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トーマス・ヘップバーンと 18 世紀オークニー諸島

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ࢹ࣭࣏ࢪ࣬ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭࡛ࣤ 18 ୠ⣎ ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ
ཿᐓ ᘧᖶ (ᚠᓞᩝ⌦ኬᏕ)
Ϩ ࡢࡋࡴ࡞
ᮇሒ࿈ࡡ┘Ⓩࡢࠉ18 ୠ⣎࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡၤⵒᛦ᝷ᐓࠉࢹ࣭࣏ࢪ࣬ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ (Thomas
Hepburn, 1727 ? -77) ࡡ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗ(Hepburn [1760] 1885 [௧ୖࠉLetter ࡛␆オ])
ࢅ㢗ᮞ࡞ࠉࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺᩅఌ✔೸Ὤ⤊ῥᛦ᝷ࡡኣᵕ࡝ၡ㢗㛭ᚨ࡞කࢅᙔ࡙ࡾࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
ࣛࢲ࣭ࣔࢺ࣬ࢨ࣭ࣔࡢࠖࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺၤⵒ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᩅఌ࡛ኬᏕࠗ࡞࠽࠷࡙ࠉࢪࢤࢴࢹ
ࣚࣤࢺၤⵒࡢ 18 ୠ⣎ᚃ༖ࡡ⤊ῥᠺ㛏࡞ᑊࡊ࡙ࠉኬࡀࡂฦࡄ࡙୔⛸㢦ࡡཬᚺࢅ♟ࡊࡒ࡛ㄵࡋ
ࡒ (Sher 1985, 187)ࠊ
➠ୌࡢࠉ⤊ῥⓆᒈࢅ✒ᴗⓏࠉណㆉⓏ࡞᧞㆜ࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡊࡒ࠷ࢂࡹࡾࠔᨭⰃࠕࡡ࢕ࢸ࢛ࣞ࢟
࣭࡚࠵ࡾࠊ㐅ཱིࡡẴເ࡞ᐣࡳᆀ୹㝭ᒒ࡞ࡻࡾ㎨ᴏᨭⰃ࡝࡜ࢅᚃᢪࡊࡊࠉ⏍⏐ᛮྡྷ୕ࢅ✒ᴗ
Ⓩ࡞᥆ዜࡌࡾ❟ሔ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
➠஦ࡢࠉࢸ࢕ࣥ࢔ࢴࢺ࣬ࣃ࣭࣑ࣖࡷ࢓ࢱ࣑࣬ࢪ࣐ࢪࡡࡻ࠹࡞ࡆࡿࢅᥝ෕ࡊฦᯊࡊࡒࠔ࣎
ࣛࢷ࢔࢙࢜ࣜ࣬ࢤࢿ࣐࣭ࠕࡡ❟ሔ࡚࠵ࡾࠊᇱᮇⓏ࡞ࡢ⤊ῥⓆᒈࢅ᫕ヾࡌࡾࡵࡡࡡࠉࡻࡽᐂ
ふⓏ࡝❟ሔ࠾ࡼࡐࡡᝇᙫ㡢ࡵྱࡴ࡙ふᐳࡊフ౮ࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡊࡒࠊ
➠୔ࡢࠉࢨ࣭ࣔ࠿ᥞ♟ࡊࡒࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺᩅఌ✔೸Ὤ࡞ぜࡼࡿࡾࡻ࠹࡞ࠉᚠࡷᏺᩅࠉ♣
ఌධమ࡞ᑊࡌࡾ⤊ῥᠺ㛏ࡡ᭯ᐐ࡝ᙫ㡢ࢅ᪺ࡼ࠾࡞ࡊᑊฌࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡌࡾ❟ሔ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
ࠔᨭⰃࠕ
࡞ࡻࡾ⤊ῥⓆᒈࡡ⤎ᯕᣉ࠿ࡖࡒ⮤ᕤ୯ᚨⓏ࡚∸ḟⓏ࡝ࠉ⭁ᩃࡊࡒ౮ೋふࠉὬ㛰ᢘணࠉ㐛๨
࡝ዘ౗ࠉ␧አ࡝࡜ࠉ㐠ᚠⓏࠉ♣ఌⓏὬ⏍ຝᯕ࡞㛭ᚨࢅᣚࡖࡒ (Sher 1985, 187-8)ࠊ
ᮇሒ࿈࡚ࡢࠉࢨ࣭ࣔࡡ㆗ㄵࢅ㊻ࡱ࠻࡙ࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࢅཱིࡽ୕ࡅ࡝࠿ࡼ✔೸Ὤ⤊ῥᛦ᝷
ࢅ්᳠ゞࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࢅㄚ㢗࡛ࡌࡾࠊࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗ(1757 ᖳᇮ➱ࠉ
1760 ᖳฝ∟) ࡚ࠉ࢕ࣤࢡࣚࣤࢺ࡛ࡡࣗࢼ࢛ࣤమโୖ࡚ᐣ⿩࡞࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡂࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺᮇ
ᅰ࡛ࡢᑊ↯Ⓩ࡞ࠉ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࠿㈃ᅏ࡞ཱིࡽṟࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾᵕᏄࢅࠉ⌟ሔ࡚ࡡ├᥃Ⓩ࡝మ
㥺࠾ࡼὩ෕ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
✔೸Ὤࡡ⤊ῥᛦ᝷࡚ࡢࠉᐣ⿩໩ࡌࡾ♣ఌࡡ୯ࡡࠔ㈃ᅏࠕࡡᥝ෕࡝࡜ࠉࡻࡽኣᵕ࡝ၡ㢗㛭
ᚨ࠿Ꮛᅹࡊࡒࠊ௧ୖ࡚ࡢࠉᅹ㔕ࡡᛦ᝷ྍ࡞ࡵっ㔕ࢅᗀࡅࠉโᗐࡷఎ⤣ࡡᆀᇡⓏ≁ᛮ࡞╌┘
ࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡚ࠉࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺၤⵒࡡၡ㢗㛭ᚨࡡᣉ࠿ࡽࡡୌ❻࡞කࢅᙔ࡙ࡒ࠷ࠊ
ϩ ࢹ࣭࣏ࢪ࣬ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࡞ࡗ࠷࡙
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢ࢕࣭ࢪࢹ࣬ࣞࢩ࢓ࣤᆀ᪁ࡡೇᆀ㎨ࡡ㛏Ꮔ࡛ࡊ࡙⏍ࡱࡿࡒࠊ࢙ࢸ࢔ࣤࣁࣚ
ኬᏕ࡚Ꮥࢆࡓᚃࠉ1751 ᖳ࡞࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎࡞ࡻࡖ࡙࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡᡜ㡷ࡡࣁ࣭ࢬ࢕ᩅ༇࡞
⪯⫃⚐⩽᥆ⷸࡈࡿࠉ⩛ 1752 ᖳ࡞⪯⫃ུ௴ࡊࡒࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࠿࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡫㉩௴ࡊࡒᙔ᫤ࠉࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺ࡚ࡢ㛏⩹ᩅఌ࠿ᅗᩅ࡛
ࡊ࡙ࡡᆀనࢅࡌ࡚࡞☔❟ࡊࠉ1750 ᖳ௥࡞ࡢࠔ✔೸Ὤࠕ(Moderates) ࠿ເງࢅᣉኬࡊࡒ (Allan
2002, 63-5)ࠊᩝ᪺໩࡞࠽ࡄࡾ࢞ࣛࢪࢹᩅࡡ✒ᴗⓏ࡝ᙲ๪ࢅᙁㄢࡊࠉ᪜ᏋࡡᏺᩅⓏࠉ♣ఌⓏࠉ
