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JSミルと女子高等教育―フェミニズムの理論と実践

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J.S.࣐࡛ࣜዥᏄ㧏➴ᩅ⫩̿ࣆ࣐࢘ࢼࢫ࣑ࡡ⌦ㄵ࡛ᐁ㊰̿
J. S. Mill and the Higher Education of Women
Theory and Practice on Feminism.
ṂⶮኬᏕ⥪ྙ◂✪ᡜ ◂✪ဤ
⯖ᮄᝬᏄ
1.ࡢࡋࡴ࡞
࣐ࣜධ㞗ࡡ୯࡞࣐ࣜ⮤㌗࠿షᠺࡊࡒ 14 ၡࡡ⤊ῥᏕࡡၡ㢗࠿オ㍍ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ㸦ࠊ ࡆࡿࡢ
1872 ᖳ࡞ࠉ࣐ࣜ࠿ࣃࢴࢲࣤࡡࣝࢸ࢔࣭ࢪ࣬࢜ࣝࢴࢩ(ࡐࡡᚃࢢࣤࣇࣛࢴࢩ ࣭࢝ࢹࣤ࣬࢜
ࣝࢴࢩ)ࡡዥᏄᏕ⏍ࡡ⤊ῥᏕࡡㅦᗑࡡࡒࡴ࡞᭡࠷ࡒࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊᰧ㛏࢙࣐࣭ࣛ࣬ࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ
ࡡᙁ࠷ណྡྷ࡚ࠉᙔ᫤࢜ࣝࢴࢩ࡚ࡢࠔ࣎ࣛࢷ࢔࢙࢜ࣜ࣬ࢤࢿ࣐࣭ࠕࡡㅦᗑࢅ㛜スࡊࠉࢢࣤࣇ
ࣛࢴࢩኬᏕ࠾ࡼࢩࣘࣤ࣬࣊ࣤ(John Venn)ᩅ᤭ࢅ㢏ࢆ࡚᤭ᴏࢅࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡊࢷ࢞ࢪࢹ
ࡡࠖ⤊ῥᏕཋ⌦ࠗ(௧ᚃࠖཋ⌦࡛ࠗࡌࡾ)3 ᕬࡡஹᥦㄵࡡ࡛ࡆࢀ࡚᤭ᴏࡢḾࡱࡖ࡙࠷ࡒ㸧ࠊࢸ
࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡢࠉⴥ⩽࡚࠵ࡾ࣐ࣜ࡞Ꮥ⏍ࡡモ㥺ࢅ౪㢏ࡊࡒࠊ࣐ࣜ࠿ஷࡂ࡝ࡾ 1 ᖳ๑ࡡࡆ࡛࡚࠵
ࡾࠊ࣐ࣜࡢᛄࡂᘤࡀུࡄࠉ14 ၡࡡၡ㢗షᠺ࡞ຊ࠻ዥᏄᏕ⏍ࡡよ➽ࡡ῟๎ࡱ࡚࠽ࡆ࡝࠷ࠉࡵ
࠹ୌᅂモ㥺ࢅᐁ᪃ࡊࡒ࠷࡛ࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ࡞ᡥ⣤ࢅ㏞ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡊ࠾ࡊ 1873 ᖳ࡞࣐ࣜࡢஷࡂ
࡝ࡖࡒࡒࡴࡐࡿࡢᐁ᪃࡚ࡀ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࠊ
ᮇሒ࿈࡚ࡢࠉJ.S.࣐ࣜࡡࣆ࣐࢘ࢼࢫ࣑ࢅࠉ࣐ࣜࢅཱིࡽᕬࡂᙔ᫤ࡡ≟Ἓࢅᢍᥩࡊࠉࠖཋ⌦ࠗ
ࡷࠖዥᛮࡡよᨲࠗ(௧ᚃࠖよᨲ࡛ࠗࡌࡾ)࡛࠷࠹ⴥష࠿ࠉࣥ࢔ࢠࢹࣛ࢓ᚃ᭿ࡡኣᵕ࡝ዥᛮ㐘
ິ࡛࡜ࡡࡻ࠹࡞㛭౿ࡊࡒࡡ࠾ࠉࡱࡒ࣐ࣜ⮤㌗࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࠉ1860 ᖳ࡞ࡢฝ∟࡚ࡀ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࠖよ
ᨲࠗ࠿ 1869 ᖳ࡞ฝ∟࡚ࡀࡒࡡ࡞ࡢ࡜ࡡࡻ࠹࡝⌦⏜࠿⩻࠻ࡼࡿࡾ࠾ࢅ⩻ᐳࡌࡾࠊࡱࡒࠉ࣐
ࣜࡓࡄ࡚࡝ࡂࠉ࢕ࣤࢡࣛࢴࢨ࣭࣏ࣖ࣬ࢗࣤࢫ࣬ࢩ࣭ࣔࢻࣜ(௧ᚃ EWJ ࡛ࡌࡾ)㸨ࠉ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬
ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ࣬ࢡ࣭ࣜࣈ(ࢦ࣭ࢠࣜ)㸩ࠉࡈࡼ࡞ࢢࣤࢩࣤࢹࣤ࣬ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔㸪࡝࡜ࡡࣆ࣐࢘ࢼࢪࢹ
ࢡ࣭ࣜࣈࢅྱࡴࡒධమാࢅ⩻ᐳࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡞ࡻࡽࠉ࣐ࣜࡡࣆ࣐࢘ࢼࢫ࣑ࡡ⌦よࢅ῕ࡴࡾࡆ࡛
ࢅ┘Ⓩ࡛ࡌࡾࠊࡱࡒࠉᮇሒ࿈࡚ࡢࠉᚉᮮࡡ࣐ࣜ◂✪࡚ࡢ࠵ࡱࡽ㊻ࡲ㎲ࡱ࡝࠾ࡖࡒ࢕࢟ࣛࢪ
ዥᛮྍ࡛࣐ࣜࡡࣆ࣐࢘ࢼࢫ࣑ࡡࠔᐁ㊰ࠕࡡ㒂ฦࢅ୩❟ࡈࡎࠉ࠵ࡼࡒࡴ࡙࣐ࣜࡡࣆ࣐࢘ࢼࢫ
࣑ࡡኣᵕᛮࡷྊ⬗ᛮࢅ᳠ッࡌࡾࠊ
㸧㸣࢕ࣤࢡࣛࢴࢨ࣭࣏ࣖ࣬ࢗࣤࢫ࣬ࢩ࣭ࣔࢻ࡛࣐ࣜࣜࠖ⤊ῥᏕཋ⌦ࠗ
