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1220 年代後半の教皇領での戦争と防衛

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1220 ᖺ௦ᚋ༙ࡢᩍⓚ㡿࡛ࡢᡓத࡜㜵⾨
ᑿ㷂 ⚽ኵ
㸯㸬ࡣࡌࡵ࡟
ᩍᶒጾ࡛࠶ࡗࡓ࣮࣐ࣟᩍⓚ࡜ᑐ❧ࡋࠊ㌷஦⾪✺
୰ୡす࣮ࣚࣟࢵࣃ࡟࠾࠸࡚ᩍⓚᶒࡣ኱ࡁ࡞ᙳ
ࡉ࠼㉳ࡇࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࡣ࿘▱ࡢ㏻ࡾ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ࡜ࡾࢃ
㡪ຊࢆᣢࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡑࢀࡣᮏ᮶㟋ⓗᶒ
ࡅ ᖺ௦ᚋ༙࡟ጞࡲࡿ⾪✺ࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ
ጾ࡛࠶ࡗ࡚ࠊⓚᖇᶒࡸ⋤ᶒ࡜ࡣ኱࠸࡟ᛶ᱁ࡢ␗
ࡢṚࡢ ᖺ㡭ࡲ࡛⥆࠸ࡓࠋࡑࡢ㛫ࠊᙼࡣᩍⓚ
࡞ࡿࡶࡢ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡔࡀࠊᩍⓚᶒࡣ㟋ⓗᶒጾ࡛
ࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ ୡ࠿ࡽ◚㛛ࡉࢀࠊ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ
࠶ࡿ࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊୡ಑ྩ୺࡜ࡋ࡚ࡢഃ㠃ࡶ᭷ࡋ࡚
࢕࢘ࢫ ୡ࡟ࡣᗫ఩ᐉゝࡉ࠼ୗࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ
࠸ࡓࠋ࡜ࡾࢃࡅ୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࡢᩍⓚ㡿࡟࠾࠸࡚
ࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ୧⪅ࡢ㌷஦⾪✺ࡣࡑࢀ௨๓ࡢ ᩍⓚࡣୡ಑ྩ୺࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ࡛ࡣᩍⓚࡣ࠸࠿࡟ࡋ
ᖺ࡟ࡶ㉳ࡇࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡑࢀࡣࡲࡉ࡟ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜ
࡚ࡑࢀࢆᨭ㓄ࡋࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺࠿ࠋ࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡟ᑐ
ࣄࡀ⪷ᆅ࡟㉱࠸࡚࢚ࣝࢧ࣒ࣞࢆྲྀࡾᡠࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ
❧ࡍࡿୡ಑ᶒຊ࡟ᑐᢠࡋࠊᩍⓚ㡿ࢆᏲࡗࡓࡢ࡛
㛫࡟ጞࡲࡗࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ ᖺ௦ᚋ༙࡟ጞࡲࡿ
࠶ࢁ࠺࠿ࠋ࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡞㜵⾨ᡭẁࡀ࠶ࡗࡓࡢ࡛࠶
㜚தࡣṔྐᐙࡢὀ┠ࢆᘬ࠸࡚ࡁࡓࡢ࡟ᑐࡋࠊ▷
ࢁ࠺࠿ࠋ
ᮇ࡛཰᮰ࡋࡓࡓࡵ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺࠿ࠊྠ᫬ᮇࡢࣇ࣮ࣜ
ᩍⓚ㡿ࡢᡂ❧ᮇ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣࡉࡲࡊࡲ࡞ぢゎࡀ
ࢻࣜࣄࡢ༑Ꮠ㌷࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣከࡃࡢᩥ⊩࡟ゝཬࡉ
࠶ࡿࠋ࠿ࡘ࡚ࡣ 8 ୡ⣖༙ࡤࡢࠕࣆࣆࣥࡢᐤ㐍ࠖ
ࢀ࡚࠸ࡿ࡟ࡶ࠿࠿ࢃࡽࡎࠊࡇࡢ࡜ࡁࡢ౵ᨷࡣ࠶
ࢆ㉳※࡜ࡍࡿぢゎࡀ㏻ㄝ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊ࢖ࣥࣀࢣ
ࡲࡾ㛵ᚰࢆ㞟ࡵ࡚࠸࡞࠸ࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡇࡢத࠸ࡣ
ࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 3 ୡࢆ┿ࡢᘓᅜ⪅࡜ࡍࡿ◊✲⪅ࡶ࠸
ᙜ᫬ࡢᩍⓚ㡿ࡢ≧ἣࢆ⪃࠼ࡿୖ࡛ᵝࠎ࡞♧၀ࢆ
ࡿࠋᩍⓚ㡿ࡢ㉳※࡟ࡘ࠸᳨࡚ウࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࡣᮏ✏
୚࠼࡚ࡃࢀࡿࠋᮏ᮶᐀ᩍⓗᶒጾ࡛࠶ࡿᩍⓚᶒࡀࠊ
ࡢ┠ⓗ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࡀࠊ๰❧⪅࡜ࡶࡉࢀࡿ࢖ࣥࣀࢣ
࠸࠿࡟ࡋ࡚ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡜த࠸ࠊᩍⓚ㡿ࢆ㜵⾨
ࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 3 ୡ࡟⥆ࡃ᫬௦࡟ࠊࡇࡢᅜᐙࡀୡ಑
ࡋࡼ࠺࡜ࡋࡓࡢ࠿ࠋᅜᐙ࡟࡜ࡗ࡚㜵⾨ࡀࡁࢃࡵ
ⓗ࡟࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡞≧ἣ࡟࠶ࡗࡓ࠿ࡣࠊ⯆࿡῝࠸ၥ
࡚㔜せ࡛࠶ࡿࡇ࡜ࡣゝ࠺ࡲ࡛ࡶ࡞࠸ࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ
㢟࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
ࡇࢀࡲ࡛ᩍⓚ㡿ࡢ㜵⾨ᨻ⟇ࡣ༑ศ࡟᳨ウࡉࢀ࡚
Ṕྐᐙࣈࣝࢡࣁࣝࢺࡣࡑࡢࠗ࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࣭ࣝࢿ
ࡇ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ
ࢧࣥࢫࡢᩥ໬࠘ࡢෑ㢌࡛ࠊ⚄⪷࣮࣐ࣟⓚᖇࣇࣜ
ᮏ✏࡛ࡣࠊ୧⪅ࡢᑐ❧ࡢ⌮⏤ࠊᡓ㜚ࡢ⤒㐣ࢆ
࣮ࢻࣜࣄ ୡࢆࠕ⋢ᗙ࡟༶࠸ࡓ᭱ึࡢ㏆௦ⓗே
ᴫほࡍࡿ࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊ㌷஦⾪✺ࡢ୰࡛ᩍⓚࡀ࠸࠿
㛫ࠖ࡜ࡋࠊᙼࡢ࢖ࢫ࣒ࣛ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡢ▱㆑࡜⌮ゎࠊ
࡟ᩍⓚ㡿ࢆ㜵⾨ࡋࡼ࠺࡜ࡋࡓ࠿ࠊ࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡞᪉
ᩍⓚ࡜ࡢ㜚தࠊ୰ኸ㞟ᶒ໬ࡢ᥎㐍࡞࡝ࢆᣲࡆ࡚
⟇ࢆ⏝࠸ࡓࡢ࠿ࢆ⪃ᐹࡋࡓ࠸ࠋ
࠸ࡿࠋࡑࡢᙜྰࡣ࡜ࡶ࠿ࡃ࡜ࡋ࡚ࠊᙼࡀ෌୕࡟
ࢃࡓࡗ࡚すḢ࢟ࣜࢫࢺᩍୡ⏺࡟࠾࠸࡚᭱㧗ࡢ᐀
*3 ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 4 ୡ࡟ࡼࡿࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢᗫ
఩࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣࠊA. Melloni, Inncenzo IV: La conce-
zione e l'esperienza della cristianità come regimen
unius personae, Bologna, 1990, passim. ᣋ✏ࠕᩍ
*1 ᒣ㎶つᏊࠕ୰ୡࡢᩍⓚ㡿ࠖࠊࠗᅜᐙ̿ࡑࡢ⌮ᛕ࡜
ไᗘ̿࠘ᡤ཰ࠊ୰ᮧ㈼஧㑻⦅ࠊி㒔኱Ꮫேᩥ⛉Ꮫ◊
✲ᡤࠊ1989 ᖺࠊ344-345 㡫ࠋD. Waley, The Papal
State in the Thirteenth Century, London, 1961; P.
Partner, The Lands of St. Peter, Eyre Methuen,
1972.
*2 㹈࣭ࣈࣝࢡࣁࣝࢺࠗ࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࣭ࣝࢿࢧࣥࢫࡢᩥ໬࠘
᪂஭㟹୍ヂࠊ⟃ᦶ᭩ᡣࠊ2007 ᖺࠊ16 㡫ࠋᰘ⏣἞୕
㑻ヂࠊ୰ኸබㄽ♫ࠊ1966 ᖺࠊ66 㡫ࠋ
ⓚ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 4 ୡࡢᨻ἞⌮ㄽ࡟࠾ࡅࡿᩍⓚ
ᶒ࡜ୡ಑ᶒࠖࠗྐᯘ࠘77 ᕳ 1 ྕࠊ1994 ᖺࠊ54㹼60
㡫ࠋ
*4 ⸨ᓮ⾨ࠗ୰ୡᩍⓚᗇࡢᡂ❧࡜ᒎ㛤࠘ࠊඵᆏ᭩ᡣࠊ
2013 ᖺࡣࢃࡀᅜ࡟࠾ࡅࡿ୰ୡᩍ఍ྐ◊✲ࡢ㔠Ꮠሪ
࡛࠶ࡿࡀࠊᩍⓚᗇ⤌⧊ࡢヲ⣽࡞᳨ウ࡛࠶ࡾࠊ㜵⾨࡟
ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣ࡯࡜ࢇ࡝ゐࢀࡽࢀ࡚࠸࡞࠸ࠋ
㻝㻌
㻌
− 79 −
㸰㸬༑Ꮠ㌷ၥ㢟
࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡟ᡠࡗࡓࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣࡇࡢ࣒ࢫ࣒ࣜ
ࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ ୡࡣ ᖺ ᭶ ᪥ࠊࣇࣜ
ໃຊ࡟ᡭࢆ↝ࡃࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋ ᖺ ᭶ࠊࣇࣜ
࣮ࢻࣜࣄ ୡ࡟ᑐࡋ◚㛛ࡢᅇສࢆⓎࡋࡓࠋᩘᖺ
࣮ࢻࣜࣄࡣᩍⓚ࣍ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫ ୡ࡟ࠊ 㞘ࡢ࢞
๓࡟ᐉㄋࡋࡓ༑Ꮠ㌷ฟⓎࢆ෌୕ᘏᮇࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࡀ
࣮ࣞ⯪࡜ 㞘ࡢ㈌≀⯪ࢆ⪷ᆅᅇ᚟ࡢ‽ഛࡢࡓ
◚㛛ࡢ⌮⏤࡜ࡉࢀࡓࠋ
ࡵ࡟ᥦ౪ࡍࡿࡀࠊᙼ⮬㌟ࡣ࣒ࢫ࣒ࣜࡢེᚐࡢ㝆
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡀึࡵ࡚༑Ꮠ㌷⾜ࡁࢆㄋࡗࡓࡢ
అࡲ࡛ࢩࢳࣜ࢔࡟␃ࡲࡿࡔࢁ࠺ࠊ࡜᭩ࡁ㏦ࡗ࡚
ࡣࠊ ᖺ ᭶ᮎ࡟࢔࣮࡛࣊ࣥᣲ⾜ࡉࢀࡓࢻ࢖
࠸ࡿࠋᙼࡣ⪷ᆅࡢ௦ࢃࡾ࡟ࠊࢩࢳࣜ࢔ᓥ࡛ࢧ
ࢶ⋤࡜ࡋ࡚ࡢᡝෙᘧࡢ᫬࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡉࡽ࡟ ࣛࢭࣥே࡜ᡓࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡇ࡜ࢆᙉㄪࡋࡓࠋ
ᖺ ᭶ ᪥ࡢ࣮࣐࡛ࣟࡢⓚᖇᡝෙᘧࡢ᫬࡟ࡣࠊ
࣍ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫࡣ ᖺ࡟ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡜ࢧ
⩣ᖺ ᭶࡟⪷ᆅ࡟Ώࡿࡇ࡜ࢆㄋࡗࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋ⤖
࣭ࣥࢪ࢙࣐࣮ࣝࣀ࡛఍ぢࡋ࡚༑Ꮠ㌷ၥ㢟ࢆヰࡋ
ᒁࠊ ᖺ࡟ฟⓎࡋ࡚࠸ࡓ➨ ᅇ༑Ꮠ㌷࡟⮬ࡽ
ྜ࠸ࠊࣇ࢙ࣞࣥࢸ࢕࣮ࣀ࡛ᐃࡵࡓᮇ᪥࡛࠶ࡿ
ࡣཧຍࡏࡎࠊ ᖺ࡟ Ⰴ㝲ࢆὴ㐵ࡍࡿ࡟␃ࡲ
ᖺࢆ෌ᗘᘏᮇࡋࠊ ᖺ ᭶ ᪥࡜ࡍࡿ
ࡾࠊࡑࢀࡣࢲ࣑࢚ࢵࢱ࡛ࡢ኱ᩋ໭ࢆ㜼Ṇ࡛ࡁ࡞
࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊ ேࡢ㥽ኈ࡜ ࣏ࣥࢻࡢࢩࢳࣜ
࠿ࡗࡓࠋࡑࡢᚋࠊⓚᖇ࡜ᩍⓚ࣍ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫ ୡࡣ
࢔㔠ࡢ㈨㔠ࢆᣐฟࡍࡿࡇ࡜࡜ࡋࠊࡶࡋฟⓎࡋ࡞
ᖺ࡟ࣦ࢙࡛ࣟࣜࠊ ᖺ࡟ࣇ࢙ࣞࣥࢸ࢕࣮
ࡅࢀࡤ◚㛛ࡉࢀࡿࡇ࡜ࡀᐃࡵࡽࢀࡓࠋ
ࣀ࡛ᮾ᪉ၥ㢟࡟ࡘ࠸࡚༠㆟ࡋࠊฟⓎᘏᮇࡀᢎㄆ
ᖺ ᭶ࠊ࣍ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫ ୡࡀṚཤࡋࠊࢢࣞ
ࡉࢀࡓࠋ
ࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ ୡࡀⓏ఩ࡋࡓࠋࡘ࠸࡟ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ
ࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣ༑Ꮠ㌷࡟⾜ࡃពᛮࡀ
ࡣ༑Ꮠ㌷⾜ࡁࢆỴពࡋࡓࠋ ᖺኟࠊ༑Ꮠ㌷ኈ
࡞࠿ࡗࡓࢃࡅ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋᙼࡣ࢚ࣝࢧ࣒ࣞ⋤ࡢ⛠
ࡀ࢔ࣉ࣮ࣜ࢔࡟㞟⤖ࡋࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ⮬㌟ࡶ ྕࢆ᭷ࡍࡿࢪ࣭ࣕࣥࢻ࣭ࣈ࢚ࣜࣥࢾࡢፉࣚࣛࣥ
᭶ ᪥࡟ࣈࣜࣥࢹ࢕ࢩ ࢆฟᕹࡋࡓࠋ࡜ࡇࢁࡀࠊ
ࢲࢆፚࡿࡇ࡜࡟ࡼࡗ࡚⪷ᆅࡢ⋤ෙࢆᡭ࡟ධࢀࡓ
ኟࡢᬬࡉࡶ࠶ࡗ࡚༑Ꮠ㌷ኈࡢ୰࡟␿⑓ࠊ࠾ࡑࡽ
ࡾࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࠋᙼࡢ༑Ꮠ㌷⾜ࡁࢆጉࡆ࡚࠸ࡓࡢࡣ
ࡃࢳࣇࢫ࠿ࢥࣞࣛࡀᗈࡀࡾࠊⓚᖇ⮬㌟ࡶ⨯ᝈࡋ
࠾ࡶ࡟ࢩࢳࣜ࢔ᓥࡢ᝟ໃ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜ
ࡓࠋⓚᖇࡢ཭ே࡛ྠ⾜ࡍࡿࡣࡎ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࢳࣗ
ࣄࡣ ᖺ࡟∗ࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄ ୡࡢṚᚋࠊࢃࡎ࠿
࣮ࣜࣥࢤࣥ᪉఑࣮ࣝࢺࣦ࢕ࣄࡶ⑓࡟ಽࢀࠊࡲࡶ
ᡯ࡛ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤఩࡟ࡘ࠸࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡑ
࡞ࡃṚཤࡋࡓࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣᛌ᚟ࡋࡔ࠸ฟⓎ
ࡢᚋࡢࢩࢳࣜ࢔ࡣΰ஘࡜↓⛛ᗎ≧ែࡀ⥆ࡃࠋ࡜
ࡍࡿࡘࡶࡾ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊ཭ேࡢṚࢆ┠ࡢ๓࡟ࡋ
ࡾࢃࡅࢩࢳࣜ࢔ᓥࡢ࣒ࢫ࣒ࣜࡣ࢟ࣜࢫࢺᩍᨻᶒ
࡚ࠊ୍㒊ࡢⰄ㝲ࢆ⪷ᆅ࡟㏦ࡾฟࡋࠊ⮬ศ⮬㌟ࡣ
࡟ᑐᢠࡋࠊᓥࡢす㒊ࢆ᰿ᣐ࡜ࡋ࡚࡯࡜ࢇ࡝⊂❧
ࢼ࣏ࣜ㏆㑹ࡢ‫‮‬἞ሙ࣏ࢵࢶ࢛࣮ࣜ࡟㉱࠸࡚㟼㣴
ⓗ࡞άືࢆ⾜ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ ᖺ࡟ࢻ࢖ࢶ࠿ࡽ༡
࡟ດࡵࡿࡇ࡜࡜࡞ࡗࡓࠋ
ࡇࡢ▱ࡽࡏ࡟ᩍⓚࡣ⃭ᛣࡋࡓࠋ༑Ꮠ㌷ࢆㄋࡗ
࡚࠿ࡽ ᖺ௨ୖࡀ❧ࡕࠊ෌୕ᘏᮇࢆ㔜ࡡࠊࡘ࠸
*5 M.G.H. Epistolae Saeculi XIII Regestis Pontificum Romanorum Selectae(=E. S.), 1, Berlin, 1883,
pp. 281-285, n. 368.
*6 㹃࣭㹆࣭࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠗⓚᖇࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ 2
ୡ࠘
㸦ᑠᯘබヂ㸧ࠊ୰ኸබㄽ᪂♫ࠊ2011 ᖺࠊ93ࠊ130ࠊ
160-161 㡫ࠋD. Abulafia, Frederick II: A Medieval
Emperor, 1988, London, pp. 120-121, 138, 148149.
*7 ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ163 㡫ࠋAbulafia, op.
cit., p. 150.
*8 すᕝὒ୍ࠕᚋᮇࢩࣗࢱ࢘ࣇ࢙ࣥᮅࠖࠊࠗࢻ࢖ࢶྐ࠘
ᡤ཰ࠊᒣᕝฟ∧♫ࠊ1997 ᖺ㸦㸻ࠕᚋᮇࠖ㸧ࠊ265 㡫ࠋ
*9 ࡇࡢ㡭ࡢࢩࢳࣜ࢔ᓥࡢ≧ἣ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣࠊA. Metcalfe, The Muslims of Medieval Italy, Edinburgh
University Press, 2009, pp. 275-283.
࡟ ᖺ ᭶࡟ฟⓎࡍࡿ࡜⣙᮰ࡋࠊ
࡛ࡁ࡞ࡅࢀ
*10 ed. J.-L.-A. Huillard-Bréholles, Historia diplo-
matica Friderici Secundi, sive constitutiones, privilegia, mandata, instrumenta quae supersunt istius imperatoris et filiorum ejus : Accedunt epistolae Paparum et documenta varia., vol. 2, pt. 1, Paris, pp. 409-413.
*11 ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ161 㡫ࠋ
*12 Abulafia, op. cit., p. 151. ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓
ᥖ᭩ࠊ161-2 㡫ࠋ
*13 Abulafia, op. cit., pp. 165-66. ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ
๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ193-4 㡫ࠋ
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− 80 −
ࡤ◚㛛ࢆぬᝅࡍࡿ࡜ゝࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿ࠿ࡽࠊ
࡛ࠊࠕᙼࡣỴࡋ࡚ᖹ࿴ⓗ࡞஺΅⪅࡛ࡣ࡞ࡃࠊᩍ
⌮ゎ࡛ࡁ࡞ࡃࡶ࡞࠸ࠋࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ ୡࡀࣇࣜ
఍ࡢ㏕ᐖ⪅࡛࠶ࡿࠖࡇ࡜ࢆᣲࡆ࡚࠸ࡿࠋᐇ㝿ࠊ
࣮ࢻࣜࣄࢆ◚㛛ࡋࡓࡢࡣ ᭶ᮎ࡛ࠊࡑࢀࢆ▱ࡽ
ࣛ࢖ࢼࣝࢻࡣᩍⓚ㡿࡟ᒓࡍࡿࢫ࣏࣮ࣞࢺࡢබ࡜
ࡏࡿᅇສࡀ ᭶ ᪥࡟Ⓨࡏࡽࢀࡓࠋ
⛠ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓே≀࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
◚㛛ࢆᐉゝࡍࡿࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡢẼᣢࡣ⌮ゎ࡛
ࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡢ◚㛛ᅇສࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ཯
ࡁࡿ࡟ࡋ࡚ࡶࠊ◚㛛ࢆ▱ࡽࡏࡿᅇສ࡟ࡣ஦ᐇ࡜
ㄽࢆぢࡿ࡞ࡽࠊࡇࡢᑐ❧ࡢ᭱኱ࡢཎᅉࡣ༑Ꮠ㌷
ࡣ☜ᐃ࡛ࡁ࡞࠸᰿ᣐࡶྵࡲࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡓ࡜࠼ࡤࠊ
ၥ㢟࡛࠶ࡗࡓ࡜ᛮࢃࢀࡿࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡑࡢᚋ཮᪉
ࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡀ⣙᮰ࡋࡓ㈨㔠࡜
࠿ࡽฟࡉࢀࡿᩥ᭩ࢆぢࡿ࡞ࡽࠊࡑࡇ࡟ࢩࢳࣜ࢔
ேဨࢆ⪷ᆅ࡟㏦ࡽ࡞࠿ࡗࡓ࡜ㄗࡗ࡚㠀㞴ࡋ࡚࠸
⋤ᅜࡢၥ㢟ࡀ኱ࡁࡃࢡ࣮ࣟࢬ࢔ࢵࣉࡉࢀࡿࠋ࡛
ࡿࠋࡲࡓࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ⑓Ẽࢆ௬⑓࡜ࡋ࡚࠸
ࡣࠊࢩࢳࣜ࢔ၥ㢟ࡣ୧⪅ࡢᑐ❧࡟࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡟㛵
ࡿࡀࠊከࡃࡢ༑Ꮠ㌷රኈࡶ⨯ࡗࡓࡇ࡜ࠊྠ⾜ࡋ
ࢃࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡢ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺࠿ࠋ
ࡓࢳ࣮ࣗࣜࣥࢤࣥ᪉఑ࡀṚཤࡋࡓࡇ࡜࠿ࡽ⪃࠼
࡚ࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡶ⨯ᝈࡋࡓྍ⬟ᛶࡣపࡃ࡞࠸ࠋ
㸱㸬ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜၥ㢟
ࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣከࡃࡢ༑Ꮠ㌷ኈࡀ⑓Ẽ࡟⨯ࡾࠊ
1186 ᖺࠊࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ࢢ࢚ࣜࣝࣔ 2 ୡࡢུẕ
Ṛ⪅ࡲ࡛ฟࡓࡇ࡜ࢆࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ㈐௵࡜ࡋ࡞
ࢥࢫࢱࣥࢶ࢓࡜⚄⪷࣮࣐ࣟⓚᖇࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ 1
ࡀࡽࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ⑓Ẽࡣㄆࡵ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋࡲ
ୡࡢᜥᏊࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄࡀ⤖፧ࡋࡓࠋࢢ࢚ࣜࣝࣔ 2
ࡓࢳ࣮ࣗࣜࣥࢤࣥ᪉఑ࡢṚཤࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡟
ୡ࡟ࡣᏊࡀ࡞ࡃࠊࢥࢫࢱࣥࢶ࢓ࢆᚋ⥅⪅࡜ࡋ࡚
ࡼࡿẘẅ࡜୺ᙇࡋࡓࡀࠊࡇࢀࡶࡶࡕࢁࢇㅝࢃࢀ
࠸ࡓࡢ࡛ࠊࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄࡀᖇ఩ࢆ⥅ࡆࡤࠊᖇᅜ࡜
ࡢ࡞࠸୰യ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋࡉࡽ࡟ࡣ➨ ᅇ༑Ꮠ㌷ࡢ
ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࡀ⤖ࡧࡘࡃࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋࡇࢀࡣᩍ
ኻᩋࡶ᥼㌷ࢆ㏦ࡽ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ㈐௵
