪝ࠊ
49 PRO, BT 64/3393ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠾ࡼ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤࣉࠉ1943 ᖳ 10 ᭮ 11 ᪝ࠊ
12
10 ᖳ㛣഼࠷ࡒ50ࠊ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮ࡛ࣤྜྷᵕ࡞࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡཿࡂ࠾ࡼࡡ▩ࡽྙ࠷࡚
࠵ࡽࠉᡋ㛣᭿ࡢ኶ᴏၡ㢗࡞ᚉ஥ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒ51ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡᏻ⏲࡫ࡡᙫ㡢ງࡢࡱ
ࡓኬࡀ࠾ࡖࡒࠊ
➠㸩ṹ㝭ࡢᨳᗋࡡ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ᥃り⚏Ḿ࿤௦࡚࠵ࡾࠊ኶ᴏಕ㝜Ἢᏽጟဤఌࡡ
㆗㛏ࡷ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩጟဤఌࡡ㆗㛏࠿ࡐ࠹࡚࠵ࡖࡒࡻ࠹࡞ࠉᙔิࡡ⠂ᅑࢅ㐥࠾࡞
෻㥑ࡌࡾᨳ➿❟᱄࡫ࡡ㔕ᚨࡢࠉᮇ∸ࡡᨳ➿Ửᏽ⩽ࢅ⃥ᛛࡈࡎࡒࠊࢲ࣭ࣔࢲࣜ㤫
┞ࠉ࢓ࣤࢱ࣭ࢮࣤⶮ┞ࠉࢲ࣭ࣔࢗ࢘ࣜᨥᡮ⥪┐࡝࡜࠿භ㏳ࡡ᎒ᝇࢅ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴ
ࢩ࡞វࡋ࡙࠷ࡒࠊኬⶮ┤஥ຸḗᏻࡡ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪࡢᏻേࡡࢹࢴࣈ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉᨳᗋࡡ
࡜ࡡ㒂㛓ࡡᙲெؐؐ⤊ῥᏕ⩽ࢅྱࡲؐؐࡵࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡛኶ᴏၡ㢗࡞㛭ࡊ࡙
ណぜஹᥦࡊ࡙ࡢ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷࡛྘┤ᖿ࡞㏳㐡ࡊࡒ52ࠊ࢕࣭ࢸ࢔ࡵ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤࡵᚉࢂ
ࡉࡾࢅᚋ࡝ࡂࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡞᩷ࡽࡡᡥ⣤ࢅ᭡࠷ࡒࠊཿࡂ࠾ࡼࡡ▩ெ࠿ᯙᐠ㢫
ၡᏻ࡞࡝ࡖࡒࡆ࡛ࢅ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿♻⚗ࡊࡒ᫤ࠉ┞ᡥࡢࠔ྇ႋࡈࡿࡾ࠾࡛ᜅࡿ
࡙ࠉ࡜ࢆ࡝᪁Ἢ࡚ࡵ࠵࡝ࡒ࡛᥃りࡌࡾࡡࡢ㌅㌃ࡊࡒࠕ
㸝Beveridge 1955: 329-330㸞
࡛ࡻ࠹ࡷࡂ㏁஥ࢅࡻࡆࡊࡒࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿㞘⏕ၡ㢗࡞ࡗ࠷࡙リࡊྙ࠷ࡒ࠷࡛
ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡞ᥞ᱄ࡊࡒ᫤ࠉ⚏Ḿࢅུࡄ࡙࠷ࡾ㌗࡝ࡡ࡚㐪៎ࡊࡒ࠷࡛ᅂ➽ࡈࡿࡒࠊ
ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢ᪜࡞ኬⶮ┤㢫ၡ࡚࠵ࡽࠉᨳᗋ࡞ࡻࡾ㞘⏕ၡ㢗ࡡゝ⏤࡞῕ࡂ㛭୙ࡊ࡙
࠷ࡒࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ▩ࡾࡻࡊࡵ࡝࠾ࡖࡒ࠿ࠉ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤࡢࡆࡡỬ
ᏽ࡞ᙁࡂཬⓆࡊࠉḗࡡぜよࢅオ㘋࡞ṟࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ
ࠔ⚶ࡢࢗ࢔ࣛ࢓࣑࣬࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴ
ࢩ༽ࢅ↋♡࡞᡽࠹ࡆ࡛࡞ࠉ᭩ኬ㝀ࡡ⚶Ⓩ࡝ཬᑊࢅ௛ࡄຊ࠻࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊ
రࡡྙ⌦Ⓩ࡝ㄕ᪺࡝ࡊ࡞ࠉᙴࡡᣅᙽࢅᢼࡲ⤾ࡄࡾࡆ࡛ࡢࠉ↋♡࡛វࡋࡾࡓࢀ࠹
࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ53ࠊࡱࡒࡆࡡ⚏Ḿ௦ࡢ࣏ࢪࢤ࣐࡞ࡵ⁻ࡿࠉኬࡀ࡝ཬ㡢ࢅࡵࡒࡼࡊࡒࠊ
ࡐࡡ⤎ᯕࠉᗚẰ㝌࡚ࡵ㈏᪐㝌࡚ࡵࠉᨳᗋࡢ⃥ࡊ࠷㟸㞬࡞᫱ࡈࡿࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡊ௲ࡡ
ᯙᐠ㢫ၡᏻࢅጙࡴ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉᨳᗋࡢࡆࡡ⚏Ḿ௦ࢅᚪṒ࡚᧞㆜ࡊࡒࠊౚ࠻ࡣ 1943 ᖳ
12 ᭮㸬᪝ࡡᗚẰ㝌࡚ࠉ࢓ࣤࢱ࣭ࢮࣤⶮ┞ࡢࡆࡡᡥ⣤ࡢ⚶࠿ධ㈈௴ࢅㇿ࠹⩽ࡓ࠿ࠉ
පຸဤ࠿Ꮼࡾ࡬ࡀୌ⯙Ⓩ࡝ཋ์ࢅ්☔ヾࡊࡒ࡞㐛ࡁ࡝࠷54࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉධࡂ᧌ᅂࡡណ
50
㞘⏕ၡ㢗࡞ኬ࠷࡞㛭ᚨ࠿࠵ࡽࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡᥞ᱄࡞ࡵࡒࡦࡒࡦ࣒࣓ࢅṟࡊ࡙࠷
ࡾࠊPeden㸝2004: 318㸞ࡵぜࡻࠊ
51 ㈜㔘⋙࡛⏍Ὡ㈕࡞㛭ࡌࡾ⏐ᴏၡ㢗ࡡᡥ⣤࠿ṟࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊPRO, LAB
2/875/I&S525/2/1922ࠊ
52 PRO, BT 64/3393ࠉ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪ࠾ࡼ࢛࣭ࣁ࣭ࢹ࣭ࣤ㸝ၛຸ┤஥ຸḗᏻ㸞࡫ࡡ
ᡥ⣤ࠉ1943 ᖳ 11 ᭮㸧᪝ࠊ
53 PRO, BT 64/3393ࠉ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤࡡ࣒࣓ࠉ1943 ᖳ 11 ᭮㸮᪝ࠊ
54 The Times, “The House of Commons, Beveridge Inquiry, the Letter to
13
ᛦ࠿࡝࠷ࡆ࡛ࢅ♟ࡊࡒࠊ12 ᭮ 10 ᪝ࡡ㈏᪐㝌࡚ࡵࠉ᭩㔔さ㆗㢗࡛ࡊཱི࡙ࡽ୕ࡅ
ࡼࡿࠉኣࡂࡡ㆗ဤ࠿␪ၡࢅ࿆ࡊࡒࠊ࠵ࡾ㆗ဤࡢᨳᗋ࠿ࡆࡡࡻ࠹࡝ᩝ᭡ࢅ㏳㐡ࡊ
ࡒࡡࡢ㐿᠅ࡓ࡛ࡊࠉᢇ⾙Ⓩ࡞ࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ༽ࡵ࢜ࢴࢹ࣭༽55ࡵපຸဤ࡝ࡡࡓ࠾ࡼࠉ
ᙴࡼ࠿࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ༽࡛Ᏸධ㞘⏕࡞ࡗ࠷࡙༝㆗࡚ࡀ࡝࠷ࡡࡢ୘㐲วࡓ࡛᩷ࡋࡒࠊ
ืࡡ㆗ဤࡢࡆࡡỬᏽࡢ⮤⏜࡛Ằ୹୹⩇࡞ཬࡌࡾ࡛ࡊࡒ56ࠊ࣏ࢪࢤ࣐ࡵୌ᩟࡞ᨳᗋ
ࢅᢀึࡊࡒ57ࠊ୯࡚ࡵ࢙ࠖࢤࢿ࣐ࢪࢹࠗࡢཚࡊࡂࠉࠔࡆࡡỬᏽࡢ͐පᘟ࡝ឺᗐ࡛
ࡊ࡙㤷㮭ࡅࡒౚ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ࡛ࡊࠉࠔḿࡊ࠷㈻ၡ࡞ḿࡊࡂ➽࠻ࡾ࡛࠷࠹㆗ㄵ࡞㛭ࡊࠉ
පᘟぜよ࡛㟸පᘟぜよ࠿⮤⏜࡞භྜྷ࡚ࡀࡾ࡛࠷࠹ࡆ࡛࠿ࠉẰ୹Ⓩ࡝ណᛦ␧㏳ࡡ
ᙁࡈ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ࡛୹ᘿࡊࡒ58ࠊ
➠㸪ṹ㝭ࡢࠔⓉ᭡ࡡ㏛࠷࠾ࡄࡇࡖࡆࠕWhite Paper Chase59࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊᨳᗋࡢ
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡛ࡡஹὮࢅ⚏Ḿࡊࡒࡓࡄ࡚࡝ࡂࠉ⮤ࡼࡡᡥ࡚Ᏸධ㞘⏕࡞ᑊࡌࡾሒ
࿈᭡ࢅషᠺࡊࠉ඙㥉ࡄ࡙ප⾪ࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡊࡒ60ࠊᙴࡵ⚏Ḿ௦࡛࠷࠹㏣ሾࢅࣁࢾ࡞ࠉ
᩺ࡊ࠷ሒ࿈᭡ࢅ௘୕ࡅࡾ࡛࠷࠹┘ᵾ࡞✲ࡀ㐅ࢆ࡚࠷ࡖࡒࠊᨳᗋࡢࠖ㞘⏕ᨳ➿ࠗ
࡛㢗ࡌࡾⓉ᭡ࢅ 1944 ᖳ㸪᭮ 26 ᪝࡞ප⾪ࡊࡒ61ࠊࠖ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᏰධ㞘⏕ࠗ
࠿༰ใᡜ࡞㏞ࡼࡿ࡙㸭᪝ᚃࡡࡆ࡛ࡓࡖࡒࠊ
ࠔᡋ᫤࡞ࡢ⚶Ⓩ࡝ฝ∟࠿࡝࠾࡝࠾ළ⁝
࡞ࡢ⾔ࢂࡿ࡝࠷ࠕ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 259㸞ࡒࡴ࡞ࠉᮇ᭡࠿᪝ࡡ┘ࢅぜࡒࡡ
ࡢ 11 ᭮ࡡࡆ࡛ࡓࡖࡒࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢᨳᗋⓉ᭡࠿⮤ฦࡡሒ࿈᭡ࡡ㏛࠷ⴘ࡛ࡊࢅ
≲ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛វࡋࡒࠊ☔࠾࡞ࢲ࣭ࣔࢗ࢘ࣜ༽࡝࡜ࡢࡐࡡណᅒ࠿࠵ࡖࡒ62ࠊࡱࡒ࣊
Civil Servants”, 8 December 1943.
55 Lord Catto㸝1879-1959㸞
ࠉᚃࡡ࢕ࣤࢡࣚࣤࢺ㖗⾔⥪⿚ࠊᙔ᫤ࡢኬⶮ┤࡫ࡡ㔘
⼝ຐゕᏻࠊ
56 The Times, “Planning after the War, House of Lords, Task for Sir William
Beveridge”, 11 December 1943.