ᨳ἖Ⓩᵋ㏸࡞ᚉ࠷ࡗࡗࠉၤⵒࡡ౮ೋふࡡኣࡂࢅ᧞㆜ࡊࠉㄕᩅ࡝࡜ࢅ㏳ࡋ࡙ᬉཀྵࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡊ
ࡒࠊࡐࡡᩅ⩇ࡢಕᏬⓏ࡚ࡢ࠵ࡾ࠿ࠉၤⵒࡡཋ์࡛ኣࡂࡡ㒂ฦ࡚㔔࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡒ (Sher 1985,
63-4; 89; 211; 328)ࠊࡱࡒ✔೸Ὤࡢࠉ1712 ᖳ࡞ᠺ❟ࡊࡒࠔ௴࿤Ἢࠕ(the law of patronage) ࢅཚ
᰹࡞㐲⏕ࡊࠉ⪯⫃⚐⩽᥆ⷸࡡᶊ㝀ࢅࠉࣂࢹ࡚ࣞࣤ࠵ࡖࡒ㈏᪐ࡷࢩ࢘ࣤࢹ࣭ࣛ㝭ᒒ࡞㞗୯ࡈ
ࡎࡾࡆ࡛࡞ຑࡴࡒ (Sher 1985, 44; 50)ࠊᩅఌහࡡ∶ᖅࡡྜྷ᰹ᛮ࡛ࠉ∶ᖅࢅ௴࿤ࡌࡾ⥪ఌ࡫ࡡ
ᚉᒌࢅཋ์࡛ࡌࡾ㛏⩹ᩅఌ⤄⧂ࢅ㔔っࡊࠉᩅఌࡡ⛓ᗆ⥌ᣚ࡛පභၻࡡࡒࡴ࡞ࡢẎᖳ㛜തࡈ
ࡿࡾ⥪ఌࡡỬᏽ࡞᭩⤂Ⓩ࡝ᶊጸࢅヾࡴࠉࡐࡿ࡞ᑊࡌࡾཚ᰹࡝ᚉ㡨࠿ᚪさ࡛ࡡ❟ሔࢅཱིࡖࡒ
(Sher 1985, 50; 52-3)ࠊࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡡ⪯⫃ུ௴ࡵࠉࡆࡡࡻ࠹࡝ᡥ⤾ࡀ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙✔೸Ὤ୹ᑙ࡚
⾔ࢂࡿࡒࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࠿⪯⫃⚐⩽᥆ⷸࡈࡿࡒࣁ࣭ࢬ࢕ (Birsay) ࡢࠉඔࡢᩅఌ㡷ࡓࡖࡒ࠿ࠉ16 ୠ⣎
࡞࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ఐ∎㡷࡞ථࡽࠉ17 ୠ⣎࡞ࡢ඙௥ࡡ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎ࡡᡜ㡷࡛࡝ࡖࡒ (Clouston 1927,
142-3)ࠊࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ ࡢᅹ⫃୯࡞ ࣁ࣭ࢬ࢕ᩅ ఌࢅ ᨭಞࡊࠉ∶ᖅ㤃 (manse) ࢅ᩺⠇ࡊ ࡒ
118
(Sinclair 1793, vol.14, 321-2)ࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢ 1752 ᖳ࠾ࡼ 71 ᖳࡱ࡚㐪᪁ࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡞㉩௴ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࡵࡡࡡࠉࡐ
ࡡ⤊Ṍࡢ✔೸Ὤࡡධ┊᫤࡞㔔࡝ࡾࡓࡄ࡚࡝ࡂࠉᙴ⮤㌗࠿✔೸Ὤࡡኣᩐ࡛ྜྷᵕ࡞࢙ࢸ࢔ࣤࣁ
ࣚኬᏕฝ㌗࡚࠵ࡽࠉᬄᖳ࡞ࡢ⏍ࡱࡿᨶ㒋ࡡ࢓ࢬࣜࢪࢰࣤࣆ࢚࣭ࢺ࡚⪯⫃࡞ᑯ࠷ࡒࡆ࡛࠾ࡼࠉ
࢓ࢬࣜࢪࢰࣤࣆ࢚࣭ࢺࡡ๑௴⩽ࡡࢩࣘࣤ࣬ࣃ࣭࣑ࣖ࡝࡜ࢅ㏳ࡋ࡙✔೸Ὤ࡛᥃りࢅಕࡔࠉ⾔
ິࢅභ࡞ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࡵࡡ࡛⩻࠻ࡼࡿࡾࠊࢩࣘࣤ࣬ࣃ࣭࣑ࣖࡢ࢙ࢸ࢔ࣤࣁࣚኬᏕ࡚Ꮥࢆࡓ࠵࡛ࠉ
࢓ࢬࣜࢪࢰࣤࣆ࢚࣭ࢺ࡚ 1747 ᖳ࡞⪯⫃ུ௴ࡊࡒࠊ
ࠖࢱࢡࣚࢪࠗ(1757 ᖳ) ࡝࡜ࡡ๸షᐓ࡛ࡊ
࡙᭯ྞ࡞࡝ࡽࠉ㤫┞࡞࡝ࡖࡒ➠୔௥ࣄ࣭ࣖࢹఐ∎ࡡ⛆᭡ࡵຸࡴࡒ (Sher 1985, 13; 33; 74-92)ࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡡࡻ࠹࡞࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡞㉩௴ࡊࡒ㛏⩹ᩅఌࡡ∶ᖅࡢࠉ⥪ࡋ࡙✔೸Ὤᐞࡽ
࡚࠵ࡽࠉ18 ୠ⣎ᮆࡱ࡚࡞ࡢᩅ༇හ࡚ኬࡀ࡝ᙫ㡢ງࢅᚋࡒࠊኣࡂࡡ∶ᖅ࠿⏍ᾥࢅ㏳ࡊ࡙ୌࡗ
ࡡᩅ༇࡚௴ຸࢅᯕࡒࡊࠉ࢜ࣜࣥ࢒ࣤ୹⩇࡝࡜ࡡᩅ⩇ࡷභ࿰୹⩇࡝࡜ࡡᨳ἖ᛦ᝷࡞ࡢᣂἶࡎ
ࡍࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡡ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗ࠾ࡼࡵ࠹࠾࠿ࢂࡿࡾ㏳ࡽࠉ㎨ᴏᨭⰃࡷ⏍Ὡ
ྡྷ୕࡝࡜ᩅ༇Ằࡡ⌟ᐁⓏ࡝⤊ῥၡ㢗࡞㛭ᚨࢅᐞࡎࡒ (Thomson 1989, 77)ࠊ
ࣂࢹࣞࣤࡓࡖࡒ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎࠿Ṓཡࡊࡒᚃࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢฝ⏍ᆀࡡ࢓ࢬࣜࢪࢰࣤࣆ࢚
࣭ࢺ࡫∶ᖅ࡛ࡊ࡙⛛ࡽࠉ1777 ᖳ࡞Ṓཡࡊࡒࠊ
Ϫ ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏ࡛ࠗࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺၤⵒ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡡ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗࡢ 1757 ᖳ࡞ᇮ➱ࡈࡿࠉ1760 ᖳ࡞༰ใ࣬පษࡈ
ࡿࡒࠊ1885 ᖳ࡞࢙ࢸ࢔ࣤࣁ්࡚ࣚ∟ࡈࡿࠉࡐࡡᚗ็∟࠿ 2002 ᖳ࡞Ⓠ⾔ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࢅࠉ
ࠔẴುࠉᅰቫࠉన⨠ࠉ㎨ᴏ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᨭⰃࡡḖዯࠉ
⿿㏸ᴏ࡛Ề⏐ᴏࡡ㍇っࠉ◒ቪⓏ࡚㐢Ἢ࡝ஹ᪾ࠉዘ౗ࠉἪᚂࡡຝງࢅᕟࡲ࡞࠾࠷ࡂࡃࡖ࡙⾔
ࢂࡿࡾᅸโࠉࡐࡊ࡙᭩ᚃ࡞Ὤ㛰ᢘணࠕࡡஐࡗࡡཋᅄ࡞ᖉࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ (Letter, 13/ゼ (1), 83)ࠊ࢛
࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࢅ㈃ᅏ࡞㝏ࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ㈈௴ࢅୌ㈇ࡊ࡙ᙔᆀࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ (laird) ࡞ᖉࡎࡗࡗㄵ
ࡋ࡙࠷ࡾⅤ࠿ࠉ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗࡡ᭩ኬࡡ≁ᚡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