ⓚᗇ࡟࡜ࡗ࡚ࡶࠊ໭࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ㅖ㒔ᕷ࡟࡜ࡗ࡚ࡶࠊ
࡜ࡉࢀࡓࠋ
༡໭ࢆࢩࣗࢱ࢘ࣇ࢙ࣥໃຊ࡟ᣳࡲࢀࡿ࡜࠸࠺ࡁ
ࡇࢀ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣ౑⪅ࢆᩍⓚ࡟㏦
ࢃࡵ࡚៧៖ࡍ࡭ࡁ≧ἣ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡑࡋ࡚ࠊ1189
ࡗ࡚཯ㄽࡋࡼ࠺࡜ࡋࡓࡀࠊᩍⓚࡣ㡹࡞࡟఍࠾࠺
ᖺࠊࢢ࢚ࣜࣝࣔ 2 ୡࡀ 36 ᡯࡢⱝࡉ࡛Ṛཤࡍࡿ
࡜ࡉ࠼ࡋ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ࠸ࡎࢀ࡟ࡏࡼࠊࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘
࡜ࠊࡑࢀࡀᐇ⌧ࡍࡿ࠿࡟ᛮࢃࢀࡓࠋ
ࢫ ୡࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢᗘ㔜࡞ࡿ༑Ꮠ㌷ࡢᘏᮇ
࡜ࡇࢁࡀࠊ⋤ᅜࡀᖇᅜ࡟྾཰ࡉࢀࡿࡇ࡜ࢆ༴
ࢆᐉㄋ㐪཯࡜ࡋ࡚◚㛛ᐉ࿌ࢆୗࡋࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
᝹ࡍࡿேࠎ࡟ࡶᨭᣢࡉࢀ࡚ࠊࣞࢵࢳ࢙఑ࢱࣥࢡ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣྠᖺ ᭶࡟཯ㄽࡍࡿࠋᙼࡣࠊ
ࣞࢹ࢕ࡀ⋤఩⥅ᢎᶒࢆ୺ᙇࡋࡓࠋᙼࡣࢢ࢚ࣜࣝ
ᩍⓚࡢ◚㛛ࡢ୙ᙜᛶࢆ୺ᙇࠊᮾ᪉࡟㈨㔠࡜රኈ
ࣔࡢ඗ࣉ࣮ࣜ࢔බࣝࢵࢪ࢙࣮ࣟࡢᗢᏊ࡛ࠊ1190
ࢆ㏦ࡗࡓࡇ࡜ࠊฟⓎᑍ๓࡛⑓Ẽࡢࡓࡵࡸࡴࢆᚓ
ᖺ࡟ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤࡜࡞ࡾࠊࢻ࢖ࢶ⋤࡜࡞ࡗࡓࣁ࢖
ࡎ୰Ṇࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࠊ➨ ᅇ༑Ꮠ㌷ࡢኻᩋ࡟ࡣᙼࡶ
ࣥࣜࣄ 6 ୡࡢ౵ධࢆ㏥ࡅࠊ⋤ᅜࡢᨭ㓄ࢆ☜❧ࡋ
ᙼࡢ⮧ୗࡶ㈐௵ࡣ࡞࠸࡜཯ㄽࡋࠊᩍⓚࡀᙼࡢ౑
ࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡑࡢᚋ㛫ࡶ࡞࠸ 1194 ᖺ࡟ࢱࣥࢡ
⪅ࢆ㛛๓ᡶ࠸࡟ࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࢆ㠀㞴ࡋࡓࠋ౑⪅ࢆཷ
ࣞࢹ࢕ࡀṚཤࡍࡿ࡜ࠊ1191 ᖺ࡟ᖇෙࢆཷࡅ࡚࠸
ࡅධࢀ࡞࠿ࡗࡓ⌮⏤࡜ࡋ࡚ࠊࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣࡑ
ࡓࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄࡀࢩࢳࣜ࢔ᓥࢆไᅽࡋࠊᖇᶒ࡜ࢩ
ࡢ ேࡀࣛ࢖ࢼࣝࢻ࣭ࣇ࢛࣭ࣥ࢘ࣝࢫࣜࣥࢤࣥ
ࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᶒࡢྜྠࡀᐇ⌧ࡋࡓࠋᜥᏊࡢࣇ࣮ࣜࢻ
ࣜࣄࡀ⏕ࡲࢀࡓࡢࡣࡑࡢ㡭࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
*14 M.G.H., E. S., 1, SSQRV
*15 M.G.H. Constitutiones et Acta Publica, 2, Hannover, 1896, pp.148-56, no. 116; G.A. Loud, The
Papal 'Crusade' against Frederick II in 1228-1230,
*16 M.G.H., E. S., 1, SSQR
*17 Metcalfe, op. cit., pp. 393-394. 㧗ᒣ༤ࠗ୰ୡࢩࢳ
ࣜ࢔⋤ᅜ࠘ࠊㅮㄯ♫⌧௦᪂᭩ࠊ1999 ᖺࠊ186 㡫ࠋᒣ
㎶つᏊࠗࣀ࣐ࣝࣥ㥽ኈࡢᆅ୰ᾏ⯆ஸྐ࠘ࠊⓑỈ♫ࠊ
1996 ᖺࠊ
201 㡫ࠋすᕝὒ୍
ࠕึᮇࢩࣗࢱ࢘ࣇ࢙ࣥᮅࠖࠊ
ࠗࢻ࢖ࢶྐ࠘ᡤ཰ࠊᒣᕝฟ∧♫ࠊ1997 ᖺ㸦㸻ࠕึᮇࠖ㸧ࠊ
243 㡫ࠋ
The Papacy and the Crusades, Proceedings of the
VIIe Conference of the Society for the Study of the
Crusades and the Latin East, ed. by M. Balard,
Ashgate, 2011, p.94.
㻟㻌
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− 81 −
ࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄࡣࡍࡄ࡟༙ᓥ࡟Ώࡗ࡚༡࢖ࢱࣜ࢔
࡟ࢺࢫ࣮࢝ࢼࠊࢫ࣏࣮ࣞࢺබ㡿ࠊ࢔ࣥࢥ࣮ࢼ㎶
ࢆไᅽࡋࠊ9 ᭶࡟ࡣ࢝ࣥࣃ࣮ࢽࣕ࡟౵ධࡋࠊ୰
ቃ㡿ࠊ࣮࣐ࣟ࿘㎶ࡢ࣏ࢹࢫࢱࡸࢥࣥࢯࣜࡀྊ㞟
㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡬ࡢ౵ᨷࢆ㛤ጞࡋࡓࠋࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄࡢ
ࡉࢀࠊ࣮࣐ࣟᩍ఍ࡢᶒ฼ࡀ☜ㄆࡉࢀ࡚ࠊᩍⓚࡣ
ᘵࣇ࢕ࣜࢵࣉࡣ඗ࡢ࿨௧࡛ࢺࢫ࣮࢝ࢼୡく㡿࡟
㞟ࡲࡗࡓ಑ே࠿ࡽ᭹ᚑㄋ⣙ࢆཷࡅࡓࠋࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚
ໃຊࢆఙࡤࡋࡓࠋࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄࡢ㓄ୗ࡛࠶ࡿࢥࣥ
࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫࡣ୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࢆᩍⓚᶒࡢ
࣮ࣛࢺ࣭ࣇ࢛࣭ࣥ࢘ࣝࢫࣜࣥࢤࣥࡣࢫ࣏࣮ࣞࢺ
ࡶ࡜࡟⨨࠸ࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
බ㡿ࢆࠊ࣐ࣝࢡࣦ࢓ࣝࢺ࣭ࣇ࢛࣭ࣥ࢔ࣦࣥ࢓࢖
ࢩࢳࣜ࢔ᓥࡶࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄ 6 ୡࡸࡑ࣐ࣝࢡࣦ࢓
࣮ࣛࡣ࣐࣮ࣟࢽࣕࠊࣦ࢙ࣛࣥࢼබ㡿ࠊ࢔ࣥࢥ࣮
ࣝࢺ࣭ࣇ࢛࣭ࣥ࢔ࣦࣥ࢓࢖࣮ࣛࡢṚᚋࠊ࡯ࡰぶ
ࢼ㎶ቃ㡿ࠊ࢔ࣈࣝࢵࢶ࢕఑㡿ࢆ୚࠼ࡽࢀࠊࡉࡽ
ᩍⓚὴ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ᨭ㓄ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤
࡟⪷࣌ࢺࣟୡく㡿ࡣࠊ໭㒊ࡣࣇ࢕ࣜࢵࣉࠊ༡㒊
ᅜࡣ࣮࣐ࣟᩍ఍ࡢᑒᅵ࡛࠶ࡾࠊᅜ⋤ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜ
ࡣ࣮࣐ࣟேࡸࣇࣛࣥࢪࣃ࣮ࢽࡽぶⓚᖇὴࡢ㇦᪘
ࣄ 2 ୡࡣ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫࡢᚋぢࢆཷࡅ࡚࠸
࡟ᢲࡉ࠼ࡽࢀࡓࠋ࠸ࡲࡸࠊᩍⓚᶒࡣᨻ἞ⓗ⊂
ࡓࠋ
❧ࢆ႙ኻࡍࡿ࠿࡟ᛮࢃࢀࡓࠋ
ࡲࡓ 2 ேࡢⓚᖇೃ⿵⪅ࡣࠊ࠸ࡎࢀ࡟ࡶỴᐃⓗ
ࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡇࡢ࡜ࡁ 1197 ᖺ 9 ᭶ 28 ᪥ࠊࣁ࢖ࣥ
࡞Ỵࡵᡭࡀ࡞ࡃࠊ཮᪉ࡀᩍⓚ࡟ᢎㄆ࡜ᨭᣢࢆồ
ࣜࣄࡀ 32 ᡯࡢⱝࡉ࡛ᛴṚࡋࡓࡇ࡜࡟ࡼࡾࠊ≧
ࡵࡓࡓࡵࠊᩍⓚࡣ㡿ᅵ࡟㛵ࡋ࡚ࡶࡉࡲࡊࡲ࡞
ἣࡣ୍ኚࡋࡓࠋࡉࡽ࡟ᩍⓚࢣࣞࢫࢸ࢕ࢾࢫ 3 ୡ
ㆡṌࢆཷࡅࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋ࢜ࢵࢺ࣮ࡣ 1201 ᖺ
ࡀ⩣ᖺ 1 ᭶࡟Ṛཤࡋࠊⱝࡃ⢭ຊⓗ࡞࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥ
࡟ࣀ࢖ࢫࡢㄋ⣙࡛ࠕࣛࢹ࢕ࢥࣇ࢓࣮ࢽ࠿ࡽࢳ࢙
ࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 3 ୡࡀⓏ఩ࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࡶᩍⓚᶒ࡟࡜ࡗ࡚
ࣉ࣮ࣛࣀࡲ࡛ࠊࣦ࢙ࣛࣥࢼ⥲╩㡿ࠊ࣌ࣥࢱ࣏ࣜ
ࡣᖾ࠸࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡲࡓ⋤ድࢥࢫࢱࣥࢶ࢓ࡶஸࡃ
ࢫࠊ㎶ቃ㡿ࠊࢫ࣏࣮ࣞࢺබ㡿ࠊ࣐ࢳࣝࢲࡢ㑇㡿ࠊ
࡞ࡾࠊᗂඣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣ᪂ᩍⓚࡢᚋぢࡢࡶ࡜
࣋ࣝࢸ࢕ࣀ࣮ࣟ఑㡿ࠖࠊࣝ࢖ᩗ⹥ᖇࡢ≉チ≧࡟
࡟⨨࠿ࢀࡓࠋ
♧ࡉࢀࡓᆅ᪉ࢆᩍⓚᗇ࡟ᢎㄆࡋࡓࠋࡇࢀࡣ
ⓚᖇᶒࢆࡵࡄࡗ࡚ࡣࠊࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ᚋ
1209 ᖺ࡟࢜ࢵࢺ࣮࡟ࡼࡗ࡚෌☜ㄆࡉࢀࠊ1213
⥅⪅࡜ࡉࢀࡓࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡀࡲࡔᗂ࠿ࡗࡓࡓࡵࠊ
ᖺ࡟ࡣ࢚࣮࣮࡛࢞ࠊ1219 ᖺ࡟ࡣࣁ࣮ࢤࢼ࡛࢘ࣇ
࢜ࢵࢺ࣮࣭ࣇ࢛࣭ࣥࣈࣛ࢘ࣥࢩࣦࣗ࢓࢖ࢡ࡜ࣁ
࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ᢎㄆࡉࢀࡓࠋ
࢖ࣥࣜࣄࡢᘵࣇ࢕ࣜࢵࣉ࣭ࣇ࢛࣭ࣥࢩࣦࣗ࢓࣮
☜࠿࡟ࠊࡇࢀ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ᩍⓚ࡟ࡼࡿᨭ㓄ࡀ୰㒊
࣋ࣥࡀᖇ఩⥅ᢎ࡟ྡ஌ࡾࢆୖࡆࡓࠋ
࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡛☜❧ࡋࡓࢃࡅ࡛ࡣ࡞ࡃࠊࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡞
ࡇࡢᑐ❧ࡣࠊࢻ࢖ࢶ࡜ࢩࢳࣜ࢔ࡢ୧᪉ࢆᡭ୰
≉チ≧ࡔࡅ࡛Ᏻᚰ࡛ࡁࡿࢃࡅ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋᐇ㝿ࠊ
࡟཰ࡵࡓⓚᖇࡢ㌷ໃ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࢆ౵
࢜ࢵࢺ࣮ࡣⓚᖇ࡜ࡋ࡚ᢎㄆࡉࢀࡓᚋࠊᩍⓚ㡿ࠊ
␎ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡓᩍⓚᶒ࡟࡜ࡗ࡚൒ೀ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ୰
ࡉࡽ࡟ࡣࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜ࡟౵ධࡋࡓࠋᚑࡗ࡚ࠊᩍ
㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡛ࡣ཯ࢻ࢖ࢶேࡢ⻏㉳ࡀ㉳ࡇࡗࡓࠋ
ⓚᗇࡢㄢ㢟ࡣࠊᩍ఍ࡢᶒ฼ࢆᏲࡾࠊࡲࡓ༑Ꮠ㌷
ࣇ࢕ࣜࢵࣉࡣࢩࣦࣗ࢓࣮࣋ࣥ࡟ᡠࡾࠊࢥ࣮ࣥࣛ
ࢆ⋡࠸ࡿᙉຊ࡞ⓚᖇࢆ☜ಖࡍࡿࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡾࠊࡑ
ࢺ࣭ࣇ࢛࣭ࣥ࢘ࣝࢫࣜࣥࢤࣥࡶᩍⓚ࡟㝆అࡋ࡚
ࢻ࢖ࢶ࡟ᖐ㑏ࠊࢫ࣏࣮ࣞࢺබ㡿ࢆᩍⓚ࡟ጤࡡࡓࠋ
*19 Gesta Innocentii III, in: Patrologia Latina, 214,
col.162. ⱥヂࡣ The Deeds of Pope Innocent III, tr.