57 The Times, 29 November 1943, 7 December 1943, New Chronicle, 27
November, 1943, Daily Telegraph, 27 November 1943 ࡝࡜ࠊEvening
Standard ࡞ࡢ㢴ๆ₌⏤ᐓࣞࢗ㸝David Low 1891-1963㸞ࡡ⤦ࡵ࠵ࡾࠊ௧୕ࡡ࠷
ࡂࡗ࠾ࡢ PRO, BT 64/3393 ࡡ୯࡞วࡽᢜࡀಕᏋࡊ࡙࠵ࡾࠊ
58 The Economist, “Hush, Hush”, 4 December 1943.
59 ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ⮤㌗ࡡ⾪⌟ࠊBeveridge㸝1955: 330㸞
ࠊRobbins㸝1971: 189-190㸞
ࡢࡳࡊࢀ࣐࣭ࢺ࡛⮤ฦ࠿᭩ิ࡞㞘⏕ၡ㢗ࢅ⩻࠻࡙࠷࡙ࠉࡐࡿ࡞࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿
㣍ࡦࡗࡆ࠹࡛ࡊࡒ࡛⾪⌟ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊᐁࡢຘ഼ඨࡵᏰධ㞘⏕ၡ㢗ࡡᥞ᱄᭡ࢅฝࡊ
࡙࠷ࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡵ୹ᑙ⩽ࡡࢺ࣭ࣜࢹࣤ࡞ࡻࡿࡣࠉ1944 ᖳ㸩᭮ප⾪࡝ࡡ࡚ࠔᠻࠍ࠿
㸦␊ࡓࠕ࡛ーࡖ࡙࠷ࡒࠊDurbin㸝1985: 262㸞
ࠊ
60 ࡆࡡ஥᝗ࡢẗฺ㸝1990: ➠㸩❮㸞࡞レࡊ࠷ࠊPeden㸝2004: 308㸞ࡵཤ↯ࠊ
61 ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡛ࡆࡡⓉ᭡ࡡ㛭౿ࡢࠉᖲ஬㸝2003: ⿭❮㸧㸞ࢅཤ↯ࠊ
62 PRO, CAB 66/42/15, “Reconstruction Plans. Memorandum by the
14
ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿ୌ㒂ࡡᨳ἖ᐓࡷᏻേ࠾ࡼ↦ࡒ࠿ࡿ࡙࠷ࡒࡡࡢ஥ᐁ࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊࡊ࠾
ࡊᨳᗋහ㒂࡞ࡵᏰධ㞘⏕ࢅ㏛ịࡌࡾ㞗ᅆ㸝࣐࣭ࢺ➴㸞࠿࠷ࡒࡡࡵ☔࠾ࡓࡊࠉࡐ
ࡿࢅᚃᢪࡊࡌࡾ᭯ᙟ↋ᙟࡡᅸງࡵ࠵ࡖࡒࠊ
3-2 ᮇ᭡ࡡࢢ࢕ࣤࢫⓏහᐖ
ࠖ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᏰධ㞘⏕ࠗࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ⌦ㄵࡡུᐖ࡛ゕࢂࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ63ࠊࡆࡡ
⟿࡚ࡢࡐࡡ㏳ㄕࢅᢀึⓏ࡞᳠ゞࡌࡾ࡛භ࡞ࠉ୹࡞ࠖୌ⯙⌦ㄵ࡛ࠗࡡẒ㍉࡞࠽࠷
࡙ర࠿භ㏳࠾ࠉర࠿࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ≺⮤࠾ࢅ⭂ฦࡄࡌࡾࠊࡱࡍࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫⓏさ
⣪ࢅึ᩷ࡈࡿࡾࡵࡡࢅ⌦ㄵฦᯊ࣬ᨳ➿ࡡ୦㟻࠾ࡼ⩻࠻ࡾࠊḗ࡞࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ≺
⮤ࡡさ⣪ࢅᣞᦤࡌࡾࠊ᭩ᚃ࡞ᮇ᭡ࢅ㈇ࡂ♣ఌふ࡛ࠉ
ࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈࡛ࠗࡡ㛭
㏻ࢅࡱ࡛ࡴࡾࠊ
ᮇ᭡ࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ⌦ㄵࡡ῕࠷⌦よ࠾ࡼᇮ➱ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡆࡡࡆ࡛ࢅḗࡡ㸨Ⅴ࠾
ࡼ☔ヾࡊࡻ࠹ࠊ➠㸦࡞ࠉ኶ᴏࢅฦᯊࡌࡾ㝷࡞ධమࡡ᭯ຝ㞺さ effective demand
࠿㘵࡛࡝ࡽࠉࡊ࠾ࡵࡆࡡ㞺さ࠿୘㊂ࡊ࠿ࡔ࡛࠷࠹ၡ㢗ណㆉ࠿࠵ࡾࠊ኶ᴏ࠿Ⓠ⏍
ࡌࡾ⌦⏜ࡢࠉ᭯ຝ㞺さ࠿ධమ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡡຘ഼ງ࡞ぜྙ࠹࡮࡜༎ฦ࡚࡝࠷࠾ࡼ࡚࠵
ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 24, para.20㸞ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ᭯ຝ㞺さࢅࠖୌ⯙⌦ㄵࠗ
࡞࠽ࡄࡾ㞬よ࡝ᏽ⩇64࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉ㏳ᖏ࡞Ὦᕱࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾᏽ⩇࡚ㄕ᪺ࡌࡾࠊࡌ࡝ࢂ
ࡔ㈀࣬ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪࢅᨥᡮ࠹⿤௛ࡄ࠿࠵ࡾḟị࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 404㸞ࠊ
ᙴࡢ➠ୌḗୠ⏲ኬᡋࡡ๑ᚃ࡚ࡢࠉຘ഼ᕰሔࡡၡ㢗࠿ධࡂንࢂࡖ࡙ࡊࡱࡖࡒࡆ࡛
ࢅヾㆉࡌࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙⌟ᅹࡢࠔ⥪㞺さࡡ୘㊂ࡢ᭩ࡵ㔔さ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ㸝Beveridge
1945/1944: 26, para.24 㸞ࠊ ➠㸧࡞ ࠉࠔ 㞘⏕ ࡢᨥฝ ࡞ ౪Ꮛ ࡌࡾ ࠕ㸝Beveridge
1945/1944: 131, para.175㸞ࠊᨥฝ outlay ࡛ࡢࡆࡆ࡚ࡢᾐ㈕࡛ᢖ㈠࡛ᏽ⩇ࡈࡿࡾ
ࡡ࡚ࠉ⥪㞺さ࡛ྜྷࡋ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙ࠔ⥪ᨥฝ࠿㞘⏕ྊ⬗࡝ධຘ഼ࢅ㞺さࡌࡾ࡮
࡜༎ฦ࡚࡝࠷㝀ࡽࡢࠉᏰධ㞘⏕ࡢ㐡ᠺ࡚ࡀ࡝࠷ࠕ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 134,
para.180㸞ࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡛ྜྷᵕ65࡞ࠉ⥪㞺さഁ࠾ࡼ⤊ῥධమࡡᡜᚋ㸝GDP㸞࠿ぞᏽ
ࡈࡿࠉࡐࡿ࠿ࡱࡒ㞘⏕ࢅぞᏽࡌࡾࡆ࡛࠿ヾㆉࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡆࡡࡻ࠹࡞⥪㞺さഁ
Paymaster General”, 20 October 1943. ẗฺ㸝1990: 267ࠉἸ 22㸞ࡵྜྷୌࡡᩝ
᭡ࢅཤ↯ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ࠿ࠉฦ㢦␊ྒ࠿᩺ࡊࡂ࡝ࡖࡒࡻ࠹࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
63 ౚ࡛ࡊ࡙ Harris㸝1997: 434㸞
ࠊ
64 ⥪㞺さ㛭ᩐ࡛⥪౩⤝㛭ᩐࡡஹཨࡌࡾⅤ㸝࠵ࡾ㞘⏕㔖࠾ࡼ௺ᴏ࠿᭿ᙽ࡚ࡀࡾ኉
୕㔘㢘㸞࠿ࡐࡡᏽ⩇࡚࠵ࡾࠊCW7㸝1973/1936: 25,55㸞ࠊ
65 ᾐ㈕ᛮྡྷ࣬Ὦິᛮ㐽ይ࣬㈠ᮇࡡ㝀⏲ຝ⋙࣬㈜㔘༟న࣬㈄ᖨ㔖࡛࠷࠹≺❟ንᩐ
࠿ᅗẰᡜᚋ࡛㞘⏕㔖ࢅỬᏽࡌࡾࠊCW7㸝1973/1936: 247㸞ࠊ
15
ࢅฝⓆⅤ࡛ࡊ࡙㞘⏕ࢅ⤂╌Ⅴ࡛ࡌࡾᅄᯕᚂࡡぜ᪁࠿ᮇ᭡ࢅ㈇࠷࡙࠷ࡾࠊ➠㸨࡞ࠉ
⤊ῥ࠿⮤ິㄢᩒᶭ⬗ࢅᣚࡖ࡙࠷࡝࠷࡛ヾㆉࡈࡿࡾࠊౚ࠻ࡣࠉฺᏄ⋙࠿㈋⵫࡛ᢖ
㈠ࢅᆍ⾦ࡈࡎࡒࡽ66ࠉࡐࡡ⤎ᯕ࡛ࡊ࡙ຘ഼㞺さ࡛ຘ഼౩⤝ࢅୌ⮬ࡈࡎࡒࡽࡌࡾࡆ
࡛ࡢ࡝࠷ࠊྜྷᵕ࡞ࠉࣅࢡ࣭࠿ 1913 ᖳࡷ 1927 ᖳ࡞୹ᘿࡊࡒࡡ࡛ࡢ㏣࡞ࠉ㈜㔘⋙
ࡡ ㄢ ᩒ࡞ ࡻࡖ ࡙኶ ᴏࢅ ࡝ࡂ ࡌࡆ ࡛ ࡢ࡚ ࡀ ࡝࠷ 㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 96,
para.125㸞ࠊࡆࡆ࡚ࡢฺᏄ⋙ࡷ㈜㔘⋙࡞ࠉᆍ⾦࡫ࡡㄢᩒᶭ⬗࠿ࡵࡢࡷ࡝࠷ࡆ࡛࠿
᪺ࡼ࠾࡞ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࣂ࣒࣭ࣚࢰ࠿୘ᅹ࡚࠵ࡖࡒࡽࠉㄏࡖࡒᶭ⬗ࢅぜࡎࡒࡽࠉ
ᵕࠍ࡝Ⅴ࡚Ᏸධ㞘⏕ࢅᑙ࠾࡝࠷ࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ ௧୕㸨Ⅴ࠷ࡍࡿࡵࠉ
ࠖୌ⯙⌦ㄵࠗࡡ
୯ᚨⓏ࿤㢗ࢅ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿ࡐࡡࡱࡱུᐖࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ♟ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡫ࡡ῕࠷⌦よࡢ⌦ㄵ㟻ࡓࡄ࡚࡝ࡂࠉᨳ➿㟻࡞ࡵ⌟ࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ්ࡦ㸨
Ⅴࢅᣞᦤࡊࡻ࠹ࠊ➠㸦࡞ࠉ⥪ᨥฝࢅᏰධ㞘⏕࡞ぜྙ࠹ࡓࡄ༎ฦ࡞ࠉᅗᐓ࠿㈈௴
ࢅᣚࡖ࡙ᤤฝࡊ࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 29, para.31㸞ࠊ⚶Ⓩᨥ
ฝ࠿୘㊂ࡌࡾ࡝ࡼࡣࠉපⓏᨥฝ࡚⿭࠹ࡆ࡛࡚ࠉධమ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡡ㞺さ࠿ࡌ࡬࡙ࡡெ
ࢅ㞘⏕ࡌࡾࡡ࡞༎ฦ࡝ࡱ࡚ᅗᐓ࠿㈈௴ࢅᣚࡗ67ࠊ➠㸧࡞ࠉࠔᢖ㈠ࡡ♣ఌ໩ࠕࡡᥞ
၌࠿࠵ࡾࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢࠔᢖ㈠ࡡࡷࡷᗀ⠂࡝♣ఌ໩࠿Ᏸධ㞘⏕࡞㎾࠷≟ឺࢅ☔ಕ
ࡌࡾ။ୌࡡ᪁Ἢ࡞࡝ࡾࠕ㸝CW7 1973/1936: 378㸞࡛㏑࡬ࠉࠖୌ⯙⌦ㄵ࡚ࠗࡢපභ
஥ᴏࡻࡽࡵࡳࡊࢀࠔᢖ㈠ࡡ㛏᭿Ⓩ࡝Ꮽᏽ໩ࠕࢅ᥆ዜࡊࡒࠊරమⓏ࡝හᐖࡢ᪺ࡼ
࠾࡚ࡢ࡝࠷࠿68ࠉᢖ㈠࡞㛭ࡌࡾ᝗ሒࢅ㞗୯࣬ප㛜ࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡚ࠉᅗᐓࡡ௒ථ࡛Ằ㛣