EWJ ࡢ࢕࢟ࣛࢪࡡዥᛮၡ㢗ࢅࡢࡋࡴ࡙♣ఌၡ㢗࡛ࡊཱི࡙ࡽ୕ࡅࡒࣆ࣐࢘ࢼࢪࢹ㞟ヽ࡚
࠵ࡾ࡛⩻࠻ࡾࠊࡆࡡ㞟ヽ♣ࡢ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ࣬ࢡ࣭ࣜࣈ(Langham Place Group)ࡡࣛ
࣭ࢱ࣭ࠉࣚࣆ࢒࢙ࣜ๑Ὤࡡ⏤ᐓࣁ࣭ࣁࣚ࣬࣍ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤ(Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon)
࠿ 1000 ࣎ࣤࢺࢅᢖࡋ࡙ࠉ࣊ࢺࣆ࢚࣭ࢺ࣬࢜ࣝࢴࢩࡡྜྷ⣥⏍࣊ࢴࢨ࣭࣬ࣝ࢕ࢻ࣭࣬ࣂ࣭ࢠ
ࢪ(Bessie Rayner Parks)࡛༝ງࡊス❟ࡊࡒࠊ⣌า⤄⧂ࡡዥᛮ㞘⏕ಀ㐅༝ఌ࡛භ࡞ࠉ࣭ࣛࢩ
࢘ࣤࢹ㏳ࡽࠉ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ 19 ␊ᆀ࡞ఌ♣ࢅ࠽ࡀࠉᙔ᫤࡛ࡊ࡙ࡢ⏤᭿Ⓩ࡝ᅒ᭡㤃ࠉ
࣭ࣛࢸ࢔ࣤࢡ࣭࣑࣬ࣜ࣬ㄧリᐄ࡝࡜ࠉዥᛮࡡࡒࡴࡡ᪃スࢅెスࡊࡒࠊ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ࣬
ࢡ࣭ࣜࣈ࡛ࡢࡆࡆ࡞㞗ࡖࡒ EWJ ࢅ୯ᚨ࡛ࡊࡒࣆ࣐࢘ࢼࢪࢹ㞗ᅆࡡࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡽࠉ㞘⏕ಀ㐅ࠉ
㉫ᴏࠉᑯ⫃ᩅ⫩ࡵྱࡴ࡙ࠉዥᛮࡡ⤊ῥⓏ⮤❟ࡡࡒࡴࡡὩິࢅ⾔࠷ࠉ୯⏐㝭⣥ዥᛮࡡ⌟ᐁၡ
㢗ࡡよỬ࡞ᑊᚺࡌࡾዥᛮࢾࢴࢹ࣭࣠ࢠࡓࡖࡒࠊス❟ᙔิࡡ┘Ⓩࡢࠔ࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪၡ㢗ࠕࡡよ
37
Ử࡚࠵ࡽࠉ1858 ᖳ 3 ᭮ 1 ᪝ࡡ๭ษྒ㸫ࡢࠉ➠ୌ㟻࡚ࠔ࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪិᜠ༝ఌᖳḗሒ࿈᭡ࠕࢅ
ฦᯊࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡆࡿࡢ 1843 ᖳ࡞ス❟ࡈࡿࡒ࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪࡡᅏ❋࡞ᑊฌࡌࡾិᜠ༝ఌࡡ 13 ᖳ
㛣࡞ࢂࡒࡾὩິࢅオ㍍ࡊࡒࡵࡡ࡚ࠉ⥽㞗㛏࣊ࢴࢨ࣭࣬ࣝ࢕ࢻ࣭࣬ࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡡオ஥ࡢࠉ19 ୠ
⣎࢕ࣤࢡࣚࣤࢺࡡዥᛮࡡ⫃⛸ࡢᣉኬࡊࡗࡗ࠵ࡾ࠿ࠉ୯⏐㝭⣥ࡡዥᛮ࡞セࡈࡿࡒ။ୌࡡ⫃ᴏ
࠿ᐓᗖᩅᖅ࡚࠵ࡾࡆ࡛࠿ࠔ࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪၡ㢗ࠕࡡ᰷ᮇཋᅄ࡚࠵ࡽࠉࡆࡡ≟Ἓࡡᨭၻࢅୠ㛣࡞
ソ࠻ࡾࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡢ࠷ࡀࡌࡁࡒᕰሔࡡཋ⌦࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ࠉ࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪࡡ㐛๨࡛఩㈜
㔘࠿ಀ㐅ࡈࡿࡒ࡛ฦᯊࡌࡾࠊ௑ࡱ࡚࡞≺㌗ዥᛮࡡ⩹ᚃࡡၡ㢗ࢅよỬࡌࡾࡒࡴ࡞࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪ
ࡡᖳ㔘โᗐࠉ࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪ⏕ᐙ⯃࡝࡜࠿࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪ⮤㌗࡛ិᜠ༝ఌࡡཫ᪁ࡡຑງ࡚ᩒ࠻ࡼࡿ
࡙ࡀࡒ࡞ࡵ㛭ࢂࡼࡍࠉ࠷ࡱࡓ࡞⩹㱃࡞࡝ࡖࡒ࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪࡷࠉᐓ᪐ࡡࡒࡴ࡞഼࠾࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡝
ࡼ࡝࠷ⱕ࠷ዥᛮࡒࡔࡡ❋இ࡞࠾ࢂࡽ࠿࡝࠷ࡡࡢࠉࡱࡈ࡞ࡆࡿ࠿ࠔ♣ఌၡ㢗ࠕ࡚࠵ࡾ࠾ࡼࡓ
࡛ฦᯊࡌࡾࠊࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡢⱕ࠷࠹ࡔࡢᐓ᪐ࢅ⫴ㇿ࠷ࠉ⩹㱃࡞࡝ࡿࡣெࡡୠリ࡞࡝ࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ᎒
࠷ࠉ࢞ࣛࢪࢹᩅ೒⌦࡛࣐ࢺࣜࢠࣚࢪࡡ⮤ᑕᚨࡡ୯࡚ࢪࢹ࢕ࢴࢠ࡞❋இ⏍Ὡ࡞⪇࠻ࡻ࠹࡛ࡌ
ࡾ⩹࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪࡒࡔࡡ㐛㓖࡝⌟≟ࢅソ࠻ࡾࠊࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡢᨾ㈃Ἢࢅᢀึࡌࡾ⤊ῥᏕ⩽ࡡḿ⩇
(justice)ࡷࠉࣄࢩࢾࢪࡡୠ⏲ࡡᕰሔ୹⩇ࡓࡄ࡚ࡢ┷࡞❋இࡌࡾᙴዥࡒࡔࢅᨾ࠹ࡆ࡛ࡢ࡚ࡀ
ࡍࠉࡱࡒᨳᗋࡡᨾ㈃Ἢ⾔ᨳࡌࡼࠉࡱࡖࡒࡂ⾉ࡡ㏳ࡖࡒࡵࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷࡛ᢀึࡌࡾࠊࡆࡿࢅ௑
ࡱ࡚ࡡࡻ࠹࡞༟࡝ࡾዥᛮၡ㢗࡛ࡊ࡙↋っࡌࡾࡡ࡝ࡼࡣࠉࡐࡿࡢ⨝ᝇ࡚࠵ࡾ࡛࠷࠹ࠊ♣ఌࡢ
ࡆࡡၡ㢗ࢅࠔ♣ఌၡ㢗ࠕ࡛ࡊཱི࡙ࡽ⤄ࡳࡆ࡛ࠉࡐࡊ࡙௑ࡱ࡚௧୕࡞ិၻὩິࡡ㔔さᛮࢅ⌦
よࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࠉࡱࡒୌ␊ࡡよỬ᪁Ἢࡢࠉ⮤ฦࡒࡔࡡᡥ࡚࠵ࡒࡼࡊ࠷㐠ࢅวࡽ㛜ࡂࡆ࡛࠿ᚪさ
ࡓ࡛ソ࠻࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡆࡡࡻ࠹࡞ EWJ ࡢ୯⏐㝭⣥ࡡዥᛮࡒࡔࡡ῕็࡝⤊ῥၡ㢗ࠉ
ࠔ࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾࢪ
ၡ㢗ࠕࢅ಴ெࡡၡ㢗࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂ♣ఌၡ㢗࡛ࡊ࡙ソ࠻ࡾࡒࡴ࡞๭ษࡊࡒࢂࡄ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ
1860 ᖳ 9 ᭮ྒ࡛ 11 ᭮ྒࡡ EWJ ࡡ≁㞗オ஥ Opinion of John Stuart Mill 㸬࡚ࡢࠉ⌟ᅹ
ࡡ⮤ฦࡒࡔࡡ❋இࢅᨾ࠹ࡡࡢ࣐ࣜࡡ⤊ῥᏕࢅᏕࡩࡆ࡛࡚࠵ࡾ࡛࠷࠹ኬࠍⓏ࡝࢓ࣅ࣭ࣜࢅࡊ
࡙࠷ࡾࠊオ஥࡞ࡻࡿࡣ࣐ࣜࡡࠖཋ⌦ࠗࡢኬ⾏ࡡណぜࢅㄖࡲཱིࡽࠉࢩ࣭ࣔࢻ࡛ࣜྜྷࡋഁ㟻࠿
࠵ࡾ࡛࠷࠹ࠊࡱࡒ࣐ࣜ࠿ࠖཋ⌦ࠗ⏍⏐ㄵࡡ୯࡚ெ㛣࡞㛭ࡌࡾຘ഼ࢅ㏑࡬ࡾ࡛ࡀࠉெ㛣ࢅ⫩
࡙ࡾຘ഼ࡢ⏍⏐ࡡୌ᮪௲࡚ࡢ࠵ࡾ࠿ࠉ࣐ࣜ࠿⤊ῥᏕኬమ࡛ࡊ࡙⩻࠻ࡾ࡛ࡀ࡞ࠉࡆࡡெ㛣ࢅ
⫩࡙ࡾຘ഼ࡢ⤊ῥᏕࡡ㡷ᇡአ࡞࠽ࡂ࡛ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ㧏ࡂフ౮ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ(ࠖཋ⌦ࠗ1 ⠅ 1 ❮
࡛ᛦࢂࡿࡾ)ࠊࡆࡡ⩻࠻᪁ࡢࠉ࠽ࡐࡼࡂ 19 ୠ⣎ࡡ୯⏐㝭⣥ࡡዥᛮ≁᭯ࡡࡵࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷࠾࡛
⩻࠻ࡾࠊ⌟௥ࡡ⤊ῥᏕ࡚ࡢࠉᐓ஥࣬⫩ඡ࡝࡜ࡡࢢ࢓ຘ഼ࢅ⤊ῥᏕࡡ㡷ᇡአ࠾ࡼ㡷ᇡහ࡞ᤂ
࠻࡝࠽ࡊࠉ⤊ῥᏕࡡ㡷ᇡහ࡚㐲ḿ࡞フ౮ࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡌࡾっⅤ࡞ࡒࡗ࠿ࠉࡆࡡ᫤௥ࡡࣂ࣭ࢠࢪ
ࡢࠉ⌟௥࡛ࡢࡱࡖࡒࡂ㏣࡞ࠉ࣐ࣜ࠿౮ೋࡢᏋᅹࡌࡾ࠿⤊ῥᏕࡡ⠂ᅑአࡓ࡛ᏽ⩇ࡊࡒெ㛣ࢅ
⫩࡙ࡾຘ഼ࡢࠉ⤊ῥᏕ࡚ࡢ࡝ࡂࠉࡱࡈ࡞ࣆ࢔ࣚࣤࢮࣞࣅ࣭ࡷិၻ஥ᴏ࠿㐲ᛮ࡞フ౮ࡌࡾࡵ
ࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ୹ᘿࡌࡾࠊࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡢ 1857 ᖳࡡ♣ఌ⛁Ꮥ༝ఌࡡࢲ࣭ࣔࣜࢫ࣬ࣇࣝ࢕ࡡࢤ