by J.M. Powell, The Catholic University of America Press, 2004), pp. 233-234. Partner, op. cit., pp.
229-234; Waley, op. cit., pp. 30-56.
*20 Partner, op. cit., p. 232.
*21 ᖇ఩⥅ᢎத࠸࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡢ㑥ㄒᩥ⊩࡜ࡋ࡚ࡣࠊᱵὠ
ᑦᚿࠕᩍⓚᶒ࣭ⓚᖇᶒ࣭ᩍⓚ㡿̿࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘
ࢫ 3 ୡ࡟࠾ࡅࡿ࣮̿ࠖࠗࣚࣟࢵࣃ ࢟ࣜࢫࢺᩍྐ 3
୰ୡᚋᮇ࠘ࠊ୰ኸฟ∧♫ࠊ1971 ᖺࠋ
*22 Waley, op. cit., p.43; Partner, op. cit., p. 235.
࣐ࣝࢡࣦ࢓ࣝࢺࡶ༡࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡟㏨ࢀࡿࡇ࡜࡜࡞
ࡗࡓࠋࡇ࠺ࡋ࡚୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࡣ෌ࡧᩍⓚ࡟ᚑ࠸ࠊ
1207 ᖺ 9 ᭶࡟ࡣࣦ࢕ࢸ࡛ࣝ࣎ࠕᩍⓚ㡿఍㆟ࠖ
ࡀ㛤ദࡉࢀࠊྖᩍࠊಟ㐨㝔㛗ࠊ఑ࠊ㇦᪘ࠊࡉࡽ
*18 Waley, op. cit., pp. 27-28; J.C. Moore, Pope Innocent III, To Root Up and to Plant , Brill, 2003, p.
13.
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ࡢⓚᖇ࡟ᖇᅜ࡜ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࢆ⤫୍ࡉࡏ࡞࠸ࡇ
ࡅ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋࡑࢀࡽ࡟㛵ࡋ࡚ࡍ࡛࡟ࡉࡲࡊࡲ࡞
࡜࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
ᙧ࡛ᑐ❧ࡀ㉳ࡇࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ࡛ࡣࠊ୧⪅ࡢᑐ❧ࡣ
⤖ᒁࠊ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫࡀⓚᖇ࡜ࡋ࡚ᨭᣢ
࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡞ලయⓗၥ㢟࡜ࡋ࡚⌧ࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࡢ࡛࠶
ࡋࡓࡢࡣࠊᙼࡢᚋぢୗ࡛ᡂ㛗ࡋࡓࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ࡢ
ࢁ࠺࠿ࠋ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫࡣ
ៅ㔜࡟஦ࢆ㐠ࢇࡔࠋࡲࡎࠊ1212 ᖺ࡟ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜ
㸲㸬୰༡㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡟࠾ࡅࡿᑐ❧
ࣄࡢᜥᏊ࡛ࡲࡔࢃࡎ࠿ 1 ᡯࡢࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄࢆࢩࢳ
ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࡣᩍⓚ࠿ࡽࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡟୚࠼
ࣜ࢔⋤࡜ࡋ࡚ᡝෙࡉࡏࡓࠋ1216 ᖺ࡟ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻ
ࡽࢀࡓᑒᅵ࡜ぢ࡞ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡇࡢࡇ࡜ࡣ 1220
ࣜࣄࡀⓚᖇ࡟ᡝෙࡉࢀࠊࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࡀᜥᏊ࡟
ᖺ 9 ᭶࡟ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ⮬㌟ࡀᩍⓚ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ᢎㄆ
ㆡࡽࢀࡿ࡜ࠊᩍⓚ௨እࡢୖ⣭㡿୺ࢆㄆࡵ࡞࠸ࠊ
ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋඛ࡟ࡶ㏙࡭ࡓࡼ࠺࡟ࠊࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤
࡜⣙᮰ࡉࡏࡓࠋࡑࡢ┤ᚋ࡟࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘
ᶒ࡜ᖇᶒࢆ⤖ࡧࡘࡅࡎࠊᩍⓚ࡟ᛅᐇ࡞ᨭ㓄⪅ࢆ
ࢫࡣୡࢆཤࡿࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࡀࠊ࿘▱ࡢ㏻ࡾࡑࡢᚋࠊ
☜ಖࡍࡿࠊ࠶ࡿ࠸ࡣᩍⓚࡀ༡࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࢆᢲࡉ࠼
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣᩍⓚᶒࡀᮃࡴࡼ࠺࡞ⓚᖇ࡟ࡣ࡞
ࡿࡇ࡜ࡣࠊᩍⓚ㡿ࡢᏳ඲ಖ㞀࡟୙ྍḞ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
ࡽ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋࡴࡋࢁࠊ୰ୡᩍⓚᶒ࡟࡜ࡗ࡚᭱኱
࠾ࡑࡽࡃࠊ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 3 ୡࡢᚋぢୗ࡛
ࡢ⬣ጾ࡟ᡂ㛗ࡍࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡿࠋ
ᡂ㛗ࡋࡓࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣᙜึࠊᩍⓚ࡟ᛅᐇ࡞ྩ
࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 3 ୡࡢ㊧ࢆ⥅࠸ࡔࡢࡣ࣍
୺࡜ぢࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋ࡜ࡇࢁࡀࠊᙼ
ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫ 3 ୡ࡛࠶ࡿࡀࠊࡇࡢᩍⓚࡣ୍⯡࡟✜࿴
ࡣⓚᖇᶒ࡜ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᶒࡢศ㞳࡟ࡘ࠸࡚᭕᫕࡞
࡞ᩍⓚ࡜ゝࢃࢀࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚༑Ꮠ㌷
ែᗘ࡟⤊ጞࡋࠊ༑Ꮠ㌷࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡣඛ㏙ࡢ㏻ࡾ෌
⾜ࡁࢆඃඛࡋ࡚ᖇᅜ࡜ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࡢศ㞳࡟ࡘ
୕ࡢᐉㄋ࡟ࡶ࠿࠿ࢃࡽࡎࠊ㐜ᘏࢆ㔜ࡡࡓࠋࡲࡓࠊ
࠸࡚ࡣᙉࡃồࡵ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜ
ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࡢ⤫἞࡟࠾࠸࡚ࡶᩍⓚࡢព࡟ἢࢃ
ࣄࡣࠊᡝෙ࡟㝿ࡋ࡚ࡶ༑Ꮠ㌷ࡢᐉㄋࢆࡃࡾ㏉ࡋ
࡞࠸ࡇ࡜ࡀࡋࡤࡋࡤ࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡑࢀࡣ 1228 ᖺ 3
࡞ࡀࡽࠊ㔜࠸⭜ࢆୖࡆ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ࣍ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫ 3
᭶ࡢᅄ᪪⠇ᩍ఍఍㆟࡛ࡢࠊᩍⓚࡢࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ
ୡࡀஸࡃ࡞ࡾࠊࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ 9 ୡࡀ㊧ࢆ⥅࠸ࡔ
࡟ᑐࡍࡿ㠀㞴࡟ࡶ⌧ࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ
ࡢࡣࡑࡢ㡭ࠊ1227 ᖺ 3 ᭶ࡢࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
ࡑࡇ࡟ࡣ༑Ꮠ㌷㛵㐃ࡢၥ㢟࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊࢩࢳࣜ
ᩍⓚࡣⓚᖇ࡟༑Ꮠ㌷ࢆ㉳ࡇࡍࡇ࡜࡜ᖇᶒ࡜ࢩ
࢔⋤ᅜ࡟࠾ࡅࡿ⪷⫋⪅ࡸ㥽ኈᅋࠊୡ಑㈗᪘ࡢ୙
ࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᶒࡢศ㞳ࢆồࡵ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ࣍ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫࡣ
ᙜ࡞ᢅ࠸ࡀ㠀㞴ࡉࢀ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ࡛ࡣࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ
༑Ꮠ㌷ࢆඃඛࡋࡓࡀࠊᖇᶒ࡜⋤ᶒࡢศ㞳ࠊࢩࢳ
ࡀ㠀㞴ࡋࡓࡢࡣࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡞⾜
ࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࡢἲⓗᆅ఩ࡶᩍⓚ㡿ࡢᏳ඲ಖ㞀ୖࠊ㍍
Ⅽ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡢ࠿ࠋ
ど࡛ࡁ࡞࠸ၥ㢟࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣ๓௵
ࡲࡎࢱࣛࣥࢺ኱ྖᩍࡀྖᩍᗙ࡟㉱ࡃࡇ࡜ࢆチ
⪅ࡼࡾࡶࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜၥ㢟ࢆ㔜どࡋࡓࠋᐇ㝿ࠊ
ࡉࢀ࡞࠿ࡗࡓ௳࡛࠶ࡿࠋࢱࣛࣥࢺ኱ྖᩍࡣࠊᩍ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ◚㛛ࡢ⌮⏤ࡣࠊ᭱ึࡢᐉ࿌࡛ࡣ༑
఍㈈⏘ࡢᾉ㈝࡜ᝏࡋࡁ⾜≧ࡢࡓࡵ࡟⫋ົ೵Ṇฎ
Ꮠ㌷㐜ᘏ࡜࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊࡑࡢᚋࡢᩍⓚ᭩⡆ࢆ
ศࢆཷࡅࠊ࣮࣐ࣟ࡟ᩆ῭ࢆồࡵ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡑࢀ
ㄞࡴ࡞ࡽࡴࡋࢁࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࡢၥ㢟࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
ࡀ┿ᐇ࡞ࡽᙼࡀ⨩ࡏࡽࢀࡿࡢࡶᙜ↛࡛࠶ࡿࡀࠊ
ࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡓࡔⓚᖇᶒ࡜ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᶒࡀศ㞳ࡉ
ᮏ᮶ᩍ఍ࡢ⿢἞ᶒ࡟ᒓࡍࡿ⪷⫋⪅ࡢၥ㢟࡛ࠊࣇ
ࢀࢀࡤࡼ࠸ࡢ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋᩍⓚࡢᑒᅵ࡛࠶ࡿࢩࢳ
࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ⮬㌟ࠊⓚᖇᡝෙ࡟㝿ࡋ࡚Ⓨࡋࡓࠕ⪷
ࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࠊ࠶ࡿ࠸ࡣ୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡟࠾ࡅࡿᶒ฼
࣌ࢺࣟᩍ఍࡟࠾ࡅࡿᐃࡵ࡛ࠖᩍ఍ேࡀୡ಑ࡢ⿢
࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ᩍⓚ࡜ⓚᖇ㸻⋤ࡢ㛫࡟ྜពࡀ࠶ࡗࡓࢃ
*23 すᕝࠊ๓ᥖࠕึᮇࠖࠊ255 㡫ࠋ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ
๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ73 㡫ࠋ
*24 M.G.H., Leges, 2, pp. 228-229; Moore, op. cit., p.