ࡡ๭ណᕝኰࢅ㐲ᗐ࡞⤄ࡲྙࢂࡎࡾࡆ࡛ࢅྱࡳ࡛⩻࠻ࡼࡿࡾࠊࡆࡡ㟻࡚࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛ
ࢴࢩࡢᏰධ࡞ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡛ྜྷୌ⥲୕࡞࠵ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢࠔ᭯ຝ㞺さࡡ♣ఌ໩ࠕ
㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 191, para.271㸞ࢅ᪺ゕࡌࡾࠊරమⓏ࡞ࡢࠉᅗᐓᢖ㈠ᑻ
a National Investment Board ࡡス⨠ࢅㅳࡖࡒࠊᢖ㈠࡞㛭ࡊ࡙ࠔ᝗ሒࢅථᡥࡊࠉ
⿭ຐࢅ୙࠻ࠉࡱࡒප⚶ࡡ௺ᴏ࡞ࡻࡾᢖ㈠ࢅ࡛ࡵ࡞ㄢᩒࡌࡾᶊ㝀ࢅࡵࡗࠕ
㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 177, para.241㸞ᶭ㛭࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡗࡱࡽᨳᗋ࠿├᥃⤣โࡌ
ࡾපභᢖ㈠࡛ࡢื࡞ࠉẰ㛣ࡡᢖ㈠ࢅㄢᩒࡊࡒࡽㄇᑙࡊࡒࡽࡌࡾ௘⤄ࡲ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
⿭ຐࢅ୙࠻ࡾ࡛ࡢࠉᅗᐓಕッࢅᢰಕ࡞ࠉ఩࠷ฺᏄ⋙࡚Ằ㛣ࡡ㔘⼝ᶭ㛭࠾ࡼ⼝㈠
ࡈࡎࡾࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾࠊ➠㸨࡞ࠉ஢⟤ືᏽࡡ᩺ス࡚࠵ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢࠔ஦㔔஢
66
ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡞ࡻࡿࡣཿ඼ὬࡢࠉฺᏄ⋙ࡡ୕ୖ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙㈋⵫࡛ᢖ㈠ࡡஊ㞫࠿よᾐ
ࡌࡾ࡛ࡲ࡝ࡊࡒࠊ CW7㸝1973/1936: 328㸞ࠊ
67 ࠔ͐ᅗᐓ࠿ᢖ㈠ࢅ├᥃࡞⤄⧂ࡌࡾࡒࡴ࡞௑ᚃࡱࡌࡱࡌኬࡀ࡝㈈௴ࢅㇿ࠹ࠕ
㸝CW7 1973/1936: 164㸞ࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡぜよࠊ
68 㘘ᓞ㸝2001: 37-39㸞ࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡ஢⟤โᗐᨭ㠁᱄㸝1942-45㸞ࡵࠉᢖ㈠ࡡ♣
ఌ໩ࢅ┘Ⓩ࡛ࡌࡾ࡛ㄵࡍࡾࠊ
16
⟤ࠕdouble budget ࢅᥞ၌ࡊࠉ㏳ᖏ஢⟤࡛⮣᫤஢⟤ࡡᓠืࢅㄕ࠷ࡒࠊ๑⩽ࡢᖳࠍ
ࡡ⤊ᖏ཭ථ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙㈝࠹㏳ᖏᨥฝ࡞ࡗ࠷࡙࡚࠵ࡽࠉᚃ⩽ࡢ㏳ᖏࡡ㈠ᮇᨥฝࡷ୘
Ἓ᫤ࡡᚺ᛬᥈⨠ࢅྱࡳࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ๑⩽ࡢ཭ථ࡛ᨥฝࢅཚᐠ࡞ᆍ⾦ࡈࡎࡾ࡬ࡀ
࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡊ࠾ࡊᚃ⩽ࡢይἛ᫤࡞ఴ๨ࢅ⏍ࡱࡎࡾୌ᪁࡚ࠉ୘Ἓ᭿ࡢ㉝Ꮚࢅཕࢂ࡝
࠷㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 181, para.249㸞ࠊᐁࡢࡆࡡᴣᛍࡢؐؐࠖୌ⯙⌦ㄵࠗ
࡞ࡢ࡝࠷࠿ؐؐࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠿ࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࠗࡷ㞘⏕ᨳ➿ࢅゞ㆗ࡌࡾ㐛⛤࡚ࠉ
1942 ᖳ࠾ࡼ 1945 ᖳࡡ㛣࡞ὩⓆ࡞⏕࠷ࡒࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡢࠔᡜᚋ࠾ࡼᨥ
ฝࡈࡿࡾ㏳ᖏ஢⟤࡛ࠉ࠷ࢂࡹࡾ㈠ᮇ஢⟤࡛ࡡฦ㞫ࠕ69ࢅ୹ᘿࡌࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙ࠔ㏳ᖏ
஢⟤ࡢᖏ࡞ᆍ⾦࡞ಕࡒࡿࡾ࡬ࡀ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ㞘⏕࡞ᑊࡌࡾ㞺さ࡛භ࡞ንິࡌ࡬ࡀ࡝
ࡡࡢ㈠ᮇ஢⟤ࡡ᪁࡚࠵ࡾࠕ70࡛ࡊࡒࠊ௧୕ࡻࡽࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡷ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿㉝Ꮚ
㈀ᨳ୹⩇ࢅࡵࡒࡼࡊࡒ࡛᩷ᏽࡌࡾࡡࡢᣃ㏷࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡳࡊࢀఎ⤣Ⓩ࡝ᆍ⾦㈀ᨳ୹
⩇ࢅ㏳ᖏ஢⟤ࡡ୯࡚ṟࡊ࡝࠿ࡼࠉ୯㛏᭿Ⓩ࡝㞘⏕ࡡᏭᏽࢅ㈠ᮇ஢⟤ࡡᯗ⤄ࡲ࡚
ᶭິⓏ࡞ᅒࡾ࡛࠷࠹஦㔔ᛮࢅ᭯ࡌࡾ࡛ึ᩷ࡌ࡬ࡀ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ㈠ᮇ஢⟤ࡡᴣᛍࡢࠉ
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ♣ఌಕ㝸ゝ⏤ࢅ࡜࠹஢⟤໩ࡌࡾ࠾࡛࠷࠹ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡᛦ⩻࠾ࡼⓆ
ᒈࡊࡒࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿ࡐࡿࢅᘤࡀཱིࡽࠉ⮤ⴥ࡞ཬ᫆ࡈࡎ࡙࠷ࡾⅤ
ࡢ⮾࿝῕࠷ࠊ ௧୕ࡡ㸨Ⅴ࠷ࡍࡿࡵࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡛ࡡභ㏳Ⅴ࠿࠵ࡾࠊ
୕オࡡ⌦ㄵ࣬ᨳ➿ࡡ୦㟻࠾ࡼࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡ❟ሔࢅུࡄථࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴ
ࢩ࡚ࡢ࠵ࡾ࠿ࠉᮇ᭡࡞ࡢ௙࡞ࡵᙴ≺⮤ࡡ኶ᴏㄵ࠿࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡿ࠿⏐ᴏ㒼⨠ࡡ⤣โ
࡛ຘ഼⛛ິࡡ⤄⧂໩࡚࠵ࡾࠊ๑⩽ࡢெཾ࣬⏐ᴏࡡ㐛␧㐛ᐠ࠿࠵ࡾࡒࡴ࡞ࠉࡎࡖ
࠾ࡂධమ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡡຘ഼㞺さ࠿༎ฦ࡚࠵ࡖࡒ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡵࠉᆀᇡࡇ࡛࡞ᩤࡡຘ഼㞺さ
࠿ぜᙔ㐢࠷࡞Ⓠ⏍ࡊ࡙ࡊࡱ࠹ࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡿࢅ㑂ࡄࡾ࡞ࡢࠉᅗᐓ㛜Ⓠኬ⮟
Minister of National Development ࡡࡵ࡛࡚⏐ᴏࢅ㐲ว࡞㒼⨠ࡌࡾᚪさ࠿࠵
ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 170, para.228㸞ࠊࡌ࡝ࢂࡔ⏍⏐ᣈⅤ࡛࠷࠹౩⤝ഁࡡ
さᅄࡡโᚒ࡚࠵ࡾࠊᚃ⩽ࡢᙽᶭࡊ࡙࠷ࡾຘ഼ງ㸝ຘ഼஢ങ㌱ reserves of labour㸞
࠿ኣࡂ⏍ࡍࡾࡻ࠹࡝ሔྙࠉࡱࡒࡢ㞺さ࡞ᚺࡋ࡙ཬᚺ࡚ࡀࡾຘ഼࡞ఘ⦨ᛮ࠿࡝࠷
ሔྙ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡿࢅ㑂ࡄࡾ࡞ࡢࠉຘ഼ᕰሔࢅ⤄⧂໩ࡊࠉ⛛ິࡡࡒࡴࡡ㝸◸ࢅ㝎
ཡࡌࡾࡆ࡛࠿ᚪさ࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 172, para.233㸞ࠊ࢕࢟ࣛࢪ࡞
ࡢ᪜࡞⫃ᴏ⣺௒ᡜ࠿࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡆ࡚ຘ഼ࡡ㞺⤝᝗ሒࢅ㞗ࡴࡾࡆ࡛࠿࡚ࡀࡾ࠿ࠉࡱ
ࡓ୘༎ฦ࡚࠵ࡾࠊຘ഼ࡡ⛛ິࢅᐖ᪾࡞ࡌࡾᡥṹ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉᅗᐓ࠿⫃ᴏ㣬ᠺࢅᥞ౩
CW27㸝1980: 275㸞ࠉ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸩᭮ 15 ᪝ࠊ
CW27㸝1980: 275㸞ࠉ
ࠔ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ᱄ࠕࠉ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1942 ᖳ㸬᭮
20 ᪝ࠊ
69
70
17
ࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࠉࡱࡒಞ஡⩽࡞ࡢ⫃ࢅᥞ౩ࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࠉ㛏᭿ࡡ኶ᴏ⩽࡞ࡢ኶ᴏ⤝௛ࡡ᮪
௲ࢅཚࡊࡂࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡝࡜࠿࠵ࡾ71ࠊࡗࡱࡽຘ഼౩⤝ഁࡡさᅄ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ⏐ᴏ㒼⨠ࡡ
⤣โ࡛ຘ഼Ὦິᛮࡡ⤄⧂໩ࡢࠉࠔ๧ḗⓏ࡚࠵ࡾ࠿ᚉᒌⓏ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠕ㸝Beveridge
1945/1944: 125, para.165㸞ࠊࡗࡱࡽຘ഼㞺さࡡႋ㉫࠿Ᏸධ㞘⏕࡫ࡡ➠ୌ᮪௲࡚
࠵ࡾ࠿ࠉࡆࡿ࠿‫࡞ࡔ├ࡵ࡙ࡿࡈࡒ‮‬よỬࡈࡿࡾࢂࡄ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠊ➠㸧࣬➠㸨ࡡ᮪
௲ࢅຊ࿝ࡊ࡝࠷࡛Ᏸධ㞘⏕ࡢ㐡ᠺ࡚ࡀ࡝࠷ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ⥪㞺さࡡႋ㉫࡛࠷
࠹࣏ࢠࣞⓏഁ㟻࡞ຊ࠻ࠉ௙ࡡ㸧᮪௲࡛࠷࠹࣐ࢠࣞⓏ࡚౩⤝ഁࡡさᅄࡵ኶ᴏฦᯊ
࡞ຊ࠻࡙࠷ࡒ72ࠊ