࣊ࣤࢹ࣭ࣛ࡞࠽ࡄࡾ࣒࣭࣭ࣛ࣍ࣤ࢜ࡡሒ࿈஥ౚࢅ࠵ࡅ࡙ࠉዥᛮࡒࡔ࠿⢥ୌ᮴഼࠷࡙ࡵ⏍ࡀ
࡙࠷ࡄ࡝࠷࡮࡜఩㈜㔘࡝ࡡࡢࠉៈ⩞࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ዥᛮࡡ㈜㔘࠿⏠ᛮࡡࡐࡿࡻࡽࡵ఩ࡂᢒ࠻ࡼࡿ
࡙࠷ࡾࡒࡴ࡛ࡊ࠾⩻࠻ࡼࡿ࡝࠷࡛୹ᘿࡌࡾࠊࡈࡼ࡞ᕰሔ❿ண࡞ࡻࡖ࡙౮᰹ࡢ࡜ࢆ࡜ࢆᘤࡀ
ୖࡅࡼࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛㏑࡬ࡾࠊࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡢ☔࠾࡞∸⌦Ⓩ⮤↓ࡡふⅤ࠾ࡼࡢᕰሔ❿ணࡢ᫕ヾࡈࡿ
ࡾ࡛⩻࠻ࡾࠊࡊ࠾ࡊ㞘⏕⩽࡛⿍㞘⏕⩽࡛ࡡහ㒂Ⓩ࡝㛭౿࡞࠽࠷࡙ࡢᐁ㝷ၡ㢗ࠉᕰሔ⤊ῥ࡛
ࡢวࡽ㞫ࡊࡒ౮᰹Ửᏽ࠿⾔ࢂࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࡢࡍࡓ࡛ฦᯊࡌࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙ࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡡ⤎ㄵࡢࠉ౮᰹
ࡡỬᏽさᅄࡢ஦ࡗ࠵ࡾ࡛࠷࠹ࡵࡡ࡚࠵ࡾࠊ➠ୌࡢᕰሔ࡚ᙟᠺࡈࡿࡾᕰሔ౮᰹ࠉࡐࡊ࡙➠ 2
ࡢ࢞ࣛࢪࢹᩅཋ⌦࡞ᇱࡘࡂ౮᰹࡚࠵ࡾ࡛࠷࠹ࠊࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡢୌౚ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠔࡒ࡛࠻ࡣ࢝ࣥ࢒ࢾ
ࢪࡡ⤝ᩩࡢᖳ㛣 50㺶࠿ᕰሔ౮᰹ࡓ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡵࠉࡵࡊᙴዥ࠿ẍࢅ㣬ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ⌦よࡊࡒ࡝
38
ࡼࡣࠉ஦ᯓࡡࢨࣜࢠࡡ୕╌ࢅୌᯓ࡞ࡊ࡙ᙴዥࡡ⤝ᩩࢅᖳ㛣 60㺶࡞ᘤࡀ୕ࡅࡾࡓࢀ࠹ࠕ࡛㏑
࡬ࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙ࡆࡡ⩻࠻᪁ࢅ⌦よࡌࡾ࡞ࡢ࣐ࣜࡡࠖ⤊ῥᏕཋ⌦ࠗࡡ༝഼ࡡཋ⌦ࢅᏕࡩ࡬ࡀ࡚
࠵ࡽࠉࡐࡿ࠿ࠔዥᛮࡡ༝഼ࡡཋ⌦ࠕ(Principle of co-operation to women)࡝ࡡࡓ࡛ᙁㄢࡌ
ࡾࠊࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡢ࣎ࣛࢷ࢔࢙࢜ࣜ࣬ࢤࢿ࣐࣭࡛ࢠࣛࢪࢲࣔࢼࢷ࢔࣭ࢅභ࡞ష⏕ࡈࡎࡾࡆ࡛࠿
⌦᝷Ⓩ࡝ᅗᐓ࡝ࡡ࠾ࡵࡊࡿ࡝࠷࡛㏑࡬ࠉᙔ᫤ࢤ࣐ࢷ࢔࣭ࡷࠉࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔࡝࡜ࡡᙟ࡚࣍ࣚࣤ
ࢰ࣭ࣛ࡞⾔ࢂࡿ࡙࠷ࡒិၻ⤄⧂ࡷ༝഼మࡡㄵᣈࢅࠉ࣐ࣜࠖཋ⌦ࠗ4 ⠅ࡡ༝ྜྷ⤄ྙㄵ࠾ࡼᘤ
ࡀฝࡐ࠹࡛ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡆࡿࡢ࣐ࣜࠖཋ⌦ࠗ࠿ EWJ ࡡὩິࡡ⌦ㄵⓏᨥ࠻࡛࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛ࡵ
⩻࠻ࡼࡿࡾࠊࣂ࣭ࢠࢪࡢࠖㄵ⌦Ꮥమ⣌ࠗࢅᏕࡩࡆ࡛ࡢዥᛮࡼࡊࡂ࡝࠷࠾ࡵࡊࡿ࡝࠷࠿ࠉ
ࠖཋ
⌦ࠗࡢዥᛮ࡞ᙲ❟ࡗࡵࡡࡓ࡛᥆ዜࡌࡾࠊ
ࠔ⤊ῥᏕ࡛࠷࠹ࡵࡡࡢិၻⓏ࡝⾔ິࢅࡵࡒࡼࡌࡵࡡ
࡚࠵ࡾࠕ࡛㏑࡬ࡒ୕࡚ࠉ⤊ῥⓆᒈ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ᕰẰ♣ఌࡡᏭᐺ࠿ಕࡒࡿࠉዥᛮࡡሾ㐕ࡵࡊࡓ࠷
࡞ᨭၻࡈࡿࡾ࡛ࡊ࡙ࠉ
ࠔዥᛮࡡ༝഼ࡡཋ⌦ࠕࢅᙁㄢࡌࡾࠊ
㸨㸣 1860 ᖳ௥ࡡ J.S.࣐࡛ࣜࢢࣤࢩࣤࢹࣤ࣬ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔
࣐ࣜࡡ㆗ఌ⏍Ὡ࡞ࡢࠉ୯⏐㝭⣥ࡡᾼዥࡒࡔࡡ⤧ኬ࡝⌦よ࡛ᨥᥴ࠿࠵ࡖࡒࠊࡐࡿࡢ࣐ࣜ࠿
ୠ㛣࠾ࡼ᥶ᥗࡈࡿࡾࡥ࡛ࡗࡡཋᅄ࡚ࡵ࠵ࡖࡒ࠿࣐ࣜࡡ㆗ఌὩິ࡞ࡢᚪさ࡝ࡵࡡࡓࡖࡒ 㸭ࠊ