235; Abulafia, op. cit., p. 125.
*25 すᕝࠊ๓ᥖࠕᚋᮇࠖࠊ264 㡫ࠋ
*26 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 288-289, no. 371.
*27 Abulafia, op. cit., p. 139.
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ᅄ᪪⠇ᩍ఍఍㆟࡛ࡢ㠀㞴࡟ࡣゝཬࡉࢀ࡚࠸࡞
἞ᶒࢆචࢀࡿࡇ࡜ࢆㄆࡵ࡚࠸ࡿࡢ࡛࠶ࡿ࠿ࡽࠊ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ㉺ᶒ⾜Ⅽ࡜㠀㞴ࡉࢀ࡚ࡶ௙᪉࠶
࠸ࡀࠊ⋤ᅜࡢྖᩍᣦྡࡢၥ㢟ࡶᑐ❧ࡢཎᅉ࡛࠶
ࡿࡲ࠸ࠋࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣ⪷⫋⪅࡟ᑐࡍࡿᩍ఍ࡢ
ࡗࡓࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢᚋぢே࡜࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓ࢖
⿢἞ᶒࢆ☜ㄆࡋࡼ࠺࡜ࡋࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 3 ୡࡣࠊ⋤ࡸ⪷ᇽཧ஦఍ࢆ↓
どࡋ࡚ 15 ேࢆ༡࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࡢྖᩍ࡜ࡋࠊࣇ࣮ࣜ
࣮ࣔࣜࢮ఑ࢺ࣐࣮ࢰ࡬ࡢᑐᛂࡶ㠀㞴ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡀࢺ࣐࣮ࢰ࡜ࡢྜពࢆᏲࡽ࡞࠿ࡗ
ࢻࣜࣄࡀ 1211 ᖺ࡟࣏ࣜ࢝ࢫࢺࣟྖᩍ࡟ౝ་ࢪ
ࡓ࡜࠸࠺ࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
ࣕࢥࣔࢆᣦྡࡍࡿ࡜ࠊࡇࢀࢆ↓ຠ࡜ࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࡶ
ࢺ࣐࣮ࢰࡣ༡࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࡢ᭷ຊ㈗᪘࡛࠶ࡾࠊࡑ
࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡑࡋ࡚ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣ 1213 ᖺࡢ࢚࣮
ࡢ∗ぶࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡜ᑐ❧ࡋࡓ࢜ࢵࢺ࣮4 ୡ
࣮࢞ࡢㄋ࠸࡛ྖᩍࡢᩍ఍ἲ࡟๎ࡗࡓ⮬⏤㑅ᣲࢆ
ࢆᨭᣢࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࢺ࣐࣮ࢰࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢⓚ
ᢎㄆࡋࠊࡑࢀࢆ 1219 ᖺ࡟ࣁ࣮ࢤࢼ࡛࢘ࡶ☜ㄆ
ᖇᡝෙᘧ࡟ᛅㄔㄋ⣙ࡢࡓࡵࠊᜥᏊࢆὴ㐵ࡋࡓࡀࠊ
ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣࠊᩍⓚࡢᇳࡾᡂࡋ࡟ࡶ࠿࠿ࢃࡽ
ࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫࡢṚᚋࠊࣇ࣮ࣜ
ࡎࠊࡇࢀࢆᣄྰࡋࡓࠋࡑࡢᚋࠊࢺ࣐࣮ࢰࡀ཯᪝
ࢻࣜࣄࡣ⮬ࡽྖᩍࢆᣦྡࡋጞࡵࡓࠋ࣍ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫ
ࢆ⩻ࡍ࡜ࠊ1222 ᖺ࡟ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣࢺ࣐࣮ࢰࡢ
3 ୡࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡟ྖᩍᣦྡ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ᢠ㆟ࡋࠊ
ᡤ㡿ࢆᨷᧁࠊࡇࢀࢆᧁࡕ◚ࡗࡓࠋ୧⪅ࡢ༠⣙࡛
1221 ᖺ 8 ᭶ࠊ1223 ᖺ 6 ᭶࡟ࡣ༡࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࡢྖ
ࡣࠊࢺ࣐࣮ࢰࡢጔ࡟࣮ࣔࣜࢮ఑㡿ࡢ⥅ᢎᶒࡀㄆ
ᩍࡢᣦྡࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢᶒ㝈࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠊ࡜ゝ
ࡵࡽࢀࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡗࡓࡀࠊࢺ࣐࣮ࢰࡀྊႏ࡟ᛂ
᫂ࡋࡓࠋࡲࡓ 1226 ᖺ 5 ᭶࡟ࡣࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ
ࡌ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡓࡵࠊ1224 ᖺ࡟ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣ఑㡿
ࡀ⋤ᅜࡢᩍ఍࡟ᑐࡍࡿ࣮࣐ࣟᩍ఍ࡢᶒ฼ࢆྰᐃ
ࢆἐ཰ࡋࠊ୰ᚰ㒔ᕷࢳ࢙࣮ࣛࣀࢆ◚ቯࡋࡓࠋ
ࡋࡓࡇ࡜࡟ᢠ㆟ࡋࡓࠋ
ࢺ࣐࣮ࢰࡣ 1220 ᖺ௦ᮎࡢᩍⓚ࡜ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤࡛࠶ࡿࡀࠊᩍⓚࡣ
࡜ࡢ㜚த࡟࠾࠸࡚ࠊᩍⓚ㌷࡟ཧຍࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋ
ࡑࡢᑒ୺࡛࠶ࡿࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡜ࡋ࡚ࡣ⋤ᅜࢆ
༑Ꮠ㌷ኈࣝࢵࢪ࢙࣮ࣟ࡬ࡢᑐᛂࡶ㠀㞴ࡉࢀ࡚
⮬ศࡢ㡿ᅜ࡜ࡋ࡚ࠊ୰ኸ㞟ᶒⓗ࡞ᨭ㓄ࢆ┠ᣦࡋ
࠸ࡿࠋ࢔ࢡ࢖ࣛ఑ࣝࢵࢪ࢙࣮ࣟࡶ༡࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࡢ
࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊᩍⓚࡣᑒ୺࡜ࡋ୍࡚ᐃࡢᙳ㡪
཯ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄὴ࡛ࠊᡝෙᘧ┤ᚋ࡟ࢫ࢚ࢵࢧࠊ
ຊࢆ☜ಖࡍࡿ࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊ㟋ⓗᶒጾ࡜ࡋ࡚ࡑࡢྖ
ࢳ࢔࣮ࣀࠊࣔࣥࢻࣛࢦ࣮ࢿࡢᇛሰࡢ᫂ࡅΏࡋࢆ
ᩍ➼ࡢླྀ௵ᶒࡢ␃ಖࢆồࡵ࡚࠸ࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡍ
࿨ࡌࡽࢀ࡚࠸ࡓࠋᙼࡣ༑Ꮠ㌷ࢆㄋࡗ࡚࠸ࡓ࡟ࡶ
࡞ࢃࡕࠊࡇࡢᑐ❧ࡢ୍ࡘࡢཎᅉࡣࠊࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤
࠿࠿ࢃࡽࡎࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡟ࡼࡗ࡚㈈⏘ࢆἐ཰
ᅜࡢᩍ఍࡟࠾ࡅࡿᆅ఩࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
ࡉࢀࠊᩍⓚࡢᇳࡾᡂࡋ࡛ᨺචࡉࢀࡓࡀࠊᅜእ㏣
୧⪅ࡢ㛫࡟ࡣ୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࢆࡵࡄࡿ㡿ᅵၥ㢟
ᨺࢆᐉ࿌ࡉࢀ࡚ࠊ࣮࣐ࣟ࡟㞴ࢆ㏨ࢀࡿࡇ࡜࡟࡞
ࡶᏑᅾࡋࡓࠋᩍⓚᶒ࡟࡜ࡗ࡚ࡣᩍⓚ㡿☜ಖࡢࡓ
ࡿࠋᙼࡶ 1220 ᖺ௦ᮎ࡟ᩍⓚ㌷࡟ཧຍࡋ࡚ࣇࣜ
ࡵ࡟୙ྍḞ࡛࠶ࡾࠊ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ᫬௦࡟
࣮ࢻࣜࣄ࡜ᡓࡗࡓࠋࡍ࡞ࢃࡕࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ
࢚࣮࣮࢞ࡢ㔠༳ສ᭩࡛ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࠿ࡽࡑࢀࡽ
ࡀ⮬ศ࡟཯ᢠⓗ࡛ᩍⓚࢆᨭᣢࡍࡿ㈗᪘ࢆᅽ㏕ࡋ
ࡢᆅᇦ࡟ᑐࡍࡿᩍⓚࡢᶒ฼ࡢᢎㄆࢆྲྀࡾ௜ࡅ࡚
ࡓࡇ࡜ࡀࠊ୧⪅ࡢᑐ❧ࡢཎᅉࡢࡦ࡜ࡘ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
࠸ࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ࡜ࡾࢃࡅ࢔ࣥࢥ࣮ࢼ㎶ቃ㡿࡜
ࢫ࣏࣮ࣞࢺබ㡿ࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡟࡜ࡗ࡚ࠊ໭࢖
ࢱࣜ࢔ㅖ㒔ᕷ࡟ᑐᢠࡍࡿࡓࡵ࡟㔜せ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
*28 ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ138-139 㡫ࠋLoud, op.
cit., p. 95.
*29 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 216-222, no. 296.
*30 R. Rist, The Papacy and Crusading in Europe,
1198-1245, Continuum, 2009, p. 183.
*31 ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ136-139 㡫ࠋLoud, op.
cit., p. 94.
*32 Rist, op. cit., p. 183.
*33 Loud, op. cit., pp. 95-96.
*34 M.G.H., Constitutiones, 2, pp. 57-59.
*35 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 124-26, no. 178; pp. 160162, no. 232.
*36 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 216-22, no. 296.