3-3 ⮤⏜♣ఌ࣬♣ఌಕ㝸࣬Ᏸධ㞘⏕
୕オࡡ኶ᴏチ᩷࡞ຊ࠻ࠉᮇ᭡ධమࢅὮࡿࡾᛦ᝷ࡡᇱㄢࢅᣞᦤࡊ࡙࠽ࡂᚪさ࠿
࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡿ࠿ᇱᮇⓏ⮤⏜ࡡ᧞㆜࡚࠵ࡾࠊᙔิࡢࠖ㐅Ṅ♣ఌ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᏰධ㞘⏕ࠗ73
࡛㢗ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡒᮇ᭡ࡢࠉ᭩⤂Ⓩ࡞ࠖ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᏰධ㞘⏕ࠗ࡞ን᭞ࡈࡿࡒࠊ
㐅ṄⓏ progressive ࠾ࡼ⮤⏜ free ࡞ን᭞ࡈࡿࡒ⌦⏜ࡢ୘᪺࡚࠵ࡾ࠿ࠉ࠷ࡂࡗ࠾
ࡡ᥆ῼ࠿ᠺࡽ❟ࡗࠊࡱࡍ㈠ᮇ୹⩇ᑊ♣ఌ୹⩇࡛࠷࠹ㄵண࡞ࡢຊࢂࡼ࡝࠷࡛ᐃゕ
ࡊࡒ74࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢࠉࠔ㐅ṄⓏࠕ㸲♣ఌ୹⩇ ࡛࠷࠹ㄏよࢅ㑂ࡄࡒࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷
࠾ࠊḗ࡞ࠉ๑㏑ࡡࡻ࠹࡞ᨳᗋ㧏ᏻ࡛ࡡ᥃り⚏Ḿ௦࡛࠷࠹ࠔ୘⮤⏜࡝ࠕ⎌ሾ࡞࠽
࠾ࡿࡒ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢࠉ᭩ኬ㝀࡞ᨳᗋࡡᶊງ࡞ᑊᢘࡊ࡙ࠔ⮤⏜ࠕࡡ⏕ㄊࢅ౐ࡖ
ࡒࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷࠾ࠊ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡛ࡢࠔᕰẰࡡᇱᮇⓏ⮤⏜ᶊ࠿ࡌ࡬࡙☔ಕࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ
᮪௲ࠕ
㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 21, para.11㸞࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙ࠔ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡞࠽࠷࡙
Ᏸධ㞘⏕ࢅ⥌ᣚࡌࡾ㈈௴ࢅᅗᐓ࡞࠽࠷࡙࠷ࡾࠕ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 192,
para.274㸞ࠊࡒࡓࡊ⮤⏜ࡡ⣵┘࠿ၡ㢗࡛࡝ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ⮤⏜ᶊ࡞⃨Ὲࢅ௛
ࡄ࡙࠷ࡾࡻ࠹࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡱࡍᇱᮇⓏ⮤⏜ᶊ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉ
ࠔಘ௭࣬ゕㄵ࣬ⴥష࣬◂✪࣬ᩅ
⫩ࡡ⮤⏜ࠕࡢ୘ྊ౴࡚࠵ࡾࠊḗ࡞ࠔᨳ἖ࡐࡡ௙ࢅ┘Ⓩ࡛ࡌࡾ㞗ఌ࣬⤎♣ࡡ⮤⏜ࠉ
71
ࠔಕ㝜ᡜᚋࡡぞᏽ࠾ࡼࡢ୘ᙔ࡞࡝ࡾ࡮࡜᡿ຐࡈࡿ࡙ࡢ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠕ㸝Beveridge
1945/1944: 173, para.233㸞ࠊࡆࡆ࡚ࡵ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ኶ᴏಕ㝜ࡡโᗐ࡞㐛ᗐ࡞
౪Ꮛࡊࡌࡁࡾ಴ெࢅཚࡊࡂㅃࡴ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
72 ࡝࠽࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢᏰධ㞘⏕ᨳ➿࡚ຘ഼⤄ྙࡡງ࠿ᙁࡱࡽࠉ∸౮㦈㈏࡛࠷࠹
ᝇᚘ⎌ࢅᣅࡂ༱㝜ᛮࡵᣞᦤࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 199, para.285㸞ࠊ
ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡵᏰධ㞘⏕࡞㐡ࡊࡒᚃࡡ࢕ࣤࣆࣝࢅ᝷ᏽࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ࠿㸝CW7 1973/1936:
290㸞ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ᪁࠿ࡻࡽᙁ࠷࢕ࣤࣆࣝᠩᛍ࠿࠵ࡾࠊ
73 PRO, BT 64/3393ࠉ1943 ᖳ 10 ᭮ 11 ᪝ࠉ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠾ࡼ࣠ࢹ࢞ࣤࢮࣤ࡫
ࡡᡥ⣤ࠊ
74 Beveridge㸝1945/1944: 191, para.272; 206, para.300; 252, para.373㸞
ࠊ
18
⫃ᴏ㐽ᢝࡡ⮤⏜ࠉ಴ெᡜᚋࡡฌฦࡡ⮤⏜ࠕ࠿୹࡞⩻ᐳࡡᑊ㇗࡛࡝ࡾ㸝Beveridge
1945/1944: 21, para.11㸞ࠊᅆ⤎ࡡ⮤⏜࠿∸౮㦈㈏ࢅᣅ࠾࡝࠷࠾ࠉ⫃ᴏ㐽ᢝࡡ⮤
⏜ࡡࡒࡴ࡞㢎⦶࡝㞫ᴏ࠿ᶋ⾔ࡊ࡝࠷࠾ࠉ಴ெᡜᚋࡡฌฦࡡ⮤⏜ࡡࡒࡴ࡞㐛ᑛᾐ
㈕ࢅᣅ࠾࡝࠷࠾ࠉ࡛࠷࠹ᠩᛍ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ♣ఌࡡᜇ஁Ⓩฺ─ࡡࡒࡴ
࡞ࠉࡆ࠹ࡊࡒ⮤⏜ᶊࡡୌ㒂ࢅโ㝀ࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡚Ᏸධ㞘⏕ࢅ㐡ᠺࡌࡾ࡛ࡊࡒࠊ
ࠔࡌ࡬
࡙ࡡ⮤⏜ࡢ㈈௴ࢅㇿ࠹ࠕ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 23, para.16㸞ࠊ⮤⏜ᶊࢅᨲᲘࡌ
ࡾࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉࡻࡽ㧏ḗࡡ┘Ⓩ࡞ࡒࡴ࡞ࡐࡡ୯ࡡୌ㒂ࢅโ㝀ࡌࡾࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡒ
ࡓࡊࠔ♣ఌࡢ಴ெࡡࡒࡴ࡞Ꮛᅹࡌࡾࠕ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 19, para.5㸞࡛࠷
࠹♣ఌふ࡚ᮇ᭡ࡢᇮ➱ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࡡ࡚ࠉ✪ᴗⓏ࡞ࡢ಴ெ୹⩇Ⓩ࡝⮤⏜ふࡓ࡛࣊
ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ⮤㌗ࡢึ᩷ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡐࡿࡹ࠻ࠉ
ࠔᕰẰࡡ࠵ࡼࡹࡾᇱᮇⓏ࡝⮤⏜ᶊࢅ
්ࡦヾࡴࡾࡆ࡛࠿ࡆࡆࡡᥞ᱄ࡡᮇ㈻ࠕ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 191, para.271㸞
࡛ᐃゕࡈࡿࡒࠊ
ࡆࡆࡱ࡚ࡢࠖ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᏰධ㞘⏕ࠗ༟≺ࡡ⩻ᐳ࡚࠵ࡖࡒ࠿ࠉࡳࡊࢀ≁
➱ࡌ࡬ࡀࡢ๑ⴥࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈࡛ࠗࡡᙁ࠷㛭㏻࡚࠵ࡾࠊ୦⩽ࡢ┞ப౪Ꮛࡊࠉ
ࡊ࠾ࡵࡐࡡ┘ᵾ࠿㐡ᠺࡈࡿࡿࡣ᭻ࡱࡊ࠷ᚘ⎌࡞࡝ࡾࠊࡆࡡᚘ⎌ࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ
⮤㌗࠿ࡢࡖࡀࡽ࡛ḗࡡࡻ࠹࡞⮤てࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡵࡊ 1942 ᖳࡡ♣ఌಕ㝸ゝ⏤࠿ᐁ᪃
ࡈࡿࡿࡣࠉᾐ㈕ᨥฝࡢᣉኬ࣬⥌ᣚࡈࡿࡾࠊࡆࡿࡢỀᖲⓏ࡝්ฦ㒼࡛ᆱ├Ⓩ࡝්
ฦ㒼࡚࡝ࡈࡿࡾࠊ๑⩽ࡢ኶ᴏࡡ᫤࡛ࡐ࠹࡚࡝࠷᫤ࠉᏄ౩࠿ኣ࠷᫤࡛ࡐ࠹࡚࡝࠷
᫤ࠉࡐࡿࡑࡿ࡚♣ఌಕ㝜࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ᡜᚋࡡỀᖲⓏᖲᆛ໩࠿⾔ࢂࡿࡾࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
ᚃ⩽ࡢᙔิࡢ᚜ࠍࡒࡾࡵࡡࡓ࠿ࠉࡷ࠿࡙♣ఌಕ㝸ࡡୌ㒂࠿⛧࡚ㄢ㐡ࡈࡿࡾࡻ࠹
࡞࡝ࡾ࡛ࠉᖶ㐘࡝⩽࠾ࡼࡐ࠹࡚࡝࠷⩽࡞ᡜᚋࡡᆱ├Ⓩ්ฦ㒼࠿⾔ࢂࡿࡾࡆ࡛࡚
࠵ࡾࠊ࠷ࡍࡿࡵ⑋Ẵ࣬኶ᴏ࣬ഭᐐࡐࡡ௙ࡡெ࡞ࠉᡜᚋ࠿༎ฦ࡞ᅂࡾࠊࡐࡆ࡚ᨥ
ฝቌ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙Ᏸධ㞘⏕࡫ࡡ㐠࠿ᐖ᪾࡞࡝ࡾࠊ㏣࡞ࠉᏰධ㞘⏕࠿㐡ᠺ࡚ࡀࡿࡣࠉ
⌟ᅹ 8.5㸚ࡡ኶ᴏ⩽࡞ྡྷࡄࡒಕ㝜㈀″࠿ࠉ㸨㸚௧ୖ࡞ྡྷࡄࡒㇿᢰ࡚ῥࡳࠊྜྷࡋㇿ
ᢰ࡚ኣ㢘ࡡ᡿ຐ࠿ྊ⬗࡞࡝ࡾࠊࡹ࠻࡞❋இ࡫ࡡᡋ࠷ࡢ↋Ⅵ㸝኶ᴏ㸞࡫ࡡᡋ࠷ࡡ
➠ୌṄ࡚࠵ࡾ75ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ⤎ㄵࡌࡾࠊ
ࠔ♣ఌಕ㝜࡛ඡ❲ᡥᙔ࡞ࡻࡾ❋இࡡ㝎ཡ࡞ఔ࠹ᡜᚋ්ฦ㒼ࡢࠉࡐࡿ⮤మ࡚⏐
ᴏࡡ⏍⏐∸࡞ᑊࡌࡾ㞺さࡡ⥌ᣚࢅຐࡄࠉࡐࡿࡹ࠻኶ᴏࢅ㜭Ḿࡌࡾᙁ࠷ງ࡞࡝
ࡾࡓࢀ࠹ࠊࠕ㸝Beveridge 1945/1944: 255-256, para.379㸞
75
௧୕ࡢ Beveridge㸝1945/1944: 160, para.213; 255, para.379㸞ࠊ
19
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡᏰධ㞘⏕ㄵࢅࡱ࡛ࡴ࡙࠽ࡆ࠹ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢࠖ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡞
࠽ࡄࡾᏰධ㞘⏕ࠗ࡞࠽࠷࡙ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ㸝≁࡞ࠖୌ⯙⌦ㄵࠗ㸞ࡡ⌦ㄵ࡛ᨳ➿ࡡᮇ㈻
Ⓩ࡝㒂ฦࢅུᐖࡊࡒࠊ᭯ຝ㞺さㄵࢅᰶ࡛ࡊ࡙ᢖ㈠ࡡ♣ఌ໩ࢅᥞ၌ࡊࡒࡆ࡛࡚࠵
ࡾࠊࡵࡔࢀࢆࡐࡆ࡞ࡢ⌦ㄵⓏ࡝⢥⦋ࡈࡢ࡝࠷ࠊࡗࡱࡽ౐⏕⩽㈕⏕࣬⮤ᕤฺᏄ⋙