ዥᛮࡒࡔ࡞ࡢཤᨳᶊࡵ㈀⏐ᶊࡵ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡒࡴࠉ࣐ࣜࡡ㆗ఌὩິ࡞ࡢ├᥃Ⓩ࡝ᙫ㡢࠿࡝࠷ࡡ
࡚ࡢ࡛⩻࠻ࡼࡿ࠿ࡔࡓ࠿ࠉ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ࣬ࢡ࣭ࣜࣈࠉࢢࣤࢩࣤࢹࣤ࣬ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔ࡡ
ெࠍ࠿ࠉ➠஦ᅂ㐽ᣪἪᨭḿ᱄ࡡࡈ୯࡚ࡡࠉ࣐ࣜࡡಞḿ᱄ࡡᥞฝ࡞ኬࡀ࡝ງࢅ୙࠻ࠉࡆࡿ࡞
ࡻࡽዥᛮཤᨳᶊ㐘ິ࠿ධᅗⓏ࡞ᗀ࠿ࡾࡀࡖ࠾ࡄ࡛࡝ࡖࡒࠊࡊ࠾ࡊࡆࡿࡢ࣐ࣜࡡງ࡛࠷࠹ࡻ
ࡽࡵࠉᐁ㝷ࡢዥᛮࡒࡔࡡ⤄⧂Ⓩ࡝Ὡິ࠿࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡚ࡀ࡝࠷ࡆ࡛ࡓࡖࡒࡡ࡚ࠉ࣐ࣜࡢࠖ⮤ఎࠗ
ࡡ୯࡚ࠉ࣒ࣤࣁ࣭ࡡ 1 ெࡓࡖࡒࣉࣝࣤ࣬ࢷ࢕࣭ࣚࢅኬንフ౮ࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
1858 ᖳࡡ෢ࠉࣀ࢙ࣛࢴࢹࡡṒᚃࠉ⯑ྋಢඁ࡛ࡊ࡙≺❟ࡊ࡙࠷ࡒፃࡡࣉࣝࣤ࣬ࢷ࢕࣭ࣚ࠿
࿣ࡦᡘࡈࡿࠉࣉࣝࣤࡢ࣐ࣜᐓࡡዥ୹ெ࡞ࠉ1865 ᖳ௧ᚃࡢୖ㝌㆗ဤ࡛࡝ࡖࡒ࣐ࣜࡡ⛆᭡࡛࡝
ࡾࠊࣉࣝࣤࡢẍࣀ࢙ࣛࢴࢹ࡛࣐ࣜࡡᛦ᝷ࢅུࡄ⤽࠷࡚࠷ࡒ࠿ࠉዥᛮཤᨳᶊ㐘ິᐓ࡚ࡢ࡝࠾
ࡖࡒࠊᙴዥࡢࣁ࣭ࣁࣚ࣬࣍ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤ࠾ࡼࡈࡐࢂࡿࠉ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ࣬ࢡ࣭ࣜࣈࡡゞ
ㄵࢠࣚࣇࠉ1865 ᖳ 3 ᭮ス❟ࡡࢢࣤࢩࣤࢹࣤ࣬ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔࡞ຊࢂࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ࣐ࣜࡡ⛆᭡ࣉ
ࣝࣤࡢࠉ࣐ࣜࡡഁࢅࡢ࡝ࡿࡾࡆ࡛࠿࡝࠾ࡖࡒ࠿ࠉ࢓ࣥ࢔ࢼࣙࣤ࠾ࡼࡡㄵᩝ࡚ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔࡞
ཤຊࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ࣐ࣜ࠿ᙔ㐽ࡌࡾ 7 ᭮ࡱ࡚ࠉࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔ࡢ J.S.࣐ࣜࡡ㐽ᣪጟဤఌࢅス❟ࡊ㐽
ᣪὩິࢅ࠽ࡆ࡝ࡖࡒࠊ1865 ᖳ 11 ᭮ 21 ᪝ࡡఌྙ࡚ࣉࣝࣤ࣬ࢷ࢕࣭ࣚ࠿᭡࠷ࡒዥᛮཤᨳᶊ
࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࡡㄵᩝ࠿ゞ㆗ࡈࡿࡾ࡛ࠉࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔ࡢ♣ఌၡ㢗ࡡゞ㆗࠾ࡼࠉཤᨳᶊ㐘ິ࡫࡛ലࡂ㸮ࠊ
1866 ᖳ 4 ᭮࡞ࢡࣚࢴࢺࢪࢹ࣭ࣤࡡ㐽ᣪἪᨭḿ᱄࠿ᥞฝࡈࡿࡾ࡛ࠉ5 ᭮ 9 ᪝ࣁ࣭ࣁࣚ࣬࣍ࢸ
࢔ࢨ࡛ࣘࣤࣉࣝࣤ࣬ࢷ࢕࣭ࣚࡢࡱࡖࡒࡂྜྷ᫤࡞ㄫ㢢᭡㐘ິ࡞╌ᡥࡌࡾᡥ⣤ࢅฝࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ㸦㸥ࠊ
1866 ᖳ 5 ᭮ 9 ᪝ࠉ࣍ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤࡡࣉࣝࣤ࣬ࢷ࢕࣭ࣚ᏾࡙ࡡᡥ⣤ࡡណᅒࡢࠉ⮤ฦࡒࡔࡡ
㐘ິ࡞ᑊࡊ࡙࣐ࣜ࠿ᐁ㝷࡞㆗ఌ࡚ᨳ἖Ὡິࢅ㉫ࡌ࠾࡜࠹࠾࡞࠵ࡖࡒࠊ
ࠔ⚶ࡢ࠵࡝ࡒ(ࣉࣝࣤ)
࡛ J.S.࣐ࣜẮ࠿ࡆࡡ᫤᭿ࢅ㐲วࡓ࡛࠽⩻࠻࠾ࢅ▩ࡾࡆ࡛࡝ࡊ࡞࠷࠾࡝ࡾㄫ㢢ࡵࠉ(ዥᛮ)ཤ
ᨳᶊ㐘ິࡵࡊࡒࡂࡢ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆࠕ࡛㏑࡬࡝࠿ࡼࡵࠉὩິ㈠㔘࠿㞗ࡴࡼࡿࡗࡗ࠵ࡽࠉ‵ങࡢ
࡚ࡀ࡙࠷ࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ㏑࡬࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