*37 M.G.H., Constitutiones, 2, pp. 57-59. すᕝࠊ๓
ᥖࠕึᮇࠖࠊ255 㡫ࠋ
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ࡇࡢᆅᇦࡣ୧⪅ࡢᑐ❧ࡢᆅ࡛࠶ࡾࠊ1223 ᖺ࡟
ࡓࠋࣆ࢔ࢳ࢙ࣥࢶ࢓ࡢᖺ௦グస⪅ࢪࣦࣙ࢓ࣥ
ࡣ࣍ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫࡀࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡟ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ
ࢽ࣭ࢥࢲࢽ࢙ࢵࣟࡣࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡬ࡢᨷᧁࡣ
ᐙ⮧࡛࠶ࡿ࣋ࣝࢺࣝࢻࡽࡀ㎶ቃ㡿࡜බ㡿࡟౵ධ
࣮࣐ࣟᩍ఍ࡢ㡿ᆅ࡜ᶒ฼ࡀ౵ࡉࢀࡓࡓࡵ࡛࠶ࡿ
ࡋࡓࡇ࡜࡟ᢠ㆟ࡋࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡀ᧔㏥ࢆ࿨ࡌ
࡜᭩࠸࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡶࡗ࡜ࡶ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࡣ
ࡿ࡜࠸࠺஦௳ࡀ࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
ࣛ࢖ࢼࣝࢻࡀ౵ᨷࡋࡓࡢࡣࠊᩍⓚࡀࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤
1226 ᖺ࡟ࡣ໭࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ㅖ㒔ᕷ࡟ᑐᢠࡍࡿࡓ
ᅜࡢ⮧Ẹࡢ⋤࡟ᑐࡍࡿᛅㄔࢆゎ㝖ࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࢆᐉ
ࡵࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣࢫ࣏࣮ࣞࢺබ㡿ࡢ㒔ᕷ࡟ື
ᡓᕸ࿌࡜⌮ゎࡋࡓࡓࡵ࡜୺ᙇࡍࡿࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ
ဨࢆ࿨ࡌࡓࠋ⩣ᖺࠊᩍⓚࡣ࣋ࣝࢺࣝࢻࡀ୰㒊
ࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡀᛅㄔゎ㝖ࢆⓎࡋࡓࡢࡣ 8 ᭶ 30
࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡛⾜ࡗࡓ᥆ዣࢆ㠀㞴ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࠋࡲࡓࠊ
᪥࡛࠶ࡾࠊᖺ௦グస⪅ࢪ࢙࣐࣮ࣝࣀࡢࣜࢵ࢝
ᙜ᫬ࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢᐑ୰࡛᭱ࡶ᭷ຊ࡛࠶ࡗࡓ
ࣝࢻࡣ 8 ᭶࡟ࣛ࢖ࢼࣝࢻࡀ౵ᨷࡋࡓ࡜ఏ࠼࡚࠸
ࣛ࢖ࢼࣝࢻࡣࠊᩍⓚࡢᢎㄆࡀ࡞࠸࡟ࡶ࠿࠿ࢃࡽ
ࡿࡢ࡛ࠊᛅㄔゎ㝖ࡣ౵ᨷࡢᚋ࡜࡞ࢁ࠺ࠋ
ࡎࠊࢫ࣏࣮ࣞࢺබ࡜⛠ࡋ⥆ࡅࡓࠋࡇࡢࣛ࢖ࢼࣝ
ࣛ࢖ࢼࣝࢻࡣ 8 ᭶࡟ࢫ࣏࣮ࣞࢺබ㡿࡟ࠊ10
ࢻࢆࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣᙼࡀ༑Ꮠ㌷࡟⾜ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿ㛫
᭶࡟ࡣ㎶ቃ㡿࡟㐍㌷ࡋࡓࠋࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣࠊࡍ
ࡢ୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡟࠾ࡅࡿⓚᖇ௦⌮࡜ࡋࡓࠋ
ࡄ࡟᧔㏥ࡋ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ◚㛛ࡍࡿ࡜ᐉゝࠊ11 ᭶ 30
ࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ࡶᩍⓚ࡜ࣇ
᪥࡟◚㛛ࢆᐉ࿌ࡋࡓࠋ
࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣᑐ❧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣ࢚
ᩍⓚࡣ㈈ᨻⓗᨭ᥼ࢆࢫ࢙࣮࢘ࢹࣥࡸࣇࣛࣥࢫࠊ
࣮࣮࢞ࡢ㔠༳ສ᭩࡞࡝࡛୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡟࠾ࡅࡿ
ࢹ࣐࣮ࣥࢡࠊ࢖ࣥࢢࣛࣥࢻࠊࡑࡋ࡚໭࢖ࢱࣜ࢔
ᩍⓚࡢᶒ฼ࢆᢎㄆࡋ࡚࠸ࡓ࡟ࡶ࠿࠿ࢃࡽࡎࠊࡇ
ㅖ㒔ᕷ࡟ồࡵࡓࠋࡑࢀࡽࡢ㌷㈨㔠࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ധර
ࡢᆅᇦ࡟ᑐࡍࡿᙳ㡪ຊࢆ☜ಖࡋࡼ࠺࡜ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓ
ࢆ㞟ࡵࠊ࠿ࡘ࡚ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ⩏∗࡛࠶ࡗࡓࢪ
ࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
࣭ࣕࣥࢻ࣭ࣈ࢚ࣜࣥࢾ࡜ᯡᶵཀࣚࣁࢿࢫ࣭ࢥࣟ
୧⪅ࡣࡉࡲࡊࡲ࡞Ⅼ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ᑐ❧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ
ࣥࢼࡀࡑࢀࢆ⋡࠸࡚㏄ᧁࡋࠊࣛ࢖ࢼࣝࢻࢆ⋤ᅜ
ᩍⓚࡣࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᶒ࡜ᖇᶒࡢศ㞳࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊ⋤
࡬࡜᧔㏥ࡉࡏࡿࡇ࡜࡟ᡂຌࡋࡓࠋᩍⓚ㌷ࡣ༡
ᅜ࡛ࡢᩍᶒࡢ☜ಖࠊࡑࢀ࡟ᩍⓚ㡿ࡢᏳ඲ಖ㞀ࢆ
࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡟౵ධࡋࠊ1229 ᖺึ㢌࡟ࡣࢩࢳࣜ࢔ᓥ
┠ᣦࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࠋⓚᖇࡣᖇᅜ࡜ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࡢྜ
࡟ࡶᨷࡵ㎸ࢇࡔࠋᩍⓚࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄṚཤࡢშ
య࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊ⋤ᅜ࡟࠾ࡅࡿ୰ኸ㞟ᶒⓗయไࡢ☜
ࢆὶࡋ࡚ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄὴ࡟ືᦂࢆ୚࠼ࠊࡲࡓࢼ
❧ࠊ୰㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡛ࡢᙳ㡪ຊࡢ☜ಖࢆᮃࢇ࡛࠸
࣏ࣜࡸ࢚࣮࢞ࢱ࡞࡝ࡢ㒔ᕷ࡟≉ᶒࢆ୚࠼࡚ษࡾ
ࡓࠋࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡞ᑐ❧ࡀࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ୙ᅾ᫬࡟㌷
ᔂࡑ࠺࡜ࡋࡓࠋ
஦⾪✺࡟Ⓨᒎࡋࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
ࡋ࠿ࡋࠊᩍⓚഃࡢඃໃࡶࡇࡇࡲ࡛࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
㌷㈨㔠ࡣᗏࢆࡘࡁጞࡵࡓࠋࡑࡋ࡚ఱࡼࡾࡶࣇࣜ
㸳㸬୰༡㒊࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡛ࡢᡓ㜚
࣮ࢻࣜࣄࡢ࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ᖐ㑏ࡀᙧໃࢆ୍ኚࡉࡏࡓࡢ
࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࡸ࢔ࣈࣛࣇ࢕࢔ࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻ
ࣜࣄ୙ᅾ᫬ࡢᡓ㜚ࡢ㛤ጞࡢ㈐௵ࢆࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ
9 ୡ࡟ồࡵࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊඛไᨷᧁࢆ⾜ࡗࡓࡢࡣ
*43 Waley, op. cit., p. 135; Rist, op. cit., p. 183.
*44 M.G.H., Scriptores(㸻SS.), 18, p. 444.
*45 ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ203 㡫ࠋ
*46 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 730-732, no. 831.
*47 M.G.H., SS. , 19, p. 350.
*48 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 291-292, no. 375; Rolls Series, Matthaei Parisiensis Chronica Majora㸦㸻
Chronica Majora), 3, p. 186.
*49 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 293-294, no. 376.
*50 Waley, op. cit., p. 135; Loud, op. cit., p. 97.
*51 Rist, op. cit., p. 183; Abulafia, op. cit., p. 198.
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢ௦⌮࡛࠶ࡗࡓࣛ࢖ࢼࣝࢻ࡛࠶ࡗ
*38
*39
*40
*41
*42
Loud, op. cit., p. 97.
M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 114-116, no. 165.
M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 233-234, no. 306.
Loud, op. cit., p. 97.
࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ202 㡫ࠋAbulafia, op.
cit., p. 195.
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࡛࠶ࡿࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣ 6 ᭶ 10 ᪥࡟ࣈࣜࣥࢹ
㸴㸬1220 ᖺ௦࡟࠾ࡅࡿᩍⓚ㡿ࡢ㜵⾨
࢕ࢩ࡟ᖐ╔ࡋࡓࠋ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣ཯ᧁࢆ㛤ጞࠊ9 ᭶ᮎ࡟ࡣᩍⓚ
࡛ࡣࠊ1220 ᖺ௦ᮎ࡟࠾࠸࡚ᩍⓚ㡿ࡣ࡝ࡢࡼ࠺
㌷ࡣ࢝ࣥࣃ࣮ࢽࣕࡲ࡛㏥༷ࡋࠊᔂቯࡋࡓࠋࢢࣞ
࡟ᩛᑐໃຊ࡟ᑐᢠࡋࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺࠿ࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻ
ࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣࣜࣚࣥࠊࣃࣜࠊࡑࡋ࡚࣑ࣛࣀࡢ኱ྖ
ࣜࣄໃຊࡢᨷໃ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ࠊᩍⓚᶒࡣ࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡟
ᩍ࡟᥼ຓࢆồࡵࡿ᭩⡆ࢆ㏦ࡾࠊᡓኈ࡟ࡣࠕ⨥ࡢ
ࡋ࡚ᩍⓚ㡿ࢆᏲࢁ࠺࡜ࡋࡓࡢ࠿ࠋ
1207 ᖺࠊ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 3 ୡ἞ୗ࡛⾜
㉧ࡋࠖࢆ⣙᮰ࡋࡓࡀࠊࡍ࡛࡟ᡭ㐜ࢀ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࠿ࡽ஺΅ࡢࡓࡵࡢ౑⪅ࡀὴ㐵ࡉࢀࠊ
ࢃࢀࡓࣦ࢕ࢸ࡛ࣝ࣎ࡢᩍⓚ㡿఍㆟ࡣࠊᩍⓚ୺ᑟ
ࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣ 11 ᭶ 10 ᪥࡟ࡣ໭࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ㅖ㒔
࡛ἲ௧ࢆᐃࡵࡓࡀࠊࡑࢀࡽࡣᅜᐙෆ࡛ࡢ⛛ᗎᅇ
ᕷ࡟ㅮ࿴஺΅ࢆ㛤ጞࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࢆఏ࠼࡚࠸ࡿࠋ
᚟ࢆ┠ⓗ࡜ࡋࠊ㜵⾨యไࡢᵓ⠏࡟ࡣゝཬࡋ࡚࠸
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣࠊ㌷஦ⓗ࡟ࡣᩍⓚ㡿࡟ᨷࡵධࡿ
࡞࠸ࠋࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ 9 ୡࡀ㜵⾨ᡭẁ࡜ࡋ࡚⏝
ࡇ࡜ࡶྍ⬟࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊᩒ࠼࡚ࡑࢀࢆࡋ࡞࠿ࡗ
࠸ࡓࡇ࡜ࡣࠊᩍⓚࡢ㟋ⓗᶒጾ࡟≀ࢆゝࢃࡏࠊ㟋
ࡓࠋᨭ㓄ࡢ෌ᘓࡢࡓࡵ࡟ఱࡼࡾࡶ◚㛛ࡢゎ㝖ࡀ
ⓗฎ⨩ࢆ⏝࠸ࡿ࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊᩍⓚ㡿እ࠿ࡽ㌷㈨㔠
ᚲせ࡛࠶ࡾࠊࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡀᮃࢇࡔࡢࡣᩍⓚ࡜
࡜රኈࢆ㞟ࡵࡿࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
ࡢ㜚த࡟⤊Ṇ➢ࢆᡴࡕࠊ༡࢖ࢱࣜ࢔࡟࠾ࡅࡿᙼ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ 2 ୡࡢ◚㛛ࡣࠊ☜࠿࡟ᩍⓚࢢࣞ
ࡢᨭ㓄ᶒࢆᢎㄆࡉࡏࠊ࣍ࣀࣜ࢘ࢫ 3 ୡ᫬௦ࡢ≧
ࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ 7 ୡ࡟ࡼࡿⓚᖇࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄ 4 ୡࡢ◚㛛
ἣ࡟᚟ᖐࡉࡏࡿࡇ࡜࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
࡯࡝ࡢຠᯝࡣ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋࣁ࢖ࣥࣜࣄ 4 ୡࡢሙྜ
⩣ 1230 ᖺ 7 ᭶ࠊࢧ࣭ࣥࢪ࢙࣐࣮ࣝࣀࡢ࿴ࡀ
ࡣⱞቃ࡟❧ࡕࠊᩍⓚ࡟㉧ࡋࢆồࡵࡿࡋ࠿࡞࠿ࡗ
⤖ࡤࢀࡓࠋࡇࡢ᮲⣙ࡣࠊᡓ㜚࡟࠾࠸࡚ᅽಽⓗ
ࡓࡀࠊࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ 9 ୡ࡟ࡼࡿ◚㛛ࡣᙧໃࢆ኱
ඃ఩࡛࠶ࡗࡓࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡀࠊᩍⓚ࡟ㆡṌࡋࡓ
ࡁࡃኚ࠼ࡿࡼ࠺࡞ຠຊࢆᣢࡓ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ
࡜ゝࡗ࡚ࡶ㐣ゝ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣࠊᩍ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡀᡓ㜚࡟࠾࠸࡚ᅽಽⓗඃ఩࡟❧ࡕ
ⓚ㡿ࢆᑛ㔜ࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࢆㄋࡗࡓࠋࡲࡓࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤
࡞ࡀࡽࠊ⥾⤖ࡋࡓ᮲⣙࡛ࡣ኱ᖜ࡞ㆡṌࢆࡋ࡚ࡲ
ᅜ࡛ࡢᩍ఍ࡢ⮬⏤㑅ᣲࢆᢎㄆࡋࠊ⋤ࡢྠពᶒࢆ
࡛◚㛛ゎ㝖ࢆ຾ࡕྲྀࡗࡓ࡜ࡇࢁࢆぢࡿ࡜ࠊỴࡋ
ᨺᲠࡋࡓࠋ⋤ᅜࡢᩍ఍࡜⪷⫋⪅ࡣ⛯ࢆච㝖ࡉࢀࠊ
࡚ຠᯝࡀ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࢃࡅ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ
ୡ಑ࡢ⿢ุࢆཷࡅ࡞࠸ࡇ࡜ࡶㄆࡵࡽࢀࡓࠋ༡࢖
ࡣ࢟ࣜࢫࢺᩍᚐ࡜ࡋ࡚◚㛛≧ែ࡟␃ࡲࡿࡇ࡜ࢆ
ࢱࣜ࢔ࡢᩍⓚᨭᣢ⪅ࡣᐜ㉧ࡉࢀࡓࠋ
ࡼࡋ࡜ࡋ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺ࡋࠊ⚄⪷࣮࣐ࣟᖇ
ᅜ࡜ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜࡢᨭ㓄⪅࡜ࡋ࡚ࡶࠊ◚㛛ࡉࢀ
ࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟ࠊ
ㅮ࿴ࡣᡓ㜚ࡢ⤖ᯝ࠿ࡽ⪃࠼ࢀࡤࠊ
᫂ࡽ࠿࡟ᩍⓚ࡟᭷฼࡞ෆᐜ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ
ࡓࡲࡲ࡛࠸ࡿࢃࡅ࡟ࡣ࠸࠿࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋࡍ࡞ࢃ
ࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡣᡭ࡟ධࢀࡿ࡭ࡁࡶࡢࢆᡭ࡟ධࢀ
ࡕࠊ◚㛛ࡣຠᯝࡢ࡞࠸⬣ࡋ࡛ࡣ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ
ᩍⓚࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄࡢໃຊ࡜ࡢᡓ࠸࡟࠾࠸࡚ࠊ
ࡓࠋ◚㛛ࡢゎ㝖࡜ᖇᅜ࡜⋤ᅜࡢ⤖ྜࡢ஦ᐇୖ
ᩍⓚ㡿ෆ࡛㌷㝲ࢆ㞟ࡵࡿࡇ࡜ࡣ࡛ࡁ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ
ࡢᢎㄆ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
ᩍⓚࡣࠊ໭࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࡸ࣏ࣝࢺ࢞ࣝࠊ࠶ࡿ࠸ࡣࣇ
ࣛࣥࢫ࡟රኈࡢὴ㐵ࢆồࡵࡡࡤ࡞ࡽ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ
*52 Abulafia, op. cit., pp. 198-199.