࡝࡜ᴣᛍࡡࡲ࡝ࡼࡍࠉ஋ᩐ࣬Ὦິᛮ㐽ይ࡛࠷ࡖࡒᮇ㈻Ⓩ࡝ฦᯊ㐠රࡵ౐⏕ࡈࡿ
࡙࠷࡝࠷76 ࠊࡱࡒ㈄ᖨយ࠿✪ᴗⓏ࡞ࡢ኶ᴏࢅࡵࡒࡼࡌ࡛࠷࠹ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡὕᐳງ
㸝㈄ᖨ⤊ῥㄵ㸞ࡢභ᭯ࡈࡿ࡙࠷࡝࠷ࠊࡊ࠾ࡊᏰධ㞘⏕ࢅ㐡ᠺࡌࡾࡒࡴ࡞ࠉᅗᐓ
࡞ࡻࡾᢖ㈠࠿ᚪ㡪࡛ࡌࡾධమⓏ࡝᪁ྡྷࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡛භ᭯ࡈࡿࡒࠊࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡵᮇ
᭡ࢅࠔᴗࡴ࡙ඁࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠕ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉࠔ⥪ࡋ࡙ྜྷវࡡᛍࢅᢢࡂࠕ࡛㏑࡬ࡒ77ࠊࡈࡼ
࡞Ᏸධ㞘⏕ࡡチ࡛᩷ฌ᪁⟚࠿්ࡦ≺⮤࡚࠵ࡾࠊ୹ࡒࡾฌ᪁ࡢ༎ฦ࡝⥪㞺さࠉᚉ
ࡒࡾฌ᪁ࡢ⏐ᴏ㒼⨠ࡡโᚒࠉ⿭ᏰⓏ࡝ฌ᪁ࡢຘ഼Ὦິᛮࡡ⤄⧂໩78࡚࠵ࡾࠊ኶ᴏ
࡞㛭ࡊ࡙ຘ഼㞺さഁ㸝ධమ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡡ᭯ຝ㞺さ࡛⏍⏐ࡡᆀᇡᛮ㸞࠽ࡻࡦຘ഼౩⤝
ഁ㸝Ὦິᛮ㸞ࡡ୦㟻ࢅ┘㒼ࡽࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊࡐࡊ࡙ධమࢅ㈇ࡂᇱㄢࡢ⮤⏜♣ఌࡡᑕ
㔔࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡆ࡚ࡵ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࠿ᚋណ࡛ࡌࡾࠔ⃨Ὲࡡࡗ࠷ࡒ୔⛸㢦ࡡ⥑⨮Ⓩ
ᢍᥩࠉධమࢅ㈇ࡂ㸦ࡗࡡᛦ᝷ࠕ࡛࠷࠹ᛦ⩻Ἢ࠿࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙♣ఌಕ㝸࡛Ᏸධ㞘
⏕ࡡ┞ப⿭Ᏸᛮ࡛ᚘ⎌ᛮࡵ⮤てࡈࡿࡒࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ 1944 ᖳ࡞ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ⌦ㄵ
ࢅ☔࠾࡞ུᐖࡊࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡊࡐࡿࡢ༟࡝ࡾᢙఄ࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉ⮤ࡼࡡ♣ఌಕ㝸మ⣌ࢅ
ᙁᅖ࡞ࡊࠉࡱࡒ⮤ࡼࡡ⮤⏜♣ఌࢅ᧞㆜ࡌࡾᡥṹ࡛⌦よࡊࡒᨶࡓࢀ࠹ࠊࡆࡡណ࿝
࡚࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ≺⮤ࡡᏰධ㞘⏕ㄵࢅᏰᠺࡈࡎࡒࠊࡐࡿࡹ࠻ࠉḗࡡࡻ࠹࡝ࣀ࢕
࢙ࢠࡡ⌦よࡢᏰධ࡞Ⓩࡢࡍࡿ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
ࠔ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ㞘⏕࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࡡᮇࢅ᭡࠷
ࡒࡡࡢᙴ[࢜ࣜࢺ࢓]࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡿࡢ࠾࡝ࡽࡻࡂ▩ࡼࡿࡒ஥ᐁ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡡᮇ࡞࠵
ࡾ⤊ῥᏕࡢࡌ࡬࡙࢜ࣜࢺ࢓ࡡࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡞ࡐࡡࡻ࠹࡝ᮇࡢ᭡ࡄ
࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡢࡍࡓࠕ㸝Kresge & Wenar 1994: 86㸞ࠊ
➠㸩⟿ ࠖ⮤ⓆⓏὩິࠗ
ᚃ᭿୔㒂షࡡ᭩ᚃࠉࠖ⮤ⓆⓏὩິ㸯♣ఌ㐅Ṅࡡ᪁Ἢ࡞㛭ࡌࡾሒ࿈᭡ࠗࡢ 1948
76
ࡆࡡ஥ᐁ࠿㏣࡞ࠉࣞࣄࣤࢮࣤ࣬࢜ࣜࢺ࢓࡝࡜ࡡࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ⌦ㄵࢅ⇅▩ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒ
ຐゕ⩽࠿ᅸ಻Ⓩ࡝ᙫ㡢ງࢅᣚࡒ࡝࠾ࡖࡒഎッ࡞࡝ࡾࠊ
77 CW27㸝1980/ 1944: 380㸞
ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠾ࡼ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1944 ᖳ 12
᭮ 16 ᪝ࠊ
78 1909 ᖳࡡチ࡚᩷ࡢ୹࡛ࡈࡿࡒࠊງⅤࡡ⛛ິࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩ⮤㌗࠿⮤てࡊ࡙࠷
ࡾࠊBeveridge㸝1945/1944: 86, para.111, 90, para.115㸞ࠊ
20
ᖳ㸩᭮࡞ฝ∟ࡈࡿࡒࠊ๑ࡡሒ࿈᭡ྜྷᵕ࡞⚶Ⓩጟဤఌ࠿⤄⧂ࡈࡿࠉහ㒂⩽79ࡡゞㄵ
࠵ࡾ࠷ࡢአ㒂⩽ࡡッゕ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙⫏௛ࡄࡈࡿࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡊ๑ࡡሒ࿈᭡࡛ࡢ㐢ࡖ࡙ࠉ
ཬ㡢ࡢ࡮࡛ࢆ࡜࡝ࡂࠉᨳᗋ࠾ࡼࡵ࡮࡯↋っࡈࡿࡒ㸝Harris 1997: 460㸞ࠊᮇ⟿࡚
ࡢࡆࡡሒ࿈᭡ࡡහᐖࢅ␆㏑ࡊࠉ≁࡞௙ࡡሒ࿈᭡࡛ࡡ㛭౿ࢅࡱ࡛ࡴࡾࠊ
4-1 ⮤ⓆⓏὩິࡡ㡷ᇡ
ࡱࡍ㢗ྞࡡណ࿝࠿ࡐࡡࡱࡱᮇ᭡ࡡහᐖ࡛࡝ࡾࠊ⮤ⓆⓏ㸝Ằ㛣㸞Ὡິ Voluntary
Action ࡛ࡢࠉᨳᗋࡡ⟮⌦ୖ࡞࡝࠷⚶Ⓩ࡝⾔ິࢅᣞࡌࠊᚪࡍࡊࡵ↋ർ࡛࠷࠹ࡆ࡛
࡚࡝ࡂࠉ᭯ർ࡚ࡵአഁ࠾ࡼࡡโᚒ࠿࡝࠷⾔ິ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ⮤ⓆⓏᅆమ࡛පⓏᅆమࡢ
ṌྍⓏ࡞ࡢ༝ㄢࡊ࡙ࡀࡒࡆ࡛࠿࢕࢟ࣛࢪࡡ≁ᚡ࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1948: 8㸞ࠊᮇ
᭡࡚ࡢࡒ࡛࠻⮤ⓆⓏ࡚ࡵࠉႜฺິᶭ business motive ࡛಴ெⓏ೛⣑ personal
thrift ࡢᤖ㇗ࡌࡾࠊ♣ఌⓏ㐅Ṅࢅᑙࡂපභ┘Ⓩࡡࡲ࠿୹㢗ࡓ࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡡ୕
࡚ࠉ┞ப᡿ຐ mutual aid ࡛༡យ philanthropy ࡛࠷࠹⾔ິ࡞⤘ࡾࠊ๑⩽ࡢ୘ᖶ
࡞ᑊᢘࡊ࡙Ꮽධࢅ☔ಕࡌࡾࡒࡴࠉ⮤ࡼ࡛௯㛣ࢅᏬࡾⓇ㘋โࡡ⮤ⓆⓏᅆమࢅషࡾ
ࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾࠊᚃ⩽ࡢ♣ఌⓏⰃᚨ social conscience ࢅහ࡞⛆ࡴࡾࠊ∸㈻Ⓩ࡞⮤ฦ
࠿‫‮‬㊂ࡊ࡙࠷࡙ࡵࠉ㝼ெ࠿‫‮‬㊂ࡊ࡙࠷࡝ࡄࡿࡣ⮤ฦࡵ⢥♼Ⓩ࡞‫‮‬㊂ࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࡢ
࡝࠷ࠊࡆࡿ࠿ⰃᚨࡡⓆ㟚࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1948: 9㸞ࠊ
┞ப᡿ຐࡡ⢥♼࡞ᇱࡘ࠷࡙࠷ࡾᅆమࡢࠉຘ഼⤄ྙ࣬⏍Ὡ༝ྜྷ⤄ྙ࣬పᏩ⤄ྙ࣬
௴ណಕ㝜࡝࡜࠿࠵ࡾࠊ୯࡚ࡵ௥⾪ౚ࠿ཪយ⤄ྙ friendly societies ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡡ
⤄ྙࡢ 17 ୠ⣎୯ⴝࡱ࡚࡞ࡢᠺ❟ࡊࠉ࣭ࣞࢫἪ㸝1793㸞࡞ࡻࡖ࡙⣵࠾ࡂぞᏽࡈࡿ
ዜທࡈࡿࡒ80 ࠊᵕࠍ࡝୘ᖶ࡞ങ࠻ࡾࡒࡴࡡᇱ㔘ࢅ⵫࠻ࡾ⮤ⓆⓏ࡝ᅆమ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
1911 ᖳ࡞ᅗẰಕ㝜Ἢ࠿ᠺ❟ࡊࡒ᫤ࠉཪយᅆమ࡛ᅗᐓࡢ❿ྙࡊ࡝࠷ࡻ࠹࡞⩻៎ࡈ
ࡿࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡊ 1946 ᖳ࡞ࡢࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࠗࡡᥞ᱄࡛㏣࡞ࠉ୦⩽ࡢฦ⿛ࡊࡒࠊ
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢࡆࡡฦ㞫ࡢይࡱࡊࡂ࡝࠷㸝Beveridge 1948: 84㸞࡛ࡊࠉཪយ⤄ྙ
࡞ኬ࠷࡞⫢ථࡿࡌࡾࠊࡐࡡ⌦⏜ࡢࡆࡡమโ࠿ؐؐ♣ఌಕ㝜࡮࡜ཚᐠ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷࡞
ࡎࡻؐؐᣈฝཋ์ࢅ㈇࠷࡙࠷ࡾ࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡗࡱࡽᣈฝ࡛࠷࠹᭩఩㝀ࡡ⩇ຸࢅ
≁࡞හ㛮⤊ῥ㒂࡞࠷ࡒࢲ࢘ࢪࢰ࣭Norman Chester㸝࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩሒ࿈ࡡጟ
ဤఌࡡ᭡オ㸞ࠉ๑ⴥ࡞ᘤࡀ⤾ࡂࢗࢴࢹࣤࠉ♣ఌㄢᰕᐓࡡࣚࢗࣤࢹ࣭ࣛ࠿┘ࢅࡥࡂࠊ
ࡱࡒࣀ࣭ࣤ࢝ࣛெ࡚ LSE ஷ࿤⩽ᨾῥ⤄⧂ࢅ㢏ࡖ࡙࢕࢟ࣛࢪ࡞ᮮࡒ࣏ࣤࣀ࢕࣑
㸝Karl Mannhiem 1893-1947㸞ࡵጟဤఌ࡞⛆᭡࡛ࡊ࡙ཤຊࡊࡒࠊࡆࡿࡼࡡ஥᝗
ࡢ Harris㸝1997: 454㸞࡞レࡊ࠷ࠊ
80 ࡆࡡ஥᝗ࡢᑚᒜ㸝1978: 102㸞ࢅཤ↯ࠊ
79
21
ᯕࡒࡊࡒ୕࡚ࠉࣈ࣭ࣜࡈࡿࡒᇱ㔘࠾ࡼ⤝௛ࢅུࡄࡾᶊฺ࠿࠵ࡾ81ࠊᙴࡢࡆࡡಘᛍ
࡞ᇱࡘ࠷࡙ࠉ1946 ᖳ࡞ຘ഼ඨᨳᶊ࡞ཪយᅆమࡡᙁ໩ࢅ㐅ゕࡌࡾ࠿ࠉᢼྫྷࡈࡿࡒ
㸝Harris 1997: 453㸞ࠊࡊ࠾ࡊᙴࡢᅗẰ㈋⵫ཪយ⤄ྙࡡ㈠㔘ᥴຐࢅᚋ࡙ࠉࡆࡡሒ
࿈᭡ࢅ᭡ࡀ୕ࡅࡒࡡ࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1948: 16㸞ࠊཪយᅆమ࡫ࡡല಻ࡢಘᛍ࡛