1. ࠔ㎨ᴏ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᨭⰃࡡḖዯࠕ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢࠉ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡኬ㒂ฦࡡᆀ୹࡞ࡢࠉ㎨ᴏࡡ㝧┊ࢅࡵࡒࡼࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ࢕
ࣤࢡࣚࣤࢺࡡᆀ୹㝭⣥࡞ぜࡼࡿࡾិយ࠿Ᏸධ࡞Ḗࡄ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛㏑࡬ࡾࠊᅹᆀᆀ୹ࡢࠉ㈄ᖨᆀ
௥ࡡ௥ࢂࡽ࡞⌟∸ᆀ௥ࠉ▯᭿ࡡೇᆀዉ⣑ࡷೇᆀዉ⣑᭞᩺ᩩࠉ㟸ᖏ࡞ኣࡂࡡ㝷㝀ࡡ࡝࠷ዅපࠉ
ᩐࠍࡡ㎘ⱖࢅᑚష㎨࡞ᢪࡊ௛ࡄࠉᨭⰃ࡫ࡡ⇍ណࢅᢪࡊࡗࡩࡊࠉ㎨ᴏࡢⓆᒈࡎࡍࠉపẰࡡ⏍
ゝ࠿㈃ࡊࡂ࡝ࡖ࡙ࡊࡱ࠹ (Letter, 16/ゼ (1), 85)ࠊ
࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡚ࡢ㎨ᆀࡡኬ㒂ฦ࠿ࠉ᪟ᮮࡡᅰᆀ㒼ฦἪ (run-rig system) ࡡୖ࡞࠵ࡖࡒࠊ
ᅰᆀ࠿ࡣࡼࡣࡼࡡ⣵㛏࠷ᑚ༇⏤࡞ฦ๪ࡈࡿࠉ々ᩐࡡೇᆀ㎨࡞භྜྷ࡚㈒ೇࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡒࡒࡴࠉ
಴ࠍࡡ๭ណᕝኰ࠿ࠔᨭⰃࠕ࡞Ὡ࠾ࡈࡿ࡞ࡂࡂࠉ⏍⏐ᛮ࠿఩࠾ࡖࡒ (Thomson 2003, 94)ࠊ
ᑊ↯Ⓩ࡞ 18 ୠ⣎ࡡࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺᮇᅰ࡚ࡢࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡡฝ㌗ᆀ࡚࠵ࡾ࣭ࣞࣚࣤࢺࢅ
୯ᚨ࡞ࠉᕰሔ⤊ῥ໩ࡡἴ࡞஋ࡖ࡙㎨ᴏࡡᨭⰃ࠿㐅ࢆࡓࠊᆀ୹㝭ᒒࡢᅰᆀࢅᶊງࡷ㌱஥ງࡡ
″ἠ࡛ࡊ࡙࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉฺ₮ࢅ⏍ࡳ㈠⏐࡛ᤂ࠻ࡾࡻ࠹࡞࡝ࡽࠉ㎨ᴏᨭⰃࡡ᥆㐅࡞ฺ─ࢅぜฝ
ࡊࡒ (Devine 2005, 17-8)ࠊ࠾ࡗ࡙ࡡභྜྷషᴏ࡚ࡡ㎨ᴏ࠾ࡼࠉೇᆀ㎨ྜྷኃࡡ❿ணཋ⌦࠿഼ࡀ಴
ெࡡ๭ណᕝኰ࠿⏍࠾ࡈࡿࡾࡻ࠹࡞࡝ࡽࠉ㎨ᴏ㒂㛓ࡡᕰሔ⤊ῥ໩࠿㐅ࢆࡓࠊୠ⣎ᚃ༖࡞ࡢᅑ
࠷㎲ࡲ࠿㐅ࡲࠉ㐠㊪࠿ᩒങࡈࡿࠉ༟≺࡚㎨ᆀࢅ⤊ႜࡌࡾೇᆀ㎨࠿ࠔᨭⰃᐓࠕࡡ⌦᝷࡛࡝ࡖ
࡙࠷ࡖࡒ (Divine 2005, 76; 80)ࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࠿㉩௴ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒ㡥ࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡢࠉ࣭ࣞࣚࣤࢺࡻࡽᑛ࡝ࡂ࡛ࡵ༖ୠ⣎
ࡢ㎨ᆀᨭⰃ࡫ࡡモࡲ࠿㐔ࡿ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ࢕ࣤࢡࣚࣤࢺࡡᆀ୹㝭⣥࡛࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹
ᒒࢅᑊ↯ࡈࡎࡒࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢࠉࣗࢼ࢛ࣤమโࡡ᜘ᜠ࠿㐪᪁ࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡞ࡢࡱࡓཀྵ
ࢆ࡚࠷࡝࠷࡛ぜ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ
2. ࠔ⿿㏸ᴏ࡛Ề⏐ᴏࡡ㍇っࠕ
ᙔ᫤ࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡚ႜࡱࡿ࡙࠷ࡒ⿿㏸ᴏࡢࠉல㯖⣊ࡡ⣫⦴ᴏ࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊࢩࣔࢤࣁ࢕
119
ࢹࡡཬ஗㙘ᅸᚃࠉⱝᅗᨳᗋࡢࡈࡼ࡝ࡾཬ஗㜭Ḿࡡࡒࡴࠉࣀ࢕ࣚࣤࢺ࡞ᢖ㈠ࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡚㈃ᅏ
࡞ᑊฌࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࠉ1746 ᖳ࡞ⱝᅗࣛࣤࢾࣜఌ♣ (British Linen Company) ࢅス❟ࡊࡒࠊ࢛࣭ࢠ
ࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ୕నᅰᆀᡜ᭯⩽࡚࠵ࡖࡒ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎ࡢࡆࡡⱝᅗࣛࣤࢾࣜఌ♣ࢅ㏳ࡋ࡙⣫⦴ᴏ
ࢅ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡚⮾ࡊࠉᙔᆀࡡᏭ࠷㈜㔘Ề‵ࢅὩ⏕ࡊ࡙ࢼ࣭ࣖ࢜ࢴࢪࣜ࡝࡜࢕ࣤࢡࣚࣤ
ࢺ᮶ᓃࡷࢨ࢘ࢹࣚࣤࢺ࡞ᕰሔࢅ㛜ᢽࡊࠉ㎨ᴏࢅࡊࡡࡃ࡮࡜ࡡ㍲ฝ⏐ᴏ࡞⫩࡙ࡒ (Thomson
1987, 214-5)ࠊ⣫⦴ᴏࡢᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ࡛ၛெᒒ࡞ኣኬࡡฺ₮ࢅࡵࡒࡼࡊࡒ࠿ࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢ
ኣࡂࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹࠿ࠉ㐛ᗐࡡ⪇࠻㞬࠷ㇿᢰ࡛࡝ࡾ࡮࡜ࡡ⣫⦴ࡡᴏຸࢅೇᆀ
㎨࡞ᙁさࡊ࡙࠷ࡒⅤࢅᢀึࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ (Letter, 21/ゼ (1), 88)ࠊ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ⿿㏸ᴏ࡞㛭ࡌ
ࡾࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡡ㆗ㄵࡢࠉ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎࡞ࡻࡾ⣫⦴ᴏࡡᑙථࢅࣗࢼ࢛ࣤమโࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭
ㅎᓞ࡫ࡡ᜘ᜠ࡛ࡊ࡙フ౮ࡊࡗࡗࠉ⣫⦴ᴏࢅႜࡳᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ࡞ࡻࡾೇᆀ㎨ࡷᑚషெࡡ㓖౐ࠉ