*53 ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ233 㡫ࠋAbulafia, op.
cit., p. 194.
*54 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 322-324, nos. 403-405.
*55 M.G.H., E. S., 1, p. 327, no. 409. Loud, op. cit., p.
101.
*56 ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ235 㡫ࠋすᕝࠊ๓ᥖ
ࠕᚋᮇࠖࠊ266 㡫ࠋAbulafia, op. cit., p. 199.
*57 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 333-335, no. 415. Abulafia,
op. cit., pp. 200-201. ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ
236-237 㡫ࠋ
*58 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 338-340, nos. 419-420.
ᐇ㝿ࠊᩍⓚ㌷ࡣ໭࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ࡸࢫ࣌࢖ࣥ࡞࡝࠿ࡽ
᮶ࡓധර࠿ࡽ࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ
*59 Patrologia Latina, 215, col. 1228.
*60 Abulafia, op. cit., p. 201. ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓
ᥖ᭩ࠊ238 㡫ࠋ
*61 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 395-396, no. 378; p. 308, no.
389.
*62 Abulafia, op. cit., p. 197.
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㌷㈨㔠ࡶᩍⓚ㡿࡛ㄪ㐩ࡉࢀࡓࢃࡅ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋ
㈈ᨻⓗ࡟ࡣᩍⓚ㡿࡛ࡢ⛯཰ࡀᑡ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡇ࡜
ࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣ㈨㔠ࢆᚓࡿࡓࡵ࡟ࢫ࢙࣮࢘ࢹࣥ
ࡀ኱ࡁ࡞ၥ㢟࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ࢙࣮࣮࢘ࣜ࡟ࡼࢀࡤ࣎
ࡸࣇࣛࣥࢫࠊࢹ࣐࣮ࣥࢡࠊ࢖ࣥࢢࣛࣥࢻࠊࢫࢥ
ࢽࣇ࢓ࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 8 ୡ᫬௦ࡢᩍⓚ㡿࠿ࡽࡢ཰ධࡣ
ࢵࢺࣛࣥࢻ࡞࡝࡟༑ศࡢ୍⛯ࢆㄢ⛯ࡍࡿࡼ࠺ồ
2 ୓ 5 ༓࠿ࡽ 3 ୓ࣇ࢕࣮࢜ࣜࢽ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊࡑ
ࡵࠊࡲࡓ໭࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ㅖ㒔ᕷ࡟ࡶ㥽ኈࡸ㈨㔠ࡢᣐ
ࢀࡣࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡀ࢖ࣥࢢࣛࣥࢻ࡞࡝࡛ࡢ༑ศ
ฟࢆせㄳࡋࡓࠋ
ࡢ୍⛯࡛ᚓࡓ㸶୓࣮ࣜࣈࣛ(౯್ࡣࣇ࢕࣮࢜ࣜ
࡛ࡣࠊせㄳࢆཷࡅࡓ⋤ࡸ㒔ᕷࡣ࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡟ࡇ
ࢽ࡜ྠࡌ)ࡢ⣙ 3 ศࡢ 1 ࡟ࡍࡂ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ
ࢀ࡟ᛂ࠼ࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺࠿ࠋ㈨㔠᥼ຓࡢࡼ࠺࡞せ
࡛ࡣࠊ໭࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ㅖ㒔ᕷࡣᩍⓚࢆ✚ᴟⓗ࡟ᨭ
ㄳࡣࡶࡕࢁࢇ୙‶ࢆᣍࡁࠊࣟࢪ࣮࣭ࣦ࣭ࣦࣕ࢜
᥼ࡋࡓ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺࠿ࠋ㒔ᕷࡣࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ࡜ᑐ❧
࢙ࣥࢻࣦ࢓࣮࡟ࡼࡿ࡜ࠊᩍⓚࡢㄢ⛯࡟᢬ᢠࡀ㉳
ࡋ࡚࠾ࡾࠊࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣᨭ᥼ࢆᮇᚅࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࠋ
ࡇࡗࡓࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊࡑࡢࡼ࠺࡟ࡋ࡚㞟ࡵࡽࢀࡓ
ࡋ࠿ࡋࠊㅖ㒔ᕷ㛫࡟ࡶᑐ❧ࡀ࠶ࡗࡓࠋ࣮࣎ࣟࢽ
㌷㈨㔠ࡣ 8 ୓࣮ࣜࣈࣛ࡜࠿࡞ࡾࡢ㢠࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋ
ࣕࡣࣔࢹࢼࡸࣃ࣐ࣝࠊࢡ࣮ࣞࣔࢼ࡜ᑐ❧ࡋࠊ㌷
ࡔࡀࡑࢀ࡛ࡶ༑ศ࡛ࡣ࡞ࡃࠊ㛗ᮇ㛫ᡓதࢆ⥅⥆
஦⾪✺ࡶ㉳ࡇࡗ࡚࠸ࡓࠋࡲࡓࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡣ
ࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ࣐ࢩ࣮࣭ࣗࣃࣜࢫ
ࣃࢻࣦ࢓࡜ࢺࣦࣞ࢕࣮ࢰࡢᑐ❧ࢆㄪ೵ࡋࡼ࠺࡜
ࡣࠊࢪ࣭ࣕࣥࢻ࣭ࣈ࢚ࣜࣥࢾࡀරኈ࡬ࡢᨭᡶ࠸
ࡋࡓࠋᩍⓚὴ㒔ᕷࡣ㥽ኈ 300 ྡࢆὴ㐵ࡋࡓࡀࠊ
ࡢࡓࡵ࡟᐀ᩍ᪋タࢆ᥆ዣࡋࡓࠊ࡜ఏ࠼࡚࠸ࡿࠋ
ᩍⓚࡣࠊேᩘࡶ㈨㔠ࡶ༑ศ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠊ࡜୙‶ࢆ
ⓚᖇࡀᖐ㑏ࡋࠊᩋⰍ⃰ཌ࡟࡞ࡗࡓ࡜ࡁࠊᩍⓚ㌷
㏙࡭ࡓࠋ1229 ᖺ 6 ᭶࡟ࡣࠊὴ㐵ࡉࢀࡓරࡢኈ
ࡢᣦ᥹ᐁࡢࡦ࡜ࡾ࡛࠶ࡗࡓᯡᶵཀࣚࣁࢿࢫ࣭ࢥ
ẼࡢపࡉࢆჃ࠸ࡓࠋ7 ᭶ 13 ᪥ࡢ᭩⡆࡛ࡣࠊරኈ
ࣟࣥࢼࡀ࣮࣐ࣟ࡟㉱࠸ࡓࡇ࡜ࢆࢧ࣭ࣥࢪ࣑ࢽࣕ
ࡢ㌷ົࡢ 3 ࣧ᭶ࡢᘏ㛗࡜ᙼࡽࡢ⤥୚࡜㣗⣊ࢆࠊ
࣮ࣀࡢࣜࢵ࢝ࣝࢻࡣࠕරኈࡢ⤥୚ࢆᚓࡿ࡜࠸࠺
◚㛛࡛ጾᄐࡋ࡚せồࡏࡡࡤ࡞ࡽ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ
ཱྀᐇ࡛ࠖ࡜⓶⫗ࢆࡇࡵ࡚᭩࠸࡚࠸ࡿࡀࠊ࣐ࢩࣗ
໭࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ㅖ㒔ᕷ࡟࡜ࡗ࡚ᩍⓚࡢ㜚தࡼࡾࠊ
࣮࣭ࣃࣜࢫ࡟ࠕࡍ࡭࡚ࡢᯡᶵཀࡢ୰࡛ୡ಑ᶒ࡟
㒔ᕷ㛫ࡢᡓ㜚ࡢ᪉ࡀ㔜せ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࣆ࢔ࢳ࢙ࣥ
࠾࠸࡚ࡶࡗ࡜ࡶᙉຊࠖ࡜ゝࢃࡋࡵࡓࣚࣁࢿࢫ࡛
ࢶ࢓ࡣ 1229 ᖺ 2 ᭶࡟ᩍⓚࡢせㄳ࡟ᛂ࠼࡚㥽ኈ
࠶ࡿ࠿ࡽࠊࡇࢀࡶ㌷㈨㔠୙㊊ࢆ♧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿࡢ࡛
ࢆ 36 ேࡋ࠿ὴ㐵ࡋ࡚࠸࡞࠸ࡀࠊ7 ᭶࡟ࣔࢹࢼ࡜
࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋࡲࡓࠊᩍⓚ≉౑࡛ᯡᶵཀࡢ࣌ࣛࢠ࢘
த࠺࣮࣎ࣟࢽࣕ࡟ࡣ 5 ಸ࡟࠶ࡓࡿ 174 ேࢆ㏦ࡗ
ࢫࡣࣔࣥࢸ࣭࢝ࢵࢩࣀ࡜ࢧ࣭ࣥࢪ࢙࣐࣮ࣝࣀࡢ
࡚࠸ࡿࠋ
ᩍ఍㈈⏘ࢆἐ཰ࡋࠊරኈ࡬ࡢᨭᡶ࠸࡟඘࡚ࡼ࠺
ࡇࡢࡼ࠺࡟ᩍⓚ㡿ࡢ㜵⾨ࡣỴࡋ࡚୓඲࡛ࡣ࡞
࠿ࡗࡓࠋ㌷㈨㔠ࡶරኈࢆᅜෆ࡛☜ಖ࡛ࡁ࡞࠿ࡗ
࡜ࡋࡓ࡜࠸࠺ࠋ
ࡓࠋ㟋ⓗไ⿢ࢆ⏝࠸ࡿ࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊᬑ㐢ⓗᶒጾ࡜
ࡋ࡚ᅜእ࡟ᨭ᥼ࢆồࡵࡿࡇ࡜࡟ࡼࡗ࡚እᩛ࡟ᑐ
*63 M.G.H.,SS., 18, pp. 444-445. ࢢࣞࢦࣜ࢘ࢫࡀ
࢖ࣥࢢࣛࣥࢻ࡞࡝࡟༑ศࡢ୍⛯ࢆồࡵࡓ᫬ᮇ࡛࠶ࡿ
ࡀࠊ1228 ᖺ࡜ࡉࢀࡿࡇ࡜ࡀከ࠸ࡼ࠺࡛࠶ࡿࠋLoud,
op. cit., p. 99. ᒣ㎶ࠊ๓ᥖㄽᩥࠊ359 㡫ࠋࡋ࠿ࡋࠊ࣐
ࢩ࣮࣭ࣗࣃࣜࢫࡶࣟࢪ࣮࣭ࣦ࣭ࣦ࢙ࣕ࢜ࣥࢻࣦ࢓࣮
ࡶ 1229 ᖺ 4 ᭶ 29 ᪥ࡢ࢙࢘ࢫࢺ࣑ࣥࢫࢱ࡛ࡢ㞟఍࡛
༑ศࡢ୍⛯ࡀồࡵࡽࢀࡓࠊ࡜ఏ࠼࡚࠸ࡿࠋChronica
Majora, 3, p. 186; M.G.H., SS., 28, p. 66.