㈠㔘࡚⿤ᡬࡔࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ
༡យࡡ⢥♼࡞ᇱࡘ࠷࡙࠷ࡾᅆమࡢࠉ17 ⛸㢦࡞ฦ㢦࡚ࡀࡾࠊඡ❲࣬㟯ᑛᖳ࣬⩹
㱃⩽࣬ᐓ࡝ࡊெ࣬㝸ᐐ⩽࣬♣ఌⓏ࡝␧አ⩽࡫ࡡᥴຐࠉⰹ⾙࣬ᆀᇡࡡᣲ⮾ࠉዥᛮ
ᅆమࠉ㝼ಕ㤃࡝࡜࡚࠵ࡾࠊරమⓏࡢ C.O.S.ࡷࢹ࢕ࣤࣄ࣭࣭࣌ࣜࠉᨾୠ㌱࡝࡜࠿
࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡆ࡚ࡢ 40 ᖳᚃ࡞ᣲࡽ㏁ࡾࢹ࢕ࣤࣄ࣭࣭࣌ࣜࡡࡲࢅཱིࡽ୕ࡅࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒
ࣛࢴࢩࡢࡆࡆ්࡚ࡦࠔ࢕࢟ࣛࢪࡢ㇇࠾࡝ࡡ࡞ࠉ࡝ࡏྜྷ᫤࡞㈃ࡊࡈࡵṟࡾࡡ࠾ࠕ
࡛࠷࠹ࢢ࢓ࢺᐿ㛏ࡡゕⴝࢅᘤ࠷࡙࠷ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1948: 130㸞ࠊࡐࡊ࡙ࢬࢵ࣒ࣜ
ࣤࢹ㐘ິࡢ㔘ᣚࡔ࡚ఴ⿩ࡡ࠵ࡾ⩽࡛㈃ࡊࡂ࡙⫏మຘ഼ࡌࡾ⩽࡞ࠉ㒌ᕰ࠿ฦ⿛ࡌ
ࡾࡡ࡞ᑊᢘࡌࡾ⮤ⓆⓏὩິ࡚࠵ࡾ࡛ࡱ࡛ࡴࡼࡿࡒࠊࡒࡓࡊࡆࡿࡢ⤎ᯕ࡚࠵ࡖ࡙ࠉ
᭩ิ࠾ࡼࡡᮇ㈻࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠊࡳࡊࢀࠔࡐࡆ࡞పࡳ⩽ࡡ┘ࢅ㏳ࡋ࡙ࠉ⤊ῥⓏ࣬♣ఌ
Ⓩ᮪௲ࢅふᐳࠕ
㸝Beveridge 1948: 132㸞ࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࡵኬ஥࡝ᙲ┘࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡡ෫ᚥ
࡝ふᐳ╉ࡢࠉᪿ࡛ንࢂࡼ࡝࠷ࠊ
⤾࠷࡙୕オࡡࡻ࠹࡝ᅆమࡡ඙㥉⩽ࢅ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ⩻ᐳࡌࡾࠊࢗ࢔ࣛ࢓࣑࣬
ࣇ࣭ࢪࠉ࢛ࢠࢰࣄ࢓࣬ࣃࣜࠉࢲ࣭ࣔࣜࢫ࣬ࣇ࣭ࢪࠉࣁ࣭ࢾࢴࢹኰጏࠉࢗ࢘ࢴࣇ
ኰጏ࡝࡜࡚࠵ࡾ82ࠊࢗ࢘ࢴࣇኰጏࡡࡲ㏑࡬࡙࠽ࡆ࠹ࠊࡆࡆ࡚ࡢ LSE ࢅ㛜スࡊࡒ
ࡆ࡛࠿⮤ⓆⓏὩິࡡୌ⛸࡞࡝ࡾࠊඔࡢ♣ఌ୹⩇ࢅᢪࡊ㐅ࡴࡾࡒࡴ࡞ࠔපᖲ࡝⛁
ᏕⓏ◂✪ࠕ࠿ᚪさࡓࡖࡒࠊ≁࡞ࢨࢺࢼ࣭ࡢ㝷ࡓࡖࡒໂຫᛮ࣬ᐰᐖᛮࢅぜࡎࡒࠊ
᭩ิࡡ⌦஥㸩ெࡢᚃ࡞ᅗఌ㆗ဤ࡞࡝ࡖࡒ࠿ࠉ㸦ெࡓࡄ࠿♣ఌ୹⩇࡞ฦ㢦ࡈࡿࠉ
ṟࡽࡢ㐢ࡖࡒ㸝㸧ெࡢಕᏬඨ㸞ࠊᙴࡢ㸦ᗐࡵ LSE ࡡ᪁ྡྷᛮࢅ㐵ࡖࡒࡆ࡛ࡢ࡝࠾
ࡖࡒࠊ࣊࢓ࢹࣛࢪࡡඔ࡞ࡢᕠ㢘࡝┞⤾㔘࠿࠵ࡖࡒࡡ࡚ࠉපභ┘Ⓩࡡࡒࡴ࡞᫤㛣
࡛㈠㔘ࢅࡗࡁ㎲ࡴࡒ㸝Beveridge 1948: 184㸞
ࠊ
81
ࠔࡆࡡභῥᶭᵋ࡞ࡻࡾಕ㝜ࢨࢪࢷ࣑࠿ᣚࡗࣛࢪࢠ࣬ࣈ࣭ࣜᶭ⬗࡞╌┘ࠕ㸝ᯐ
2002: 109㸞ࠊ
82 1942 ᖳࡡ㈃ᅏㄢᰕ࡚ࡵᡥఎࡖ࡙ࡂࡿࡒࣚࢗࣤࢹ࣭ࣛ㸝Benjamin Seebohm
Rowntree 1871-1954㸞࠿࠷࡝࠷ࠊࡱࡓᏋ࿤୯ࡓࡖࡒ࠾ࡼ࠾ࡵࡊࡿ࡝࠷ࠊࣚࢗࣤ
ࢹ࣭࡛ࣛࡡばᐠࡈࡢࠉࣞ࢕ࢺ࣬ࢩ࣭ࣘࢩࡷࢲ࣭ࣔࢲࣜ࡞ୌ᫤Ⓩ㞘⏕ࡡၡ㢗ࢅཱི
ࡽ୕ࡅࡈࡎࡾ࡛ណẴ㌲᪰࡝ᡥ⣤࠾ࡼࢂ࠾ࡾࠊBP 2b-13ࠉࣚࢗࣤࢹ࣭ࣛ࠾ࡼ࣊ࣥ
࢒ࣛࢴࢩ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠉ1917 ᖳ 11 ᭮ 17 ᪝ࠊ
22
4-2 ୔ṹ㝭ᢍᥩ࡛♣ఌふ
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ⚗♬ᅗᐓ83࠿฽ᮮࡊ࡙ࡵ࡝࠽ṟࡾ㡷ᇡࢅࠉࡷࡢࡽ୔ṹ㝭࡚ᢍᥩ
ࡌࡾࠊ➠㸦࡞ࠉ୹ࡒࡾ໅࿈ࡢṟᏋࡌࡾୌ⯙Ⓩ࡝ᇱᮇⓏᚪ㞺∸ needs ࡡඖ㊂࡚࠵
ࡾࠊࡆࡿࡢධᕰẰ࡞ྡྷࡄࡼࡿࡾࡵࡡ࡚ࠉఴᬜࡡቌኬ࡛⌟௥♣ఌࡡ々㞟໩࡞ᑊᚺ
ࡌࡾࠊ๑⩽ࡢᕝᴏ໩ࡡ⤎ᯕࠉ㸧᫤㛣ࡵࡡຘ഼᫤㛣࠿▯⦨ࡈࡿࡾ஥ឺ࠾ࡼὬ⏍ࡊ
ࡒࠊఴᬜࡡቌኬ࡞ၛᴏ࠿ථࡽ㎲ࡲࠉ᫆⏤㚯㈳ࡷ࢟ࣔࣤࣇࣜ࠿ᶋ⾔ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡊ
࠾ࡊࠔఴᬜࢅ↋㥇࡞ᐐ࠵ࡾࡻ࠹࡞౐࠹ࡆ࡛࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࠉ⮤⏜♣ఌ࡚ࡢᅗᐓࡡ├᥃
⾔ິࡢ࡚ࡀ࡝࠷ࠕ
㸝Beveridge 1948: 286㸞ࠊࡱࡒᚃ⩽ࡢᕰẰ┞ㄧ஥ᴏᡜ Citizen’s
Advice Bureaux ࡡᶭ⬗࠿ኬ஥࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡡ⤄⧂ࡢ 1930 ᖳ௥୯ⴝ࡞ධᅗ♣ఌࢦ
࣭ࣄࢪ༝㆗ఌ National Council of Social Service ࡡሒ࿈᭡࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ᥞ၌ࡈࡿࡒࠊ
ᡋணລⓆ᫤࡞ࡢ 200 ࡡ஥ᴏᡜ࠿㛜スࡈࡿࠉ1948 ᖳ࡞ࡢ 600 ࠿✄഼ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡆ
ࡡ⤄⧂ࡢ୹࡞ࠉ⾔ᨳࡡ௘⤄ࡲࢅㄕ᪺ࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࠉ⾔ᨳࡡ୘᭱┞ㄧࢅࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࠉኣ
ࡂࡡᕰẰ࡞⌦ᛮ࡛ཪ᝗࠿ୠ࡞࠵ࡾ࡛វࡋࡈࡎࡾࡆ࡛ࢅㄫࡄㇿࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ┞ㄧဤ
࡞ࡢᚪࡍ࣍ࣚࣤࢷ࢔࢓࠿࠷ࡾࠊ௯㛣ࡡᕰẰ࡛ࡊ࡙┞ㄧ࡞஋ࡾࠊᙔᑻ࠾ࡼࡢ≺❟
ࡊࡒ⮤ⓆⓏᅆమ࡝ࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊᅗᐓࡢᕰẰ┞ㄧ஥ᴏᡜ࡞∸㈻Ⓩ࡝ᥴຐࢅࡌ࡬ࡀࡓ
࠿ࠉኬᏕ࡞ᑊࡊ࡙࡛ྜྷࡋࡂࠉโᚒࢅࡌ࡬ࡀ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷㸝Beveridge 1948: 277-287㸞ࠊ
➠㸧࡞ࠉᚉࡒࡾ໅࿈ࡢ≁Ṟ࡝ᚪ㞺∸ࡡඖ㊂࡚࠵ࡾࠊ㟸඼ᆵⓏ࡝ᑛᩐὬࡡᕰẰ࡞
ᑊࡊ࡙ࡵࠉ┘㒼ࡽࢅᛨࡖ࡙ࡢ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊౚ࠻ࡣ㐿Იࡈࡿ⹚ᙽࡈࡿࡒඡ❲ࠉᚨ㌗
㝸ᐐ⩽ࠉះᛮⓏ⑄ᝀ⩽ࠉᮅ፡ࡡẍ࡛Ꮔࠉ㔐ᨲࡈࡿࡒඔུฬ⩽ࠉ୘ᖶ࡝ᐓᗖࡡ୹
፦࡝࡜࡚࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1948: 226㸞ࠊᙴࡼ࡞ࡢ㈄ᖨࡐࡡࡵࡡ࡛࠷࠹ࡻࡽࠉ㈄ᖨ
࡚ࡢࡊࡣࡊࡣ㈑࠻࡝࠷ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ㸝ዅ௘㸞࠿୘㊂ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ∸㈻Ⓩ࡝㈠″㸝ᐓᒁ࣬
⑋㝌࣬ゥ⦆ᡜ㸞࠿ࡱࡍᚪさ࡚ࠉࡐࡿ࡞ࡢ⮤ⓆⓏὩິ࠿ኬ࠷࡞ງࢅⓆᥱࡌ࡬ࡀ࡚
࠵ࡾ㸝Beveridge 1948: 266㸞ࠊ➠㸨࡞ࠉ⿭Ᏸ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉ⮤ⓆⓏὩິࢅ㝔࠾ࡼᨥ࠻ࡾ
ࡡ࠿ᅗᐓ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡿࡢ├᥃⤣โ࡝ࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉჹࢅషࡖࡒࡽࠉ⿭ຐ㔘ࢅ୙࠻
ࡒࡽࠉ๭ណᕝኰࢅಀࡊࡒࡽࡌࡾ࡛࠷࠹㛣᥃Ⓩᥴຐ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
ᮇ᭡ࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ♣ఌふ࠿㝟⏤Ⓩ࡞❒࠻ࡾ84ࠊࡆࡿࡱ࡚ࡡⴥష࡚ࡢ㝔⏤Ⓩ
࡞ࡊ࠾ᤂ࠻ࡼࡿ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࠊࡐࡿࡢ஦㔔ࡡࣁࣚࣤࢪវて࡚࠵ࡾࠊ➠㸦ࡡࣁࣚࣤࢪ
ࡢᅗᐓ࡛಴ெࡡ㛣࡚࠵ࡾࠊ಴ெ࡞ࡢᵕࠍ࡝ິᶭ࠿࠵ࡾࠊ಴ெⓏ࡝⟿โ࡛ႜฺ㸝ࣄ
83
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢࠔ♣ఌࢦ࣭ࣄࢪᅗᐓࠕ࡛࠷࠹⏕ㄊࢅይࢆ࡚⏕࠷ࡒ㸝Beveridge
1948: 217㸞ࠊᅗᐓ࠾ࡼࡡ㉏ࡽ∸࡛࠷࠹ណㆉ࠿ᙁࡂ࡝ࡾࠔ⚗♬ᅗᐓࠕ࡛࠷࠹⏕ㄊ
ࡢẴ࡞ථࡼ࡝࠾ࡖࡒ㸝Harris 1997: 452㸞ࠊ
84 ᮇ᭡ࡢࠔ࣊ࣁࣛࢴࢩࡡᅗᐓ㛣ࠉ♣ఌふࢅ▩ࡾ࠹࠻࡚㔔さ࡝ࢷ࢞ࢪࢹࠕ
㸝 ὰ
1997: 222㸞࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
23
ࢩࢾࢪ㸞ິᶭ࡞ࡢ⚶Ⓩ࡝┘ᵾࡊ࠾࡝࠷ࠊ࡜ࡔࡼࡡ㈆ḟࡵ⤊ῥⓏⓆᒈࡡཋິງࡓ
࠿ࠉႜฺິᶭࡢ྇౐࠷࡛ࡊ࡙ࡢⰃ࠷࠿୹ெ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡢ┞ᚺࡊࡂ࡝࠷ࠊ
ࠔႜฺິᶭ࡞
ᨥ㒼ࡈࡿࡒ♣ఌࡢᝇ࠷♣ఌ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ㸝Beveridge 1948: 322㸞ࠊ௙᪁ࠉᅗᐓࡢẰ୹
୹⩇ⓏᡥἪ࡞์ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࡵࡡࡡࠉ୯ኳ㞗ᶊⓏ࡝ୌඔ໩㸝├᥃Ⓩ࡝⤣โ㸞ࢅᇱᮇ
Ⓩ࡞ࡢ┘ᣞࡌࠊࡆࡡࡱࡱ࡚ࡢ಴ெࡡᛦᝠ࡛ᅗᐓࡡᶊງ࠿ࣁࣚࣁࣚ࡞Ꮛᅹࡌࡾࡡ
ࡲ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ♣ఌ࡞ெࠍࡡ⤆࠿࡝࠷ࠊࡐࡆ࡚಴ெࡡ♣ఌⓏⰃᚨ㸝පභ┘Ⓩ㸞࠾ࡼ
Ⓠࡊࡒࠔ⮤ⓆⓏὩິࠕࡡ㡷ᇡ࠿ࠉ୦⩽ࡡ⥾⾢ᖈ࡛࡝ࡾࠊ࠾ࡗ࡙ࡢᏺᩅⓏ࡝භྜྷ
మ࠿ᢰࡖ࡙࠷ࡒᙲ┘ࢅࠉౚ࠻ࡣཪយ⤄ྙ࠿ཱིࡖ࡙௥ࢂࡾࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡆ࡞ᅗᐓ
࡛಴ெࡡࣁࣚࣤࢪ࠿ᅂᚗࡌࡾࠊ➠㸧ࡡࣁࣚࣤࢪࡢᅗᐓ࡛ᕰሔࡡࣁࣚࣤࢪ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
ᕰሔࡢ≺≁ࡡႜฺິᶭ࡞ᑙ࠾ࡿ࡙ࠉெࠍ࡞ኣኬ࡝ᐣࢅࡵࡒࡼࡊࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡊຘ഼