⣫⦴ᴏࡡ஗⏕ࢅᢀึࡌࡾ❟ሔࢅཱིࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
⁲ᴏ࡞㛭ࡊ࡙ࡢࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢࡐࡡ⤊ῥⓏ࡝ฺ᭯ࡈࢅ㧏ࡂフ౮ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒ࠿ࠉ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ
࣭ㅎᓞ࡞࠽࠷࡙᭩ࡵ㍇っࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ㒂㛓࡛ぜ࡝ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡚ࡢᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ
࡛ೇᆀ㎨ᒒࡡᑊ❟ࢅጙࡴࠉ♣ఌ࠿ᴗࡴ࡙ฦ⿛ࡊ࡙࠽ࡽࠉ⁲ᴏ࡝࡜පභࡡฺ─࡛࡝ࡾ❟᱄ࢅ
๭❟ࡊ࡙࠷ࡂࡡ࡞ඖฦ࡞ᚪさ࡝ᅆ⤎࠿࡚ࡀ࡝࠷ࡒࡴࠉⱝᅗ࡞࠽ࡄࡾ⯢஋ࡽࡡ᭩㧏ࡡ⫩ᠺᡜ
ࡡࡥ࡛ࡗ࡛࡝ࡽ᥾ࡠ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢ⩻࠻࡙࠷ࡒ (Letter, 22/ゼ (1), 89)ࠊ
3. ࠔ◒ቪⓏ࡚㐢Ἢ࡝ஹ᪾ࠕ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢ♣ఌࡡ◒⁓ࡡࡵ࡛࡛࡝ࡾᐠ㍲ࠉ୘Ἢஹ᪾࠿ࠉ㐛ཡ 30 ᖳ࡞ῳࡖ࡙࢛࣭ࢠࢼ
࣭ㅎᓞ࡚ࡢ᛬㏷࡞ᗀ࠿ࡖ࡙ࡀࡒ࡛㏑࡬ࠉᐠ㍲࠿┊ࢆ࡞࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾཋᅄࢅᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒࡡᣞᑙ
ງࡡḖዯ࡞ịࡴ࡙࠷ࡾ (Letter, 23/ゼ (1), 89-90)ࠊ
18 ୠ⣎ࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡚ࡢࠉ㎨ᴏ࠿⏍Ꮛࡡ᭩఩㝀ࢅᥞ౩ࡌࡾỀ‵࡞Ḿࡱࡖ࡙࠷ࡒୌ᪁
࡚ࠉᐠ㍲ࢅྱࡴࡒஹ᪾ࡢධ⯙Ⓩ࡞ᣉኬࡊࡒ (Thomson 1987, 207)ࠊࡊ࠾ࡊᐠ㍲ࡢெࠍࡡ⢥♼
ࢅሃⴘࡈࡎࡾࡓࡄ࡚࡝ࡂࠉ୘Ἢ࡞ථᡥࡊࡒዘ౗ဗࡡᾐ㈕࡚మງࡷẴງࢅࡵዞ࠹ࡡ࡚࠵ࡽࠉ
࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ⏍ᮮࡡ⑋Ẵ࡚࠵ࡾቪ⾉⑋࠿ᪿࡻࡽࡵᖏ⩞Ⓩ࡞࡝ࡖ࡙ࡊࡱࡖࡒ࡛ࣉࢴࣈࣁ
࣭ࣤࡢㄵࡋࡾࠊࡱࡒపẰ࠿ᛨ᝴࡞࡝ࡽࠉኣࡂࡡຘ഼࠿࡚ࡀࡍࠉ๑ୠ௥࡮࡜㛏⏍ࡀ࡚ࡵ࡝࠷
ཋᅄࡢࠉࡥ࡛࠻࡞ࡆࡡᐠ㍲࡞ᖉࡎࡼࡿࡾ࡛ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢぜ࡙࠷ࡒ (Letter, 23-4/ゼ (1), 90)ࠊ
4. ࠔዘ౗ࠕ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࠿ዘ౗ࢅ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࡡཋᅄ࡛ࡊ࡙ᣪࡅࡾ⌦⏜ࡢࠉࡐࡿ࠿పẰࡡ
ໂຫ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙㉆ථࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࢂࡄ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷࡛⩻࠻࡙࠷ࡒ࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡊࡒ࠿ࡖ࡙࢛࣭ࢠࢼ
࣭ㅎᓞࡡዘ౗ࡢࠉஹ᪾࠿⦶ᰜࡊ࡙࠷ࡾሔᡜࡻࡽࡵ᭯ᐐ࡚࠵ࡾ࡛ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢㄵࡋࡾ
(Letter, 24-5/ゼ (1), 90-1)ࠊᐁ㝷࡞ᙔ᫤ࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡚ዘ౗ࢅ⥌ᣚࡌࡾࡒࡴ࡞౐ࢂࡿࡒ᭩
ኬࡡ㈀″ࡢࠉࢢࣜࣈࡡ⏍⏐࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊࢢࣜࣈࡢ㈃ᅏᒒ࡞㞘⏕ࢅ୙࠻ࡒࡓࡄ࡚࡝ࡂࠉ㐛ཡ 20
ᖳ࡞ῳࡖ࡙Ẏᖳⱝ㈄ 2,000 ࣎ࣤࢺࡡ⌟㔘཭ථࢅ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡞ࡵࡒࡼࡊࡒ࡛ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭
ࣤࡢ᥆ᏽࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ (Letter, 26/ゼ (1), 91-2)ࠊ
18 ୠ⣎ࡡࢢࣜࣈ⏍⏐ࡢࠉ⃷ࡿᡥ࡚⢎࡛ࡵゕ࠻ࡾ㧏཭─⏐ᴏ࡚࠵ࡽࠉཋᩩࡡᾇ⸬࠿㇇ᐣ࡝
ࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺࡡࣀ࢕ࣚࣤࢺこ㒂ࡷㅎᓞࠉ≁࡞ࣉࣇࣛࢸ࢔࣭ࢫㅎᓞ࡚ࡢ࠾ࡗ࡙࡝࠷࡮࡜ࡡ
ᐣࢅᆀ୹ᒒ࡞ࡵࡒࡼࡊࠉቌኬࡌࡾெཾࢅᨥ࠻ࡒࠊ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡚ࡢࢢࣜࣈ⏍⏐࠿⦶ᰜࢅ
ᴗࡴࡒ 1770 ᖳ௥࠾ࡼ 1820 ᖳ௥ࡱ࡚ࡢࠔࢢࣜࣈ᫤௥ࠕ(Kelp Years) ࡛ࡵ࿣ࡣࡿࠉࡆࡡ㛣࡞࢛
࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒࡢⱝ㈄ 100 ୒࣎ࣤࢺࢅ㉰࠻ࡾฺ₮ࢅᡥ࡞ࡊࡒ࡛ぜࡼࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
௙᪁࡚ࠉ఩ࢤࢪࢹࡡࢢࣜࣈ⏍⏐ࡢᢖ㈠ࢅ࡮࡛ࢆ࡜ᚪさ࡛ࡊ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡒࡴࠉ㎨ᴏ࡛ࡢ␏࡝ࡽࠉ
ࡐࡡ཭─ࡢࠔᨭⰃࠕ࡞⏕࠷ࡼࡿࡾࡆ࡛࡝ࡂᾁ㈕ࡈࡿࡒࠊࡆ࠹ࡊ࡙ዘ౗࠿ᗀ࠿ࡽࠉ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ
࣭ㅎᓞࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒࡢᨥฝࢅ᛬ቌࡈࡎࡒ (Allan 2002, 96; Devine 2005, 86; 89; Shearer 1966,