*64 M.G.H., SS., 28, pp. 66-67. Abulafia, op. cit., p.
195; Loud, op. cit., p. 102..
*65 Partner, op. cit., p. 248.
*66 Abulafia, op. cit., p. 198; Loud, op. cit., p.102.
*67 Chronica Majora, 3, pp. 188, 194.
*68 M.G.H., SS., 19, pp. 355; Chronica Majora, 3, p.
287.
*69 ࢝ࣥࢺ࣮ࣦࣟ࢕ࢳࠊ๓ᥖ᭩ࠊ234 㡫ࠋ
ฎࡋ࡚࠸ࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡶࡕࢁࢇࡑࢀ࡛ࡣࠊࣇࣜ
࣮ࢻࣜࣄࡢࡼ࠺࡞ᙉ኱࡞ྩ୺࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ࡣ୙༑ศ
࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡑࢀ࡛ࡶୡ಑ྩ୺࡜ࡋ࡚ࡢ࿨⬦ࢆಖ
*70 ᒣ㎶ࠊ๓ᥖㄽᩥࠊ365 㡫ࠋWaley, op. cit., p. 272.
*71 Loud, op. cit., p.102. Chronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam Ordinis Minorum, M.G.H., SS., 32,
Hannover, 1905-13, pp. 35-37; M.G.H.,SS., 18, pp.
444-445.
*72 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 304-305, no. 385, pp.
313-316, nos. 395-396.
*73 M.G.H.,SS., 18, pp. 445, 447.
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ࡗࡓࡢࡣࠊ࢟ࣜࢫࢺࡢ௦⌮ࡓࡿᩍⓚࡢ㟋ⓗᶒጾ
ⓚ㡿࡟ᚑࢃࡏࡿࡓࡵ࡟ᚲせ࡞ᑐᛂࡔࡗࡓࡢ࡛࠶
࡟ࡼࡿ࡜࠸࠺ࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁࡼ࠺ࠋ
ࡿࠋ
ᮏ✏࡛ࡣ 1220 ᖺ௦ᮎࡢᡓதࢆྲྀࡾୖࡆࡓࠋ
௨ᚋࡶࡓࡧࡓࡧᩍⓚ㡿ࡀᨷᧁࡉࢀࠊ᫬࡟ࡣᩍⓚ
㸵㸬࠾ࢃࡾ࡟
1220 ᖺ௦ࠊᩍⓚᶒ࡜ᖇᶒࡢ㛫࡛ࡣ༑Ꮠ㌷ࡀ㔜
ࡀᅜᐙእ࡟㏨ࢀࡡࡤ࡞ࡽ࡞࠸ࡇ࡜ࡶ࠶ࡗࡓࡀࠊ
኱࡞ၥ㢟࡛࠶ࡗࡓࡇ࡜ࡣ࿘▱ࡢ஦ᐇ࡛࠶ࡿࠋࡲ
ࡑࡢࡼ࠺࡞࡜ࡁ࡟ࡣ࡝ࡢࡼ࠺࡟ࡋ࡚ᩍⓚ㡿ࢆᏲ
ࡓᖇᶒ࡜ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᶒࡢ⤖ྜࢆ㜵ࡄࡇ࡜ࡶᩍⓚ
ࢁ࠺࡜ࡋࡓࡢ࠿ࠋᩍⓚ㡿ࡢ㜵⾨ᨻ⟇ࡣࠊすḢ࢟
࡟࡜ࡗ࡚㔜኱࡞ㄢ㢟࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋࡍ࡞ࢃࡕࠊ༑Ꮠ
ࣜࢫࢺᩍୡ⏺࡟࠾ࡅࡿᩍⓚᶒࡢ఩⨨ࢆࡶ♧ࡍ㔜
㌷ࢆ⋡࠸࡚⪷ᆅࢆᅇ᚟ࡍࡿ࡯࡝ᙉ኱࡛࠶ࡾ࡞ࡀ
せ࡞ၥ㢟࡛࠶ࡿࠋ௒ᚋࡢㄢ㢟࡜ࡋࡓ࠸ࠋ
࠿ࡘ࡚ᒣ㎶Ặࡣࠊᩍⓚࡢ㟋ⓗᶒጾࢆ⥔ᣢࡍࡿ
ࡽࠊᩍⓚ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ࡣᚑ㡰࡞ⓚᖇࡀồࡵࡽࢀࡓࢃ
ࡅ࡛࠶ࡿࡀࠊࡑࡢࡼ࠺࡟ᩍⓚ࡟㒔ྜࡢࡼ࠸ྩ୺
ࡓࡵ࡟ᩍⓚ㡿ࡀᚲせ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠊ࡜㏙࡭ࡓࠋࡋ
ࡣࡑ࠺ࡑ࠺⌧ࢀࡿࡶࡢ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋࣇ࣮ࣜࢻࣜࣄ
࠿ࡋࠊ௚᪉࡛ࡑࡢᩍⓚ㡿ࢆ⥔ᣢࡍࡿࡓࡵ࡟ࡣ㟋
2 ୡࡶࡑࡢࡼ࠺࡞ྩ୺࡛ࡣ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࠋ1220 ᖺ௦
ⓗᶒጾࡣ୙ྍḞ࡛࠶ࡗࡓࠋᬑ㐢ⓗᶒጾ࡛࠶ࡿࡇ
ᚋ༙ࡢ୧⪅ࡢᡓ㜚ࡣࠊᩍⓚࡢᩍⓚ㡿☜ಖ࡜⌮᝿
࡜࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ࠊᅜእ࠿ࡽࡢᨭ᥼ࡶᮇᚅ࡛ࡁࡓࠋࡑ
ࡢࠊᩍⓚᶒ࡟ዲ㒔ྜ࡞ⓚᖇࡢ㏣ồࡀࠊⓚᖇࡢᖇ
ࡢព࿡࡛ࡶᒣ㎶Ặࡢࠊᩍⓚᶒࡀୡ࡜಑ࠊᬑ㐢࡜
ᅜ࡞ࡽࡧ࡟ࢩࢳࣜ࢔⋤ᅜ࡛ࡢᨭ㓄☜❧࡜ᑐ❧ࡋ
㡿ᇦࡢᚤጁ࡞ࣂࣛࣥࢫࡢୖ࡟ᡂࡾ❧ࡗ࡚࠸ࡓ࡜
ࡓ⤖ᯝ࡜ࡶゝ࠼ࡿ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋ
࠸࠺ぢゎࡣࠊ㤳⫯࡛ࡁࡿࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
1220 ᖺ௦ᮎࡢ㜚தࢆ᳨ウࡍࡿ࡞ࡽࠊḟࡢࡼ࠺
࡟ぢࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁࡼ࠺ࠋࡍ࡞ࢃࡕࠊᩍⓚ㡿࡛ࡣ
㜵⾨ែໃࢆᅜෆ࡛⠏ࡃࡇ࡜ࡣ࡛ࡁࡎࠊᩍⓚࡢ㟋
ⓗไ⿢࡜࡜ࡶ࡟ࠊᅜᐙእ࠿ࡽࡢᨭ᥼࡟㢗ࡗ࡚࠸
ࡓࠋᅜእ࠿ࡽࡢᨭ᥼ࡀᮇᚅ࡛ࡁࡿ࡜࠸࠺Ⅼ࡛ࡣ
ᙉࡳ࡜ࡶゝ࠼ࡼ࠺ࡀࠊᅜෆ࡛㜵⾨ែໃࡀᩜࡅ࡞
࠸࡜࠸࠺ព࿡࡛ࡣᴟࡵ࡚⬤ᙅ࡛࠶ࡗࡓ࡜࠸ࢃࡊ
ࡿࢆᚓ࡞࠸ࡢ࡛࠶ࡿࠋ
ࡑࡶࡑࡶᩍⓚ㡿ࡣ࿘㎶ᆅᇦ࡜᫂☜࡟Ẹ᪘ࠊゝ
ㄒࠊ⩦័ࠊ᐀ᩍ࡞࡝࡟ࡼࡗ࡚༊ูࡉࢀࡿࢃࡅ࡛
ࡣ࡞࠸ࠋఫẸࡀᖐᒓព㆑ࢆࡶࡗ࡚እᩛ࡟ᙜࡓࡿ
ࡇ࡜ࡣ㞴ࡋ࠿ࡗࡓ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋᙼࡽࡀୡ಑ⓗ࡟ㄡ
࡟ᚑ࠺࠿ࡣࠊ⌧ᐇⓗ࡞㑅ᢥ࡜ࡋ࡚࠾ࡑࡽࡃࡼࡾ
᮲௳ࡢࡼ࠸᪉࡛࠶ࡗ࡚ࠊࡔ࠿ࡽࡇࡑᩍⓚࡣᩍⓚ
㡿ෆࡢㅖ㒔ᕷ࡟ከࡃࢆồࡵࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࡛ࡁࡎࠊᩍ
ⓚ㡿࠿ࡽࡢ཰ධࡣᑡ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡢ࡛࠶ࢁ࠺ࠋࢢࣞ
ࢦࣜ࢘ࢫ 9 ୡࡀࠊ⃭ࡋࡃ཯ᢠࡋ࡞ࡀࡽ⤖ᒁࡣ㝆
అࡋࡓ㒔ᕷࢫ࢚ࢵࢧ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚࢝ࣥࣃ࣮ࢽࣕࡢ㒔
ᕷ࡜ྠ➼ࡢᶒ฼࡜⮬⏤ࢆㄆࡵࡿ᭩⡆࡛ࠊ⪷᭩ࢆ
D. Abulafia, Frederick II, xii. ࠿ࡽ➹⪅ࡀసᡂࠋ
ᘬ⏝ࡋ࡚ࠊᩍ఍ࡢࠕ㌼ࡣᰂࡽ࠿ࡃⲴࡣ㍍࠸ࠖ࡜
᭩ࡁ㏦ࡗ࡚࠾ࡾࠊ࢖ࣥࣀࢣࣥࢸ࢕࢘ࢫ 3 ୡࡶࡋ
*74 M.G.H., E. S., 1, pp. 307-308, no. 388. Loud, op.
cit., p.100. ᘬ⏝⟠ᡤࡣࠕ࣐ࢱ࢖࡟ࡼࡿ⚟㡢᭩ࠖ11
❶ 30 ⠇ࠋ
*75 ᒣ㎶ࠊ๓ᥖㄽᩥࠊ369-370 㡫ࠋ
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