ᕰሔ࠿඼ᆵࡓࡖࡒࡻ࠹࡞ࠉ㞺さ࡛౩⤝࠿ኬᖕ࡞ንິࡌࡾ࡝࡜ࠉᆍ⾦࡫ࡡᏭᏽⓏ
㌮㐠࠿☔ಕ࡚ࡀ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࠊࡐࡆ࡚ 20 ୠ⣎๑༖࠾ࡼᅗᐓࡡ⤣โⓏ௒ථ࠿࡝ࡈࡿࡒࠊ
♣ఌಕ㝜࠿ᑙථࡈࡿࠉᏰධ㞘⏕࠿┘ᵾ࡛ᏽࡱࡖࡒࡡࡢኬࡀ࡝๑㐅࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡊ࠾
ࡊᅗᐓࡡງࠉᕰሔࡡງࢅᣚࡖ࡙ࡵよỬ࡚ࡀ࡝࠷㡷ᇡ࠿࠵ࡾ85ࠊࡐࡿ࠿ࠔ⮤ⓆⓏὩ
ິࠕࡡ㡷ᇡ࡚࠵ࡽࠉႜฺ࡚ࡵ⤣โ࡚ࡵ࡝࠷㐠࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊ♣ఌ࡞ࡢ⮤ⓆⓏὩິ࡚
ࡊ࠾ࡌࡂ࠷୕ࡅࡼࡿ࡝࠷ୌ⯙Ⓩ࣬≁ṞⓏ࡝ᇱᮇⓏᚪ㞺∸࠿Ꮛᅹࡌࡾࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
♣ఌⓏⰃᚨ࡞ᚉࡖࡒ⮤ⓆⓏὩິ࠿ࠉᅗᐓ࡛ᕰሔࡡ฽㐡࡚ࡀ࡝࠷㡷ᇡ࡚Ὡ㌅ࡌࡾࠊ
ࡆࡆ࡞ᅗᐓ࡛ᕰሔࡡࣁࣚࣤࢪ࠿ᅂᚗࡌࡾࠊ
➠㸪⟿ ୔㒂ష࡛⚗♬♣ఌ
ࡆࡡࡻ࠹࡞⩻࠻࡙࠷ࡂ࡛ࠉᚃ᭿୔㒂షࡡన⨠ࡘࡄࢅ᪺☔࡞ࡌࡾࡆ࡛࠿࡚ࡀࡾࠊ
㸨ࡗࡡሒ࿈᭡ࡢࡐࡿࡑࡿࠉ♣ఌಕ㝸࣬Ᏸධ㞘⏕࣬ᕰẰ♣ఌࢅ᡽࠹ࠊ➠㸦ࡡሒ࿈
᭡࡚࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢᅗᐓࡡ⩇ຸؐؐᕰẰࡡ⩇ຸࡵ⛆ࡴ࡝࠿ࡼ࡛ؐؐࡊ࡙ࠉ♣ఌ
ಕ㝸మโࢅ⩻᱄ࡊࡒࠊ♣ఌಕ㝸࡛࠷࠹ಕ㆜ࡡࢾࢴࢹ࣭࣠ࢠࢅᅗᐓ࠿๭ฝࡌࡾࡆ
࡛࡚ࠉᕰẰࡢ❋இ࠾ࡼࡡ⮤⏜ࢅ┘ᣞࡌࡆ࡛࠿࡚ࡀࡾࠊ௘஥࠿࠵ࡾ᫤࡛ࡐ࠹࡚࡝
࠷᫤ࠉఴ⿩࠿࠵ࡾெ࡛ࡐ࠹࡚࡝࠷ெࠉࡐࡿࡑࡿࡡ㛣࡞ᡜᚋࡡ්ฦ㒼ᶭ⬗࠿഼ࡀࠉ
ỀᖲⓏ࠽ࡻࡦᆱ├Ⓩපᖲ࠿㐡ᠺࡈࡿࡾࠊࡆࡡ᱄ࡢ♣ఌಕ㝜࣬පⓏ᡿ຐ࣬⚶Ⓩ㈋
⵫࡛࠷࠹㸨ࡗࡡ㸝Ẓ㔔ࡢ␏࡝ࡾ㸞௥⾪Ⓩ࡝ᡥṹ࡚ᵋᠺࡈࡿࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡊࡆࡡ♣ఌ
ಕ㝸࠿ຝ⋙Ⓩ࡞ິࡂ࡞ࡢࠉᑛ࡝ࡂ࡛ࡵ㸨ࡗࡡ๑ᥞ࠿࠷ࡾࠊ➠㸧ࡡሒ࿈ࡢࡐࡡ୯
85
ࠔ୘ᖶ࡞ᑊࡌࡾᏭධࡡධ㡷ᇡࡢ࠾ࡗ࡙⮤ⓆⓏ࡝┞ப᡿ຐࡡ༇ᇡࡓࡖࡒ࠿ࠉᅗ
ᐓฺ࡛ᚋ㏛ịࡡ⚶Ⓩႜฺ࡞ฦ⿛ࡊ࡙ࡊࡱࡖࡒ࡛ࡊࡒࡼࠉ㐿᠅࡚࠵ࢀ࠹ࠕ
㸝Beveridge 1948: 296㸞ࠊ
24
࡚᭩ኬࡡ๑ᥞ࡞❟ࡔྡྷ࠾ࡖࡒࠊᏰධ㞘⏕ࡡ☔ಕ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ්ࡦᅗᐓࡡ⩇ຸ࠿ၡ㢗
࡛ࡈࡿࡒࠊ௑ᗐࡢᕰሔࢅᶭ⬗ࡈࡎࡾࡒࡴࡡᅗᐓ௒ථ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ≁࡞ຘ഼ᕰሔ࡞࠽
࠷࡙ࠉ㞺⤝ࡡΰ⟤࡛࠷࠹ᕰሔࡡ࠵ࡾ࡬ࡀጶ࠿㏛✪ࡈࡿࡒࠊᕰሔࡢ⮤ິㄢᩒᶭ⬗
࠿᫤࡞ࡢḖࡄࡾ࠿ࠉゝ⏤⤊ῥ࡞ධ㟻Ⓩ࡞ཱིࡖ࡙௥ࢂࡼࡿࡾ࡬ࡀ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠊࡐࡡ
୯㛣ⓏᏋᅹ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉᅗᐓࡡᕟዼ࡝โᚒ࡞ࡻࡾᕰሔᶭ⬗ࡡⓆᒈ࠿┘ᣞࡈࡿࡒࠊර
మⓏ࡞ࡢࠉ᭯ຝ㞺さࡡႋ㉫ࠉ⏐ᴏ㒼⨠ࡡโᚒࠉຘ഼Ὦິᛮࡡ⤄⧂໩࡛࠷࠹㸨ࡗ
ࡡ㸝Ẓ㔔ࡢ␏࡝ࡾ㸞௥⾪Ⓩ࡝ᡥṹ࠿࠵ࡾࠊ➠㸨ࡡሒ࿈᭡࡚࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢؐؐ
ࡆࡿࡱ࡚ࡢ்ࡴ࠾ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡒ86ࡓࡄࡡؐؐࠔᕰẰࡡ⩇ຸࠕ࡞❟ࡔྡྷ࠾ࡖࡒࠊࠔ㸧
ᅂࡡୠ⏲ኬᡋ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙୯᩷ࡈࡿࠉࡐࡡ⤎ᯕೳ⁣ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒᩝ᪺ࡡ㐅Ṅࢅࠉெ㛣ᛮ
㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣
࠿ཱིࡽᡘࡎࡾ။ୌࡡ᮪௲ࡢࠉᶊฺࡡ☔ヾࡻࡽࡵࡳࡊࢀ⩇ຸࡡᙁㄢ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ87ࠊⰃ
ࡀ♣ఌࡢᅗᐓ࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂᕰẰ࡞౪Ꮛࡌࡾ㸝Beveridge 1948: 320㸞ࠊࡒ࡛࠻Ᏸධ㞘⏕
࠿ᠺ❟ࡊࠉ♣ఌಕ㝸࠿Ᏸᠺࡊ࡙ࡵࠉᅗẰ᭩఩㝀ࡓࡄ࡚ᕰẰ♣ఌ࠿ᵋᠺࡈࡿࡾࢂ
ࡄ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠊ⮤ⓆⓏὩິ࡛࠷࠹ᗀኬ࡝㡷ᇡ࠿Ꮛᅹࡌࡾࠊࡐࡆ࡞ࡢ಴ெ㸦ெ࡚ࡵ
ᅗᐓࡡࡲ࡚ࡵථࡽ㎲ࡴ࡝࠷ࠔභྜྷమࠕ
ࠔ㏻ᖈវࠕ࡛࠷࠹୯㛣㡧┘࠿࠵ࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙
ࡆࡿ࠿⮤⏜♣ఌ࡚࠵ࡾ88ࠊරమⓏ࡞ࡢࠉୌ⯙Ⓩ࡝ᇱᮇⓏᚪ㞺∸ࠉ≁Ṟ࡝ᇱᮇⓏᚪ
㞺∸ࠉᅗᐓࡡ⿭ຐ࡛࠷࠹㸨ࡗࡡ㸝Ẓ㔔ࡢ␏࡝ࡾ㸞௥⾪Ⓩ࡝ṟᏋࡌࡾ㡷ᇡ࠿ᣞᦤ
ࡈࡿࡒࠊࡆࡆ࡞࠽࠷࡙࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡᚃ᭿୔㒂షࡢᏰᠺࡊࡒࠊ୔㒂షࡢ࠽ப࠷
ࢅ๑ᥞ࡞ࡊࡒࡽⓆᒈᆵ࡞ࡊࡒࡽࠉᚘ⎌ࡊ࡙ᣉኬࡊࡒࡽࡌࡾࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢᅗ
ᐓࡡ⩇ຸ࡛ᕰẰࡡ⩇ຸ࣬ᶊฺࢅᥝࡀวࡖࡒࠊࡆࡆ࡞࠽࠷࡙⮤⏜࡝ᕰẰ♣ఌࡡࢡ
ࣚࣤࢺࢸࢧ࢕ࣤ࠿Ᏸᠺࡊࡒࠊ
࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡོᬓࡢ⌟ᅹࡡ⚗♬ᅗᐓ࡞ࡵྡྷࡄࡼࡿࡾࠊ
ࠔࡹࡽ࠾ࡇ࠾ࡼ቉ሔࡱ
࡚ࠕࡡమโ࠿☔❟ࡊ࡙࠾ࡼࠉኣࡂࡡ⚗♬ᅗᐓᢀึ࠿࡝ࡈࡿ࡙ࡀࡒࠊ⚗♬ࢦ࣭ࣄ
ࢪࢅᶊฺ࡛ࡊ࡙ୌ᪁Ⓩ࡞୙࠻ࡾࡓࡄࡡࠔ⤝௛ᆵࠕᅗᐓࠉࢦ࣭ࣄࢪࡡୌඔⓏ౩⤝
ࡊ࠾࡚ࡀ࡝࠷ࠔ୯ኳ㞗ᶊᆵࠕᅗᐓࠉ㈀ᨳࡡᨲ₌⤊ႜࢅࡵࡒࡼࡌࠔኬࡀ࡝ᨳᗋࠕ
࡝࡜࡚࠵ࡾࠊᠻࠍ࠿࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ㸨ࡗࡡⴥషࢅୌమ࡛⩻࠻ࡾ᫤ࠉࡆࡿࡼࡡᢀ
ึࡢ᝷ᏽහ࡞࠵ࡽࠉࡳࡊࢀスゝ⩽ࡢࡻࡽⰃ࠷ࠔ♣ఌࢦ࣭ࣄࢪᅗᐓࠕࢅ┘ᣞࡊ࡙
86
ࠔᅗẰ᭩఩㝀ಕ㝸ࢅ☔❟ࡌࡾࡡ࡞ࠉ⮤ⓆⓏὩິࡡఴᆀ࡛ዜທࢅṟࡊ࡙࠽࠾࡝
ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࠊࡐࡿࡑࡿࡡ಴ெࡢࠉ⮤ฦ⮤㌗࡛ᐓ᪐ࡡ᭩఩㝀௧୕ࡡࡵࡡࢅ✄
ࡃ࡛࠷࠹ࡡ࠿ࡐࡡ⮤ⓆⓏὩິ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ㸝Beveridge 1942: 7, para.9㸞ࠊ
87 Beveridge (1948: 14)ࠉᅥⅤ࢕ࢰࣛࢴࢠࠊ
88 ࠔ⮤⏜♣ఌࡡ㢟ⴥ࡝┘༰ࡢࠉ⮤ฦ⮤㌗࠽ࡻࡦ௯㛣ࡡ⏍ὩࢅⰃࡂࡌࡾࡒࡴ࡞ࠉ
⮤ฦࡡᐓᗖ௧አࡡ⮤ⓆⓏὩິ࠿ὩⓆ࠾ࡗ㇇ᐣ࡚࠵ࡾࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾࠕ㸝Beveridge
1948: 10㸞ࠊ
25
࠷ࡒࡆ࡛࠿ࢂ࠾ࡾࠊᕰẰ࡞ࡢಕ㝜ࡡᣈฝ࡛⮤ⓆⓏὩິ࡛࠷࠹አ㟻࠽ࡻࡦහ㟻ࡡ
⩇ຸ࠿࠵ࡾࠊ⚗♬ࡡ౩⤝ࡢᅗᐓ࠿ୌඔⓏ࡞⾔࠹ࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࠊࡳࡊࢀࠔᅗᐓࡢᅗ
ᐓࡓࡄ࠿࡚ࡀࡾࡆ࡛ࠉࡌ࡝ࢂࡔ㔘ࢅ㐘ႜ 000 ࡊ࡙ᨥฝࢅ⥌ᣚࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࡓࡄࢅ࡝
ࡌ࡬ࡀ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡆࡆࢅᏬࡽࠉᅗᐓࡢ࡚ࡀࡾࡓࡄኣࡂࡡᕰẰࡒࡔ࡞๭ណ࣬㉫ᴏࡡ
ఴᆀࢅṟࡌ࡬ࡀ࡚࠵ࡾࠕ
㸝Beveridge 1948: 319㸞89ࠊᅗᐓࡡᙲ๪ࡢ♣ఌಕ㝸โᗐ
ࡡᵋ⠇࡛⥌ᣚ࡞࠵ࡾࠊᕰẰࡡᙲ๪ࡢ⮤ⓆⓏὩິ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙⮤ฦࡡ௯㛣ࡒࡔࢅᨥ࠻
ࡾࡆ࡛࡞࠵ࡾࠊ୦⩽ࡡᙲ๪ฦᢰࡢࡢࡖࡀࡽࡊ࡙࠽ࡽࠉࡊ࠾ࡵཫ᪁ྡྷ࡞⿭ᏰⓏ࡚
࠵ࡾࠊ࡜ࡔࡼ࠾࠿Ḗࡄ࡙ࡵ♣ఌࡢᶭ⬗ࡊ࡝࠷ࠊࡐࡊ࡙⚗♬ࡡโᗐࡢࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡ
᝷ᏽ㏳ࡽࠔᢜ⩄࡞Ꮽࡂࡗࡂࡵࡡࠕ90࡚ࠉᣈฝཋ์࡚୹ᑙࡌࡾ㝀ࡽࠉ㈀ᨳࡡ◒⥚ࢅ
ࡵࡒࡼࡈ࡝࠷ࠊࡆࡡࡻ࠹࡝ᅗᐓ࣬ᕰሔ࣬ᕰẰ࠿┞ப࡞౪Ꮛࡊ࡙Ⓠᒈࡊ࡙࠷ࡂ♣
ఌࢅࠉ⥪ྙⓏ࡞ࠔ⚗♬♣ఌࡡ฽ᮮࠕ࡛ྞ௛ࡄ࡙Ⰳ࠷ࡓࢀ࠹ࠊ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡢ≻
⩇࡞ࡢ⚗♬ᅗᐓࡡスゝ⩽࡚࠵ࡾ࠿ࠉᗀ⩇࡞ࡢ⚗♬♣ఌࡡ⩻᱄⩽࡚ࡵ࠵ࡾࠊᠻࠍ
ࡢ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࡡ⤣ୌⓏ࡝໅࿈ࢅࠉࡵ࠹㸦ᗐ⢥ᰕࡌࡾᚪさ࠿࠵ࡾࠊ
ࠔࡐࡊ࡙ࡗ࠷࡞ெ㛣♣ఌࡢ㸦ࡗࡡཪយᅆమ࡞࡝ࡾࠊ͐ࡐࡿࡑࡿ࠿⮤⏜࡝⏍Ὡ
ࢅᣚࡔࠉࡐࡿࡑࡿ࠿භ㏳┘Ⓩ࡛ࡐࡡ┘Ⓩ࡞ዅ௘ࡌࡾ⣛ᖈ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ࠉ௙ࡡࡌ࡬
㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣㸣
࡙ࡡெࢅ⤎ࡦ௛ࡄ࡙࠷ࡾ྘㒂㛓࠿ᥞᦘࡊࡒ⛓ᗆ an Affiliated Order of
branches ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࠕ㸝Beveridge 1948: 324㸞
ࠊ
ཤ⩻ᩝ⊡
BP, the Beveridge Papers in the Archive Section, British Library of Political
Science, London School of Economics and Political Science.