38-9; Sinclair, vol.7, 455; 540-1; Thomson 1987, 207; 211-2; 228)ࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢᙔ᫤ࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㍲ථ࡛㍲ฝࢅ୔ᑊᄿ࡛ぜ✒ࡵࡽࠉ㍲ฝ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙
࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈀㈄࠿ฝ࡙⾔ࡀࠉᘤࡀᥦ࠻࡞ᚋࡼࡿࡒ㈘᪾㯦Ꮚ࠿ᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ࡞ࡻࡾዘ౗
࡞ᾁ㈕ࡈࡿࡾ⤎ᯕࠉ
ࠔࡆࡡᅗࡢ㈃ࡊ࠷࡞㐢࠷࡝࠷ࠕ࡛࠷࠹⤎ㄵࡢ㑂ࡄࡼࡿ࡝࠷࡛ㄵࡋ࡙࠷ࡾ
120
(Letter, 26-7/ゼ (1), 92)ࠊ
ࡊ࠾ࡊᐁ㝷࡞ࡢࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࠿௴ᆀࢅ㞫ࡿࡒ 1770 ᖳ௥࠾ࡼ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡢࠔࢢࣜࣈ
᫤௥ࠕ࡞ථࡖࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡵࢢࣜࣈ⏍⏐࠿⾮㏝ࡊࡒࡡ࡛ථࡿ᭨ࢂࡾࡻ࠹࡞ࠉ⵫✒ࡈࡿࡒ㈠ᮇࢅ
Ὡ⏕ࡊ࡙ 1830 ᖳ௥࡞ࡢ㎨ᴏࡡࠔᨭⰃࠕ࠿ᮇ᰹໩ࡊࡒ (Shearer 1966, 39-40)ࠊ⤎ᯕⓏ࡞ࡢዘ౗
࠿࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࢅ㈃ᅏ໩ࡊࡒࢂࡄ࡚ࡢ࡝࠾ࡖࡒ࡛ぜࡾࡆ࡛ࡵ࡚ࡀࡾࠊ
5. ࠔἪᚂࡡຝງࢅᕟࡲ࡞࠾࠷ࡂࡃࡖ࡙⾔ࢂࡿࡾᅸโࠕ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࠿࠵ࡼࡹࡾᅗ࡞࡛ࡖ࡙㈃ᅏࡡୌࡗࡡኬࡀ࡝ཋᅄ࡛㏑࡬ࡾᬸᨳ࡛ᅸโࡢࠉᙔ
᫤ࡡ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡚ࡵᗀ⠂࡞⾔ࢂࡿ࡙࠽ࡽࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࡞ࡻࡾᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒᢀึࡡ↌┩
࡚࠵ࡾ࡛ྜྷ᫤࡞ࠉ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗࡡ୹さㄵⅤ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࠿ࡷࡽ⋚࡞ᣪ
ࡅࡾᅸโࡢࠉཿᮮ࠾ࡼࡡៈ⩞ࡷ᪜ᚋᶊࠉ㈁⛊࠾ࡼࠉࡱࡒ㈆ḟࡷṟ㓖ࡈࠉࡐࡡ௙ࡡཋᅄ࠾ࡼ
Ⓠ⏍ࡊࠉἪᚂࡡຝງࢅᕟࡲ࡞࠾࠷ࡂࡃࡖ࡙⾔ࢂࡿࡾ⛸㢦ࡡᅸโ࡚࠵ࡾࠊරమⓏ࡞ࡢࠉ▯᭿
ࡡೇᆀᶊࠉ࠵ࡼࡹࡾ⛸㢦ࡡ⌟∸ᆀ௥ࠉ᩺ぞೇᆀዉ⣑ᩩࡷೇᆀዉ⣑᭞᩺ᩩࠉ୘᪺▉࡝ࡱࡱ㝷
㝀࡝ࡂᙁさࡈࡿࡾዅප࡝࡜࡚࠵ࡽࠉࡆࡿࡼࡢ⤧࠻ࡍࠔᨭⰃࠕࢅጄࡅࠉೇᆀ㎨ࢅ㈃ᅏ࡛ᚉᒌ
≟ឺ࡞㈐ࡴࡾ࡛ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢᢀึࡌࡾ (Letter, 27-8/ゼ (1), 92-3)ࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎࡛ୌ㒂ࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ࡛ࡡ㛣࡚ᙔ᫤㐅⾔୯࡚࠵ࡖࡒ࠷ࢂࡹࡾ
ࠔࣂࣤࢺ࣭ࣚソギࠕ࡛࿣ࡣࡿࡾἪᘈ㜒ணࢅཱིࡽ୕ࡅࠉ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎ഁ࡞❟ࡖ࡙ᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ
࡫ࡡᢀึࢅᒈ㛜ࡊ࡙࠷ࡂࠊࡆࡡソギ࡚ཋ࿈ࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹ഁࡢࠉఐ∎㡷࡚ࡢỄ௥⛊ೇᆀ࡞ᑊࡌ
ࡾẎᖳࡡᆀ௥ᨥᡮ࠷ࢅỬࡴࡾ⾦㔖༟న࠿ཋิࡡᇱ‵࠾ࡼ஫ฦࡡ୔௧୕ࡵḗ➠࡞ቌຊࡈࡿ࡙
ࡀࡒ࡛ソ࠻ࡒ (Letter, 34/ゼ (2), 86-7)ࠊ
ࠔࣂࣤࢺ࣭ࣚソギࠕࢅཋ࿈ഁ࡚୹ᑙࡊࡒࣁ࣭ࣝ࢕ᓞࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹࡚࠵ࡖࡒࢩ࢘࢕࣑ࢫ࣬ࢪ
ࢷࣖ࢓࣭ࢹ༽ࡡᡜ㡷࡚ࡢࠉ㍇⿞ങࡡᮄ⿿ࡡ㗗ࢅ⏕࠷ࡾ࡝࡜ࠉ᪃⫟ࠉ⪌షἪ࡛ࡵ࡞ᮅⓆ㐡࡚
࠵ࡽࠉ∶⏾࡚ࡵᐓ⏾࠿ᨲࡊ㣣࠷࡞ࡈࡿࠉ㇔࠿㰧࡚ᆀ㟻ࢅᤸࡖࡒ࠵࡛࡞ష∸ࢅ᳔࠻௛ࡄࡾ࡝
࡜࡛⓮⫏ࡼࡿ࡙࠷ࡒ (Letter, 19-20/ゼ (1), 87; Shearer 1966, 27-9)ࠊᓞහ࡞ᕰሔ࠿࡝ࡂ⌟㔘཭ථ
࠿ᚋࡼࡿ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡒࡴࠉኬ㒂ฦࡡᆀ௥ࡢ⌟∸࡚ᚡ཭ࡈࡿࠉຊ࠻࡙ೇᆀ㎨ࡢ㡷୹࠾ࡼዅපࢅ
さịࡈࡿࡾ࡝࡜ࠉ⏍ὩỀ‵ࡢ఩࠾ࡖࡒ (Shearer 1966, 29-30; Sinclair, vol.15, 301; 310)ࠊ㎨ᴏ
཭✥ࡡ୕࠿ࡼ࡝࠷ᓞ࡚࠵ࡖࡒࡆ࡛࠾ࡼࠉ⯗ᾇࡷஹ᪾࠿㔔さ࡚࠵ࡽࠉ㐪Ὂ⁲ᴏࡷⱝᅗᾇ㌱ࠉ
ࣀࢺࢮࣤ‬ఌ♣࡝࡜࡫ெᮞࢅཱིࡼࡿࡾ⤎ᯕ࡞ࡵ࡝ࡖࡒ (Shearer 1966, 40-2; Sinclair, vol.15,
311)ࠊ
ࡱࡒࢩ࢘࢕࣑ࢫ࣬ࢪࢷࣖ࢓࣭ࢹ༽ࡢࠉ⮤㌗ࡡᡜ㡷ࡡೇᆀ㎨ࡷᑚష㎨࡞ᑊࡌࡾᩐࠍࡡᅸโ
࡚ᝇྞ㧏࠷ࠊᡜ㡷හࡡపெࡡ㏻ࡿཡࡽࠉ┐⚏ࠉᬸ⾔ࠉዅපࡡᙁさࠉఎ⤣Ⓩ࡞ヾࡴࡼࡿ࡙ࡀ
ࡒἶ⅛ࡡ᤿ཱིᶊ࡞ᑊࡌࡾㄚᚡ㔘ࡡᑙථࠉභྜྷࡡᨲ∶ᆀࡡ୘Ἢ࡝ᅑ࠷㎲ࡲࠉೇᆀ㎨ࡷᑚష㎨
ࡡపᑽ࡫ࡡ୘Ἢ౴ථࠉᐓ⏾ࡷᡜᣚဗ࣬㔘㖱ࡡ୘Ἢ࡝ᢪ཭ࠉᜓណⓏ࡝⛁ᩩࠉᾇᓃ࡞ᡬࡔ୕ࡅ
ࡼࡿࡒ㞬◒㈄∸ࡡ༥᭯࡝࡜࡚㈈௴ࢅၡࢂࡿࡒ (Fereday 1980, 38-40; Letter, 48/ゼ (2), 95-6)ࠊ
ᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ࡞ࡻࡾᅸโ࡞ࡻࡽࠉ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡚ࡢపẰࡡໂຫࡈࠉὕᐳງࠉᅆ⤎ງ࠿Ḗ
ዯࡊ࡙࠽ࡽࠉ㎨ᴏࠉỀ⏐ᴏࠉ⿿㏸ᴏࢅ⾮㏝࠾ࡼᚗ⮾ࡌࡾࡡࡢࠉᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ࠿ᙴࡼ⮤㌗ࡡฺ
ᐐࢅぜᴗࡴ࡙ࡐࡿࡼࢅᥴຐࡌࡾࡻ࠹ᑸງࡊ࡝࠷㝀ࡽࠉ࡮࡛ࢆ࡜୘ྊ⬗࡚࠵ࡾ࡛ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭
ࣤࡢ㏑࡬࡙࠷ࡾ (Letter, 31/ゼ (1), 95)ࠊ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࡢࠉᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒࡡᅸโ࡞ࡻࡖ
࡙ᘤࡀ㉫ࡆࡈࡿ࡙ࡀࡒ࡛ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢ⤎ㄵ௛ࡄࡾ (Letter, 44/ゼ (2), 93)ࠊ
6. ࠔὬ㛰ᢘணࠕ
࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࡡཋᅄ࡛ࡊ࡙᭩ᚃ࡞ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࠿ཱིࡽ୕ࡅࡾࡡ࠿ࠉὬ㛰ࡷඨὬ
ࡡቌኬ࡛ᣉ࠿ࡽ࡚࠵ࡾࠊὬ㛰ᢘணࡢᐣ࡞ᑊࡊ࡙ࡓࡄ࡚࡝ࡂெࠍࡡ⢥♼࡞ᑊࡊ࡙ࡵᝇᙫ㡢ࢅ
ཀྵ࡯ࡊ⤾ࡄ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢぜࡾ (Letter, 45/ゼ (2), 94)ࠊ
ࡒࡓࡊࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࡞ࡻࡾὬ㛰ᢘண࡫ࡡᢀึࡢࠉࣃ࣭࣑ࣖࡡࡻ࠹࡞Ὤ㛰ୌ⯙࡫ࡡᢀึ࡚
ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉࠔࣂࣤࢺ࣭ࣚソギࠕࡡཋ࿈ഁ࡞ຊເࡊࡒ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ࡫ࡡᢀึ࡚࠵
ࡾⅤ࠿≁ᚡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࢩ࢘࢕࣑ࢫ࣬ࢪࢷࣖ࢓࣭ࢹ༽࡛ᙴࡡὬ㛰ࡢࠉ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎࡛ᙴࡡ๑௴
⩽ࡒࡔࢅࠉ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡᇱ‵⾦㔖༟నࢅ᰾አࡿࡡ㧏ࡈ࡞ࡱ࡚ᢙ࡞りࡿ࡙ቌຊࡈࡎ࡙ࡀ
121
ࡒᬸྦࠉᅸโ⩽ࡓ࡛⏞ࡊ❟࡙ࡒ (Letter, 48-9/ゼ (2), 96; Fereday 1980, 38; Thomson 1987,
231-2)ࠊ⾦㔖༟న࡞㛭ࡌࡾண࠷ࢅࠉࣗࢼ࢛ࣤమโୖ࡚ᣉᘿࡌࡾ᩺ࡊ࠷ᕰሔ⤊ῥ࡞┞ᚺࡊ࠷ⱝ
ᅗ⤣ୌࡡᇱ‵ࢅᑙථࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡚よỬࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡊࡒ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎ࡡᑊฌἪࡢࠉర࡚࠵ࡿን᭞
ࡢᅹᆀᆀ୹ഁࡡ୘ฺ࡞࡝ࡾ࡛ࡡಘ᮪࠾ࡼࠉᗀ࠷⠂ᅑ࡚ཬⓆࢅ࿣ࡦࠉ┐╡ᩅఌ࡛ࢩࣔࢤࣁ࢕
ࢹὬ࡞㏻࡝ࡾᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒࡡఎ⤣ࡢࠉᙴࡼࢅࡊ࡙ࢩ࢘࢕࣑ࢫ࣬ࢪࢷࣖ࢓࣭ࢹ༽࡞ይណࢅྡྷࡄ
ࡈࡎࡒࠊ௙᪁࡚࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎ࡢࠉࣗࢼ࢛ࣤ௧㜾࡞୕㝌㆗ఌ࡞ථࡖࡒ 16 ெࡡࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺ
㈏᪐ࡡୌெ࡛ࡊ࡙ࢤ࣭ࢹὬࡡ࣌࢕ࢴࢡ࡞ᒌࡊࠉᮆ᭿ࡡ࢚࣭ࢗࣜ࣎ࣜᨳᶊഁ࡞❟ࡔࡗࡗ࢓࣭
࢝࢕ࣜප∎ࡷࡐࡡᘭࡡ࢓࢕࣭ࣝ༽ഁ࡛ࡵ⾔ິࢅභ࡞ࡊࠉ㛏⩹ᩅఌὬ࡚ࣀࢿ࣭ࣥ࢒࣭⋜ᐓᨥ
ᣚ࡚࠵ࡖࡒࡒࡴࠉᚪ↓Ⓩ࡞ᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒࡡᩓᑊⓏ࡝ឺᗐࢅᣅ࠷ࡒ (Fereday 1980, 4; 23; 47)ࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢཬࢩࣔࢤࣁ࢕ࢹࡡ❟ሔ࠾ࡼࠉ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒ࡞ࡻࡾᬸᨳ࡛
ᅸโࡢࠔᶊງࢅ┘Ⓩ࡛ࡌࡾ㌱஥Ⓩ࡝㈏᪐โࠕ࡚࠵ࡽࠉ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎࠿ࡐࡡୌဤ࡚࠵ࡖࡒ࣌
࢕ࢴࢡᨥ㒼మโࡡࡻ࠹࡝ࠔ㔘㖱࡛ᐣࢅ။ୌࡡິᶭ࡛ࡌࡾ㈏᪐โࠕࡻࡽࡵ㧏㈏࡚Ẵ㧏ࡂࠉࡐ
ࡿࡓࡄୌᒒࠉୖᒒ㝭ᒒ࡞ᑊࡌࡾᅸโࡢࡥ࡜ࡂ࡝ࡽ࠿ࡔ࡚࠵ࡾ࡛ᢀึࡌࡾ (Letter, 27/ゼ (1),
92)ࠊࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤ࡞ࡻࡾ࣐࣎ࣝࢴࢠ࡝ᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒᢀึࠉ࣌࢕ࢴࢡᨥ㒼మโᨥᣚ࠿ࠉ
࢛࣭ࠖࢠ
ࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗ࡞⾪ࡿࡾ࡮࡛ࢆ࡜။ୌࡡ᪺☔࡝ࢪࢰࣤࢪ࡚࠵ࡾ࠿ࠉࡐࡡ࣐࣎ࣝࢴࢠ࠿᫤
࡞ᙁ㐛ࡁࡒࡆ࡛࠾ࡼࠉࣂࢹࣞࣤࡓࡖࡒ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎ࡢࠉ
࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗࡡฝ∟࡞
ཬᑊࡊ࡙࠷ࡒ࡮࡜࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡵࡊࡆࡡᑚⴥ࠿ฝ∟ࡈࡿࡿࡣࠉソギࡡ᫤࡛ྜྷࡋࡻ࠹࡞ἶ௘ྙ࡞
࡝ࡽࠉ⮤↓࡞ᾐ࠻࡙࠷ࡖࡒࡢࡍࡡ៦ᝇࢅṟࡊ⤾ࡄࡾࡓࡄ࡞ࡊ࠾࡝ࡼࡍࠉソギ࡚ᗀࡴࡼࡿࡒ
೩ぜࢅཱིࡽ㝎ࡀࠉ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ♣ఌ࡞ㄢ࿰ࢅཱིࡽᡘࡌࡆ࡛࡚ᖲ࿰࡛⦶ᰜࢅᐁ⌟ࡊࡒ࠷
࡛ࡡⴥ⩽ࡡ┘Ⓩ࠿㐡ࡎࡼࡿ࡝࠷࡛⩻࠻࡙࠷ࡒ࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾࠊఐ∎ࡡᚽ࿈࡞ࡻࡽࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭
ࣤࡡᑚⴥࡢᗀ⠂࡞㒼ࡼࡿࡾࡆ࡛ࡢ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࠊ⾪⣤࡞ࡢࣞࣤࢺࣤ࡞࡙༰ใ࡛オࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࡵ
ࡡࡡࠉᐁ㝷࡞ࡢ࢙ࢸ࢔ࣤࣁ࡚ࣚ༰ใࡈࡿࡒ࡛ఐ∎ࡢ᥆ᐳࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡵఐ∎ࡡ
ᚽ࿈ࢅུࡄථࡿ࡙ࠉⴥ⩽ྞ࡛༰ใ⩽ྞࢅฝࡈࡍ࡞ᑛ㒂ᩐࡡࡲࢅⓆ⾔ࡊࡒࡻ࠹࡚࠵ࡾ (The
Earl of Morton: Document)ࠊ
ࢩࣔࢤࣁ࢕ࢹὬ࡛ࡊ࡙ᤍࡼ࠻ࡼࡿࡒࢩ࢘࢕࣑ࢫ࣬ࢪࢷࣖ࢓࣭ࢹ༽ࡢࠉ⿚ึ࡚ཬ㏣⨝࠿☔
ᏽࡈࡿࡾࡆ࡛࡝ࡂࠉ1746 ᖳ࡞ࣞࣤࢺࣤࡡࢦࢧ࣭ࢠࡡᣂ⨠ᡜ࡚⑋Ṓࡊࠉᘭࡡ࢓ࣝࢠࢦࣤࢱ࣭
ࡵ࣭࢜ࣞࢸ࡚ࣤᡋṒࡊࡒ࠿ࠉࣁ࣭ࣝ࢕ᓞࡡᡜ㡷ࡢ⦍ᡁ㛭౿࡞࠵ࡖࡒ࢟ࣔࣞࢗ࢘࢕ఐ∎࡞┞
⤾ࡈࡿࡒࠊ࢟ࣔࣞࢗ࢘࢕ఐ∎ࡢࠉࢩ࢘࢕࣑ࢫ࣬ࢪࢷࣖ࢓࣭ࢹ༽ࡡᚃࢅུࡄ࡙ཬ࣓࣭ࢹࣤὬ
ࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒࡡ඙㢄࡞❟ࡔࠉ
ࠔࣂࣤࢺ࣭ࣚソギࠕࢅཋ࿈ഁ࡚ᘤࡀ⤽࠷ࡓ (Fereday 1980, 125)ࠊ
࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗࡡ⤎ࡦ࡚ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡢࠉࠔࣂࣤࢺ࣭ࣚソギࠕࡷἪᘈአ࡚ࡡὬ
㛰ᢘண࠿㛏ᘤ࠷࡙࠷ࡾ⤎ᯕࠉ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ♣ఌ࠿ฦ᩷ࡈࡿࠉ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎࡞ࡻࡖ࡙╌
ᡥࡈࡿࡒல㯖⣊ࡡ⣫⦴ᴏ࡝࡜ࠉ࠷ࡂࡗ࠾ࡡ㈏㔔࡝ࠔᨭⰃࠕ࠿ᮅᏰᠺࡡࡱࡱᨲ⨠ࡈࡿࠉ㈃ᅏ
࠾ࡼࡡ⬲༴࠿ᅏ㞬࡞࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛ᠩᛍࢅ⾪᪺ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ (Letter, 56-7/ゼ (2), 102)ࠊࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭
ࣤࡡ㆗ㄵࡢ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗࡡධమࢅ㏳ࡋ࡙ࠉ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎࡞ࡻࡾᡜ㡷⤊ႜ࡚⏍
ὩỀ‵࠿ྡྷ୕ࡊࡒࡆ࡛ࢅ࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞ࡫ࡡࣗࢼ࢛ࣤమโࡡ᜘ᜠ࡛ࡊ࡙フ౮ࡊࡗࡗࠉ㎨ᴏ
ࡷ⿿㏸ᴏࡡ㍇っࠉᐠ㍲ࡷዘ౗ࠉᅸโࡷὬ㛰ᢘண࡝࡜ࠉᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒഁࡡᡜᴏࢅ㈃ᅏࡡཋᅄ࡛
ࡊ࡙ᢀึࡌࡾ❟ሔ࡚ୌ㈇ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ
ϫ ࠽ࢂࡽ࡞
ࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺᩅఌ✔೸Ὤࡡ⤊ῥᛦ᝷ࡢࠉࠔᨭⰃࠕࡡ඙㐅ᆀ࢙ࢸ࢔ࣤࣁࣚ㎾㎰ࢅᣈⅤ࡛ࡊ
ࡒ୯ᚨⓏ࣒ࣤࣁ࣭࡞㛭ࡊ࡙ࡢࠉࢨ࣭ࣔ࠿ㄵࡋࡒ㏳ࡽࠉ࢕ࣤࢡࣚࣤࢺ࡛ࡡࣗࢼ࢛ࣤమโୖ࡚
ᣉኬࡊࡒᕰሔ⤊ῥ࠿ࡵࡒࡼࡊࡒㇿࡡഁ㟻࡫ࡡ㛭ᚨ࡚༥ࡴࡼࡿ࡙࠷ࡒ࡛ゕ࠻ࡾࠊࡊ࠾ࡊྜྷࡋ
✔೸Ὤࡡහ㒂࡚ࡵࠉ࢙ࢸ࢔ࣤࣁࣚ࠾ࡼ㐪ࡂ㞫ࡿࡒ㞫ᓞ࡞࠷ࡒࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡡࡻ࠹࡞ࠉ
ࠔᨭⰃࠕ
ࡡ࢕ࢸ࢛࣭ࣞ࢟ࡡゕㄊࢅ⏕࠷ࡒฦࡓࡄࣃ࣭࣑ࣖࡷࢪ࣐ࢪ࡮࡜ᐂふⓏ࡛ࡢゕ࠻࡝࠷ࡱ࡚ࡵࠉ
ᐣ⿩໩ࡌࡾ♣ఌࡡ୯ࡡࠔ㈃ᅏࠕࢅࠔ࣎ࣛࢷ࢔࢙࢜ࣜ࣬ࢤࢿ࣐࣭ࠕ࡞㎾࠷ࢪࢰࣤࢪ࡚ᥝ෕ࡊ
ࡒ⤊ῥᛦ᝷ࡵᏋᅹࡊࡒࠊ
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡡሔྙࠉᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒᢀึࠉ࣓࣭ࢹࣤఐ∎᧞㆜࡛࠷࠹ࢪࢰࣤࢪ࠿ࠉ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ
࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗࡡ౪ᣈࡌࡾ࡮࡛ࢆ࡜။ୌࡡ❟ࡔన⨠࡚࠵ࡖࡒࠊࡐࡡ⤎ᯕࠉᕰሔ⤊ῥࡡᣉᘿ
ࢅ࢕ࢸ࢛࣭ࣞ࢟ࡷ⌦ㄵ࡛ࡊ࡙ᨥᣚࡌࡾࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉ≁ᏽࡡ≟Ἓୖ࡚ࡡ㈃ᅏၡ㢗ࡡよỬ➿࡛
122
ࡊ࡙ࠉᐣ⿩ࡡቌ㐅ࡡ⌟ᐁⓏ᪁➿࡛ࡊ࡙ᡬࡔฝࡊࠉ᧞㆜ࡌࡾ㆗ㄵࢅ㈇ࡂࡆ࡛࡛࡝ࡖࡒࠊࡐࡊ
࡙࢕ࣤࢡࣚࣤࢺࡡᆀ୹㝭⣥࡛࢛࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡᅹᆀᆀ୹ᒒࢅᑊ↯ࡈࡎࡒⅤ࡝࡜࡞⾪ࡿ࡙࠷
ࡾࡻ࠹࡞ࠉᙔ᫤ࡡ᩺ࡊ࠷ࣗࢼ࢛ࣤమโୖ࡞࠽ࡄࡾᵕࠍ࡝ฺᐐᑊ❟࡛ᨳ἖Ⓩᢘணࡡ୯࡚࠵࠻
࡙ࣗࢼ࢛ࣤࢅ᥆ࡊ㐅ࡴࡾഁ࡞❟ࡖࡒၤⵒࡡ⤊ῥᛦ᝷ࡡ≁ᛮࢅᙁࡂ♟ࡌࡆ࡛࡞ࡵ࡝ࡖࡒࠊ
ࡆࡡⅤࡢ࢛࣭ࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗࡡオ㏑ᙟᘟࢅ⤽ᢆࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠖࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺ⤣ゝሒ
࿈ࠗ(1791-99 ᖳ) ࡚ࡵྜྷᵕ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࢩࣘࣤ࣬ࢨࣤࢠࣝ࢓༽ࡡ࿣ࡦ࠾ࡄ࡚ࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺᩅఌ
∶ᖅ࡞ࡻࡾᩅ༇⤊ῥࡡオ㏑ࢅ㞗ࡴࡒࠖࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺ⤣ゝሒ࿈ࠗࡢࠉ᪟ᮮࡡᅰᆀ⪌షἪࡡ
ᗣḾࡷභ᭯ᆀࡡฦ๪࣬ᅑ࠷㎲ࡲ࡝࡜ࠉᕰሔ⤊ῥࢅὩ⏕ࡊࡒࠔᨭⰃࠕ࡫ࡡ᪁➿࠿⌟ሔ࡞༳ࡊ
࡙ᐁ㊰Ⓩ࡞ㄵࡋࡼࡿ࡙࠽ࡽࠉࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭ࣤࡡオ㏑࠿ୌࡗࡡ඙㥉Ⓩ࣓ࢸ࡛ࣜ࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ࢛
࣭ࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡᩅ༇ࡡオ㏑࠿≁࡞ඖᐁࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࡆ࡛ࡵࠉഃ↓࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ (Thomson 2003, 95)ࠊ
ࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺᩅఌ✔೸Ὤࡡ⤊ῥᛦ᝷ࡢࠉࢨ࣭ࣔ࡞ࡻࡾᛮ᰹௛ࡄࡻࡽࡵኣᵕ࡝ၡ㢗㛭ᚨ࡛
ධࢪࢤࢴࢹࣚࣤࢺⓏ࡝ᣉ࠿ࡽࢅᣚࡖ࡙࠷ࡒࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
୹さཤ⩻ᩝ⊡
Hepburn, Thomas [1760] 1885. A Letter to a Gentleman from his Friend in Orkney, containing the
True Causes of the Poverty of that Country. Edinburgh: William Brown. ཿᐓᘧᖶゼࠔࢹ࣭࣏ࢪ࣬
ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭࢛࣭ࣤࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗ(1760 ᖳ) (1)ࠕࠖ⤊ῥᏕㄵ✪ࠗ(㛭こᏕ㝌ኬᏕ) 60 (1):
77-97. ཿᐓᘧᖶゼࠔࢹ࣭࣏ࢪ࣬ࣉࢴࣈࣁ࣭࢛࣭ࣤࠖࢠࢼ࣭ㅎᓞࡡ㈃ᅏࠗ(1760 ᖳ) (2)ࠕ
ࠖ⤊ῥ
Ꮥㄵ✪ࠗ(㛭こᏕ㝌ኬᏕ) 60 (2): 85-103.
MacKenzie, James [1836] (1750), The General Grievances and Oppression of the Isles of Orkney
and Shetland, Second Edition. Edinburgh: Laing and Forbes.
The Earl of Morton: Document. Handwritten ‘Manuscript Transcription of comments apparently by
the Earl of Morton on the proposed publication of “A Letter to a Gentleman from his Friend in
Orkney, containing the True Causes of the Poverty of that Country”, c.1760. D1/375, Orkney
Archives, Kirkwall.
Pundlar Process: Earl of Galloway and Udallers of Orkney v Earl of Morton. Printed legal papers,
333Y, Orkney Library.
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the Ministers of the Different Parishes. Vols. 2, 7, 14 and 15. Edinburgh.
Allan, David 2002. Scotland in the Eighteenth Century: Union and Enlightenment. London:
Longman.
Clouston, J. Storer. 1927. The Orkney Parishes. Kirkwall.
Devine, Thomas M.; Lee, Clive H.; Peden, George C. (eds) 2005. The Transformation of Scotland:
The Economy since 1700. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Fereday, R. P. 1980. Orkney Feuds and the ’45. Kirkwall: Kirkwall Grammar School.
Furuya, Hiroyuki 2003. The ‘private vices, public benefits’ controversy: the response of the Scottish
Enlightenment to Bernard Mandeville. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.
ཿᐓ ᘧᖶ 2007.ࠖெ∸࡚ㄖࡳ⤊ῥᏕྍࠗࡨࡂࢀ࠹ฝ∟.
ཿᐓ ᘧᖶ 2008.ࠖ∸ㄊ ⤊ῥྍࠗࡨࡂࢀ࠹ฝ∟.
Murdoch, Alexander 1998. British History, 1660-1832: National Identity and Local Culture.
London: Macmillan.
Shearer, John W. 1966. South Ronaldsay and Burray: The Evolution of an Island Economy. Thesis
presented for M. A. Honours Geography, University of Glasgow.
Sher, Richard B. 1985. Church and University in the Scottish Enlightenment: The Moderate Literati
of Edinburgh. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Thomson, William P. L. 1987. History of Orkney. Edinburgh: The Mercat Press.
Thomson, William P. L. 1989. The Eighteenth-Century Church in Orkney. In Light in the North: St
Magnus Cathedral through the Centuries. Harry William MacPhail Cant and Howie N. Firth (eds).
Kirkwall: The Orkney Press: 57-79.
Thomson, William P. L. 2003. Agricultural Improvement. In The Orkney Book. Donald Omand (ed).
Edinburgh: Birlinn: 92-101.
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