PRO, Public Record Office (The National Archives), Kew, London,
Beveridge, W. H. (1942) Social Insurance and Allied Services, Cmd. 6404,
London: His Majesty's Stationery Office.
Beveridge, W. H. (1944/1945) Full Employment in a Free Society, New York:
89
ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡵྜྷᵕࡡヾㆉࢅᣚࡗࠊ
ࠔ͐ᨳᗋᶭ⬗ࡡᣉᘿࡢࠉ͐⌟ᅹࡡ⤊ῥᵕᘟࡡධ
㟻Ⓩ࡝ᓻቪࢅᅂ㑂ࡌࡾ။ୌࡡᐁ⾔ྊ⬗࡝ᡥṹ࡚࠵ࡾ࡛ྜྷ᫤࡞ࠉ಴ெࡡ๭ណࢅຝ
ᯕⓏ࡞Ⓠᥱࡈࡎࡾ᮪௲࡚࠵ࡾࠕ㸝CW7 1973/1936: 380㸞ࠊ
90 CW27㸝1980/1944: 263㸞
ࠉ1944 ᖳ㸪᭮㸦㸪᪝ࠉࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࠾ࡼ࢟ࣜࣁ࣭ࢹ࠽
ࡻࡦ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪ࡫ࡡᡥ⣤ࠊ
26
W. W. Norton & Company. Inc. (First published by Allen &Unwin in
1944).
Beveridge, W. H. (1948) Voluntary Action: A Report on Methods of Social
Advance, London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
Beveridge, W. H. (1955) Power and Influence, New York: The Beechhurst
Press.㸝௿㒂ⱝ⏠ゼࠖ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢩᅂ㢫㘋 ᙁโ࡛ㄕᚋࠗ⮫ㄌᇸࠉ1975 ᖳ㸞ࠊ
The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, London: Macmillan
Cambridge University Press for the Royal Economic Society, 1971 1989 ⩳ゼ࣬᮶Ὂ⤊ῥ᩺ሒ♣ࠊ
CW7 (1973/1936) The General Theory of Employment, Interest and
Money, 㸝ሲ㔕ㆺ♰ୌゼࠖ㞘⏕ฺ࣬Ꮔ࠽ࡻࡦ㈄ᖨࡡୌ⯙⌦ㄵࠗ1983 ᖳ㸞ࠊ
CW27 (1980) Activities 1940-1946: Shaping the Post-War World:
Employment and Commodities, 1980, 㸝ᖲ஬ಆ㢟࣬❟⬝࿰ኰゼࠖᡋᚃୠ
⏲ࡡᙟᠺ 㞘⏕࡛ၛဗؐ1940ࠤ46 ᖳࡡㅎὩິؐࠗ᮶Ὂ⤊ῥ᩺ሒ♣ 1996 ᖳ㸞ࠊ
Clarke, P. (1997) "Keynes, new Jerusalem, and British decline," in Clarke
and Trebicock (ed.) (1997), pp.145-165.Understanding Decline:
perception and realities of British economic performance, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Cockett, R. (1995) Thinking the Unthinkable: Think-Tanks and the
Economic Counter-Revolution, 1931-1983, London: Fontana Press.
Durbin, E. (1985) New Jerusalems: The Labour Party and the Economic of
Democratic Socialism, London: Routledge.
Esping-Andersen, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism,
Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 㸝ᒱἉ࣬ᐋᮇ┐ゼࠖ⚗♬㈠ᮇ୹⩇ࡡ୔ࡗࡡୠ⏲ࠗ
࣐ࢾࣜࣥ࢒᭡ᡛࠉ2001 ᖳ㸞
ࠊ
Harris, J. (1997) William Beveridge: A Biography, Oxford: Oxford University
Press.
Harrod. R. (1982/1951) The Life of John Maynard Keynes, London: W.W.
Norton & Company (First Published by London: Macmillan in 1951).
㸝ሲ㔕ㆺஐ༎ஐゼࠖࢢ࢕ࣤࢫఎ㸝ᨭゼ∟㸞ࠗ᮶Ὂ⤊ῥ᩺ሒ♣ 1967 ᖳ㸞ࠊ
Johnson, N. (1987) The Welfare State in Transition, Brighton, UK:
27
Wheatsheaf Books. 㸝㟯ᮄ࣬ᒜᮇゼࠖ⚗♬ᅗᐓࡡࡹࡂ࠻ؐ⚗♬ኣඔ୹⩇
ࡡㅎၡ㢗ؐࠗἪᚂᩝ໩♣ࠉ1993 ᖳ㸞ࠊ
Komine, A. (2004) “The Making of Beveridge’s Unemployment [1909]:
There Concepts Blended”, The European Journal of the History of
Economic Thought, 11-2, Summer 2004, pp.255-280.
Kresge, S. & L. Wenar (eds.) (1994) Hayek on Hayek : An Autobiographical
Dialogue, London: Routledge. 㸝ᔪ὘᰹ゼࠖࣀ࢕࢙ࢠࠉࣀ࢕࢙ࢠࢅㄊࡾࠗ
ྞཿᒁኬᏕฝ∟ఌࠉ2000 ᖳ㸞ࠊ
Moggridge, D. (1980/1976) Keynes, Second Edition, London: Macmillan. 㸝ሲ
㔕ㆺ♰ୌゼࠖࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࠗ᮶Ὂ⤊ῥ᩺ሒ♣ࠉ1979 ᖳ㸞
Moggridge, D. (1992) Maynard Keynes: An Economist's Biography, London:
Routledge.
Peden, G. C. (ed.) (2004) Keynes and his Critics: Treasury Responses to the
Keynesian Revolution 1925-1946, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pierson, C. (1991) Beyond the Welfare State? , Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 㸝⏛
୯࣬♼ㆺゼࠖ᭜࠿ࡽみ࡞ࡀࡒ⚗♬ᅗᐓࠗᮅᮮ♣ࠉ1996 ᖳ㸞ࠊ
Robbins, L. (1971) Autobiography of an Economist, London: Macmillan.
Skidelsky, R. (1983) John Maynard Keynes, Hopes Betrayed 1883-1920,
London: Macmillan.
Skidelsky, R. (1994/1992) John Maynard Keynes, The Economist as Saviour
1920-1937, paperpac edition, London: Macmillan.
Skidelsky, R. (2000) John Maynard Keynes: Fighting for Britain
1937-1946, London: Macmillan.
Toye, J. (2000) Keynes on Population, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wood, B. (1984) E.F. Schumacher: His Life and Thought, New York: Harper
& Row, Publishers (First published in England under the title Alias
Papa: A life of Fritz Schumacher).
ኬ๑᭶㑳㸝1983㸞ࠖ♣ఌಕ㝸࡛ࢻࢨࣘࢻ࣐ࣜࢼ࣏࣑㸝ቌ⿭∟㸞࣐ࠗࢾࣜࣥ࢒᭡
ᡛࠊ
ᑚᯐኬ㏸㸝1990㸞ࠔ⚗♬ᅗᐓࡡࡹࡂ࠻ࠕ㊂❟ḿᶖ⥽ࠖ㸝ቌ⿭㸞⚗♬ᅗᐓࡡṌྍ࡛
ᒈ᭻ࠗἪᚂᩝ໩♣ࠉpp.173-204ࠊ
28
ᑚᒜ㊪⏠㸝1978㸞ࠖこὊ♣ఌ஥ᴏྍㄵࠗක⏍㤃ࠊ
ሲ㔕ㆺ♰ୌ㸝2002㸞ࠖ⤊ῥ࡛೒⌦ؐ⚗♬ᅗᐓࡡူᏕؐࠗ᮶ாኬᏕฝ∟ఌࠊ
ᆀ୹㔔⨶㸝1995㸞
ࠔࢗ࢔ࣛ࢓࣑࣬࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩؐ኶ᴏㄵ࡛♣ఌಕ㝸ㄵࡡࣆࣞࣤࢷ
࢔࢓ؐࠕ♣ఌಕ㝸◂✪ᡜ⥽ࠖ♣ఌಕ㝸ࡡ᩺₳Ὦࠗ᭯ᩣ㛮ࠉpp.27-49ࠊ
㘘ᓞ├ᶖ㸝2001㸞ࠖࢢ࢕ࣤࢫ࡛࢜ࣝࢵ࢞ؐ࣎ࢪࢹ࣬ࢢ࢕ࣤࢫὬ⤊ῥᏕࡡ″ἠؐࠗ
ྞཿᒁኬᏕฝ∟ఌࠊ
ᯐ༡᫓㸝2002㸞ࠔ࣊ࣥ࢒ࣛࢴࢩࠖ࣍ࣚࣤࢰ࣭ࣛ࣬࢓ࢠࢨ්ࣘࣤࠗ⩻ࠕࠖ◂✪ᡜᖳ
ሒࠗ㸝᪺἖Ꮥ㝌ኬᏕ࣬♣ఌᏕ㒂㜻ᒌ◂✪ᡜ㸞➠ 32 ྒࠉpp.105-118ࠊ
ᖲ஬ಆ㢟㸝2003㸞
ࠖࢢ࢕ࣤࢫࡡ⌦ㄵؐ々ྙⓏっᗑ࠾ࡼࡡ◂✪ؐࠗ᮶ாኬᏕฝ∟ఌࠊ
ᐋᮇኯ㑳㸝1999㸞ࠖ⚗♬ᅗᐓ࡛࠷࠹ᡋ␆ࠗἪᚂᩝ໩♣ࠊ
ẗฺᘋ୔㸝1990㸞ࠖ࢕࢟ࣛࢪ⚗♬ᅗᐓࡡ◂✪ؐ♣ఌಕ㝸Ⓠ㐡ࡡㅎ⏤᭿ؐࠗ᮶ாኬ
Ꮥฝ∟ఌࠊ
ὰ඼ெ㸝1997㸞ࠔ࣍ࣚࣤࢰ࣭ࣛ࣬࢓ࢠࢨࣘࣤ࠿ណ࿝ࡌࡾࡵࡡࠕࠖᩝாዥᏄኬᏕ
⣎さ㸝ெ㛣Ꮥ㒂㸞ࠗ➠㸦ᕬ➠㸦ྒࠉpp.219-228ࠊ
29
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