ࣉࣝࣤ࣬ࢷ࢕࣭ࣚࡢࠉࣞࣤࢺࣤࠉࣇࣚࢴࢠ࣬ࣃ࣭ࢪࡡ⮤Ꮹ࠾ࡼࠉࡆࡡᡥ⣤ࢅࡱࡓㄖࢆ࡚
࠷࡝࠷࠹ࡔ࡞ࠉ࣍ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤ࡞ᑊࡊ࡙ࠉ㆗ఌහ࡚ࡢᵕࠍ࡝ㄫ㢢㐘ິ࠿ጙࡱࡽࡗࡗ࠵ࡽࠉᠻࠍ
ࡵㄫ㢢᭡ࢅᥞฝࡌࡾ⤧ይࡡࢲࣔࣤࢪࡓ࡛ࡌࡾහᐖࡡᡥ⣤ࢅ㏞ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡐࡡᡥ⣤࡞ࡢ᭩఩
39
࡚ࡵࠔ100 ྞࡡ⨣ྞࠕࡡ☔ಕ࠿ᚪさ࡚࠵ࡾࡆ࡛ࠉࡵࡊ☔ಕ࡚ࡀࡿࡣࠔ⚶ࡡ∏ࡢࡻࢀࡆࢆ࡚
ུࡄཱིࡾࡓࢀ࠹ࠕ࡛࠷࠹オ㏑࠿࠵ࡾࡆ࡛࠾ࡼࠉࣉࣝࣤࡡᡥ⣤ࡡ୯࡞࣐ࣜࡡỬ᩷ࢅぜࡾࡆ࡛
࠿࡚ࡀࡾ㸦㸦ࠊ௑ࠉㄫ㢢㐘ິࢅ⾔࠻ࡣ࣐ࣜ࠿㆗ఌཱི࡚ࡽ୕ࡅ࡙ࡂࡿࡾ࡛࠷࠹☔ッࢅᚋࡒ࣍ࢸ
࢔ࢨࣘࣤࡢ 5 ᭮ 11 ᪝௛ࡡᡥ⣤࡚ㄫ㢢㐘ິࡡ⨣ྞࢅ㞗ࡴࡾጟဤఌࢅス❟ࡊࡒࡆ࡛ࢅ▩ࡼࡎ
࡙࠷ࡾࠊ࣍ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤࡡᣞᥱࡡࡵ࡛ࠉ࢙࣐࣭ࣛ࣬ࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡼࠉ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ࣬ࢡ
࣭ࣜࣈࡡெࠍ࠿࢙ࣛࢧ࣊ࢪ࣬࢝ࣝࢴࢹࡡᐓ࡞㞗ࡱࡽࠉ㐛⃥࡝හᐖࡡࣉࣝࣤ࣬ࢷ࢕࣭ࣚ࠿᭡
࠷ࡒㄫ㢢ᩝࢅ῟๎ࡊࠉୠ㛣ࡡྜྷណ࠿ᚋࡼࡿࡾࡻ࠹࡞ಞḿࡊࡒࠊ6 ᭮ 6 ᪝࡞ᙔิ࣐࡛ࣜ⾔ິ
ࢅභ࡞ࡌࡾࡢࡍࡓࡖࡒࣚࢴࢬ࣭ࣜ࣬࢝ࢼ࣭࠿ᛟẴࡘ࠷࡙࣐ࣜ㸦ெ࡚ⁿㄕࢅࡌࡾ஢ᏽ࡚࠵ࡾ
࡛ࣉࣝࣤ࠾ࡼ࣍ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤ࡞▩ࡼࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ࠿ࠉࡐࡿ࡚ࡵࣉࣝࣤࡡṹཱིࡽ࡚ 6 ᭮ 7 ᪝ࠉ1499
ྞࡡ⨣ྞ࡛ㄫ㢢ᩝ࠿࢙ࢗࢪࢹ࣐ࣤࢪࢰ࣭࣭࡚࣐࣬࣌ࣜࣜ࡞├᥃ᡥῳࡈࡿࡒࠊࡐࡿࢅ㆗ఌ࡞
ᥞฝࡊࡒ᫤ࡡ࣐ࣜࡡⁿㄕ࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࡢࠖ⮤ఎ࡚ࠗ㏑࡬ࡼࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛࠽ࡽ࡚࠵ࡾࠊࡊ࠾ࡊࡐࡆ
࡞⮫ࡾࡱ࡚ࡡࢢࣤࢩࣤࢹࣤ࣬ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔࠿࣐ࣜ࡞ォࡊࡒᛦ࠷ࡢࠉ⨣ྞࡡᩐ࡛ࡊ࡙ࡢỬࡊ࡙
ኣࡂ࡝࠷ 1499 ெฦࡡ⨣ྞࡡ➼࡞ࡆࡴࡼࡿࠉ࣐ࣜࡢࡐࡿࢅུࡄ࡙ࠔman ࢅ person ࡞ን᭞
ࡌࡾࠕಞḿ᱄ࢅ㆗ఌ࡚୹ᘿࡊࡒࠊ
4.
J.S.࣐࡛࣭ࣜ࢝ࢹࣤ࣬࢜ࣝࢴࢩ
࢙࣐࣭ࣛ࣬ࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࠉࣁ࣭ࣁࣚ࣬࣍ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤࢅࡢࡋࡴ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ࣬ࢡ࣭ࣜ
ࣈࡡெࠍࡢ࣐ࣛࢬࣤࢹ࣬ࣆ࢚࣭ࢬࢴࢹࡡ጗࢙ࣛࢧ࣊ࢪࡡ༈ᖅඞセཱིᚋࡡࡒࡴ࡞ࠉ1862 ᖳࣞ
ࣤࢺࣤኬᏕථᏕࡡᣦᡋ௧ᮮࠉࡐࡡヾྊࡡᨥᥴ㐘ິࢅࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊEWJ ࡢዥᛮࡡ⮤❟ࡡࡒࡴ
࡞ࠉዥᛮࡡᑍ㛓⫃ࢅ᥆ዜࡊ࡙࠽ࡽࠉࡐࡡ࡝࠾࡚ࡵ༈ᖅඞセࡢࡥ࡛ࡗࡡኬࡀ࡝┘ᵾࡓࡖࡒࠊ
ࡊ࠾ࡊ༈ᖅ࡞࡝ࡾ࡞ࡢ࡜࠹ࡊ࡙ࡵ⏠ᛮࡓࡄ࡞セྊࡈࡿࡒኬᏕථᏕ࠿ᚪさ࡚࠵ࡽࠉኬᏕᆀ᪁
モ㥺ࡡዥᏄࡡུ㥺セྊ࠿ᚪさࡓࡖࡒࠊཤᨳᶊ࡫ࡡ㐠ࡡࡽࡢ㝜ࡊࡂ㛏࠷࠿ࠉ⏠ዥᖲ➴ࡡዥᏄ
㧏➴ᩅ⫩ࡢ᪡᛬࡞㐡ᠺࡌࡾᚪさ࠿࠵ࡾ࡛⩻࠻ࡒ࣍ࢸ࢔ࢨ࡛ࣘࣤࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡢࠉࣃࢴࢲࣤ࡞
ዥᏄ࢜ࣝࢴࢩࢅス❟ࡊࡒࠊࡐࡡ 1869 ᖳ࡞ࠖዥᛮࡡよᨲࠗࡢฝ∟ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ㸦㸧ࠊ
ࠖよᨲࠗࡡฝ∟ࡈࡿࡾ๑ࡡࠉ1866 ᖳࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡢࡐࡡⴥ᭡ The Higher Education of
Women 㸦㸨ࡡ୯࡚ࠉዥᏄ࡛⏠Ꮔࡡᩅ⫩ࡡ┞㐢࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ࠉ୦⩽ࡡᛮ᰹ᙟᠺ࠿࡝ࡈࡿࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ
୹ᘿࡊࠉ⏠ዥᖲ➴ᩅ⫩ࡡ㔔さᛮࢅᣞᦤࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡆࡿ࡞ࡗ࠷࡙⥽⩽ࢩࣔࢾࢴࢹ࣭࣬࣌࣠ࢪ
ࡢࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ࠿ࡐࡡㄵᣈ࡛ࡊ࡙࣐ࣜࠖよᨲࠗࡡ୹ᘿࢅ⧖ࡽ㏁ࡊ୹ᘿࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࡆ࡛ࢅ㏑࡬࡙
࠷ࡾ㸦㸩ࠊࡐࡊ࡙࣐ࣜࡢࠉࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ࠿ゕ࠷ࡒࡂ࡙ࡵ࠷࠻࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡆ࡛ࢅࠖよᨲ࡚ࠗࡢ㏑࡬
࡙࠷ࡾࠊᨳ἖ࡷ⤊ῥࡡᏕㄕ࠿ࡆࡡࡻ࠹࡞㐅ࢆࡓ௑᪝ࠉெ㢦ࡡ༖ᩐࢅ༥ࡴࡾዥᛮࢅኣࡂࡡሒ
㓐ࡡⰃ࠷⫃ᴏࡷࠉ㧏࠷♣ఌⓏ⫃ຸ࡝࡜࠾ࡼ㝎አࡊࠉ⏠ᛮࡡ≺༥ࡡࡱࡱ࡞ࡈࡎ࡙࠽ࡂࡡࡢḿ
⩇࡝ࡡ࠾࡛㸦㸪ࠊ1866 ᖳ࡞ฝ∟ࡈࡿࡒࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡡⴥషࡢࠖよᨲࠗࡡහᐖ࡛㓖జࡊࠉ࣐ࣜ
ࡡዥᏄᩅ⫩ㄵ࠿ᒈ㛜ࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࡆࡿࡢ⥽⩽࣭࣌࣠ࢪࡵ୹ᘿࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࡻ࠹࡞ࠉࡆࡡࢷ࣭࣏
ࡢࠉ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ࣬ࢡ࣭ࣜࣈࡡ࣒ࣤࣁ࣭ࡓࡖࡒࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ࠿ࠉ࠾ࡗ࡙ࢢࣤࢩࣤࢹࣤ࣬
ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔࡚㆗ㄵࡊࡒහᐖ࡞௙࡝ࡼ࡝࠾ࡖࡒ࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡽࠉ
ࠖዥᛮࡡよᨲࠗࡢ 1869 ᖳࡡฝ∟
௧๑࡞ࢢࣤࢩࣤࢹࣤ࣬ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔ࡡெࠍ࡞⌦よࡈࡿࠉゞ㆗ࡈࡿࠉᙴዥࡒࡔࡡ⌦ㄵ࡛࡝ࡽࠉ
ฝ∟ࢅᙽࡔ᭻ࡱࡿ࡙࠷ࡒⴥషࡓࡖࡒ࡛࠷࠻ࡾࡓࢀ࠹ࠊ
1869 ᖳࡡ➠ 1 ᭿(10 ᭮)࠾ࡼࣃࢴࢲࣤࡡ࣊ࣤࢪ࣭ࣞ࣬ࣀࢗࢪ࡚࢜ࣝࢴࢩࡢ࠵ࢂࡒࡓࡊࡂ
㛜ᰧࡊࡒࠊࡌ࡚࡞ࣛࣁࣈ࣭࡚ࣜࡢࠉࢩࣘࢬࣆ࢔࣭ࣤ࣬ࣁࢹ࣭ࣚࢅ୯ᚨ࡞ࠔዥᛮࡡࡒࡴࡡࢢ
ࣤࣇࣛࢴࢩኬᏕㅦᗑࠕ࠿㛜ㅦࡊ࡙࠽ࡽࠉࢢࣤࣇࣛࢴࢩኬᏕ࠾ࡼࡡฝᘿㅦ⩇࠿ࡢࡋࡱࡽዥᏄ
40
Ꮥ⏍ྡྷࡀࡡ≁ืモ㥺࠿ 1869 ᖳ࠾ࡼヾྊࡈࡿࡾࡆ࡛࡞࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡒࠊ࣐ࣜࡡࠔᏰධ࡝ࡾྜྷᶊ
ࡡཋ⌦ࠕࡡᩅ⫩ࢅ୹ᘿࡌࡾࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡒࡔࡢࡆࡡὮࡿ࠿୹Ὦ࡞࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ࡻ࠹࡞㛜ᰧࢅ᛬࠿
࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡼࡍࠉ
ࠖዥᛮࡡよᨲࠗࡡ┘Ⓩ࡚࠵ࡾࠔᏰධ࡝ࡾྜྷᶊࡡཋ⌦ࠕࡡࡒࡴ࡞ࡵࠉࢢࣤࣇ
ࣛࢴࢩኬᏕᏕనࡡཱིᚋࢅ᭩⤂┘ᵾ࡞⏠ᏄᏕ⏍࡛ྜྷࡋ࣑࡚࢜ࣛ࢞ࣖࣚᏕ⩞ࡊࠉྜྷୌࡡኬᏕモ
㥺ࢅུ㥺ࡌࡾࡆ࡛ࢅㄚࡊࡒࠊ1869 ᖳ࡞ථᏕࡊࡒ 5 ெࡢࠉ㡨ㄢ࡞ 2 ᖳᚃࡡ஢ങモ㥺ࢅ✲◒
ࡊࠉ࣍ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤࡢ࣭࢝ࢹࣤ࡫ࡡኬᏕ⛛㌹‵ങ࡞ዌ㉦ࡊࠉࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡢᏕ⏍ࡡᩅ⫩࡞Ἀ㢄
ࡌࡾ୯࡚ࠉ1872 ᖳ 4 ᭮ 26 ᪝ࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡢ࣐ࣜ࡞࣎ࣛࢷ࢔࢙࢜ࣜ࣬ࢤࢿ࣐࣭ࡡࢠࣚࢪࢅス
ࡄࡒࡡ࡚ࠉᮮ᭿࡞ᐁ᪃ࡌࡾモ㥺ၡ㢗ࢅషᠺࡊ࡙࡮ࡊ࠷࡛౪㢏ࡌࡾࠊࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ࡞ࡻࡿࡣࠉ
Ꮥ⏍ࡡ࠹ࡔ஦ெ࠿㐠ᚠ⛁Ꮥࡡࢹࣚ࢕࣎ࢪࢅ┘ᣞࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛࠷࠹ࠊࡆࡿ࠾ࡼኬᏕ࠿࣭࢝ࢹࣤ
࡞⛛㌹ࡊࡒࡡࡔࠉ࣎ࣛࢷ࢔࢙࢜ࣜ࣬ࢤࢿ࣐࣭ࡡࢠࣚࢪࢅኬࡀࡂࡊࡒ࠷࡛࣐ࣜ࡞ఎ࠻࡙࠷ࡾ
㸦㸫ࠊࡐࡡ㏁஥ࡢ
1872 ᖳ 5 ᭮ 6 ᪝࡞㏞ࡼࡿ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࣉࣝࣤ࠾ࡼࡻࢀࡊࡂ࡛᭡࠾ࡿࡒᡥ⣤࡞
ࡢࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡡᕵ᭻㏳ࡽࠉ14 ၡࡡၡ㢗ࢅオࡊࡒ⏕⣤࠿ྜྷᑌࡈࡿ࡙࠷ࡒ㸦㸬ࠊࡐࡡහゼࡢࠉ
ၡ 1,2 ࠿⏍⏐ㄵ࠾ࡼࠉ⏍⏐Ⓩຘ഼࡛୘⏍⏐Ⓩຘ഼ࡡ㐢࠷࡛ࠉ⏍⏐Ⓩᾐ㈕࡛୘⏍⏐Ⓩᾐ㈕ࡡ
㐢࠷ࢅၡ࠹ࡵࡡ࡛⏍⏐Ⓩຘ഼ࡢ୘ንࡡᐣࢅቌຊࡈࡎࡾ࠾࡛ၡ࠹ࠊ3 ၡࡢࠉຘ഼ࡡ⏍⏐ງࢅ
ቌຊࡈࡎࡾࠉ࠵ࡾ࠷ࡢ΅ᑛࡈࡎࡾష⏕ᅄࡢ࡝࡞࠾࡛ၡ࠷ࠉ4 ၡ┘ࡢၛဗࡡ౮ೋ࠿㞺さ࡛౩
⤝࡞౪Ꮛࡌࡾណ࿝࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ㄕ᪺ࡎࡻ࡛࠷࠹ࡵࡡࠊ4 ࠾ࡼ 6 ၡࡢஹᥦㄵ࠾ࡼࡡฝ㢗ࠉ7,8,ࡢ
ฦ㒼ㄵ࠾ࡼࠉ9 ࠾ࡼ 12 ࡢஹᥦㄵ࠾ࡼࠉ13ࠉ14 ࡢฦ㒼ㄵ࠾ࡼฝ㢗ࡈࡿࠉ☔࠾࡞ࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ
࠿ࠖཋ⌦ࠗ3 ⠅ࡱ࡚ࡊ࠾⤂஡࡚ࡀ࡙࠷࡝࠷࡛ࡡࡆ࡛ࢅ⩻៎ࡊ࡙ࡡฝ㢗࡛࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࢸ࣭
ࣥ࢔ࢪ࠿㏞ࡖࡒᏕ⏍ࡡ➽᱄ࢅ࣐ࣜ࠿☔ヾࡊࠉ1872 ᖳ 7 ᭮ 18 ᪝௛ࡡᡥ⣤࡚࣐ࣜࡢࠉ྘Ꮥ⏍
ࡡᠺ⦴フ౮࡛࢓ࢺࣁ࢕ࢪࢅ୍ᐺ࡞ຊ࠻ࠉࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ࡞ᑊࡊᏕ⏍࡞ఎ࠻ࡾࡻ࠹࡞ᣞ♟ࡊ࡙࠷
ࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙ࡐࡡᡥ⣤࡚ࠉࡵ࠹ୌᗐモ㥺ࢅషᠺࡊ࡙ᐁ᪃ࡊࡒ࠷࡛㏑࡬࡙࠷ࡾࠊ࠽ࡐࡼࡂࠖཋ
⌦ࠗࡡㅦ⩇⤂஡ᚃ࡞ධ⠂ᅑ࠾ࡼࡡฝ㢗ࢅ⩻࠻࡙࠷ࡒࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࡓࢀ࠹࠾ࠊ
ࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡢ࣐ࣜࡡࢬࣤࢹ࣬࢓ࣤࢺ࣭ࣛࣖࢪኬᏕࡡྞヽᏕ㛏ᑯ௴ⁿㄕ࡚୹ᘿࡈࡿࡒࡡ࡛
ྜྷᵕ࡞⤂ጙெ㛣ࡡ㝙෪ᛮࢅ㧏ࡴࡾᩅ㣬ᩅ⫩ࢅ㔔っࡊࡒࠊ⏠Ꮔ࡛ࡢืࡡዥᏄྡྷࡄࡡ࢜ࣛ࢞ࣖ
࣑ࣚࢅᐁ᪃ࡊࡒࢨࢩࢗ࢔ࢴࢠࡡࢼ࣭ࣖࢻ࣑࣬࢜ࣝࢴࢩ࡛ࡢ␏࡝ࡽࠉཿ඼ㄊ୯ᚨࡡఎ⤣Ⓩ࢜
࣑ࣛ࢞ࣖࣚ࡞ࡆࡓࢂࡽ⤾ࡄࡒࠊࡐࡡୌ᪁࡚ࠉ๑㏑ࡡࡻ࠹࡞࠵ࡒࡼࡊ࠷Ꮥၡమ⣌࣎ࣛࢷ࢔࢜
࢙ࣜ࣬ࢤࢿ࣐࣭ࡡ࣑࢜ࣛ࢞ࣖࣚࢅ㔔っࡊ࡙࠷ࡾⅤ࡚ࠉ඙ࡡ EWJ ྜྷᵕࠉዥᏄᩅ⫩࡞࠽ࡄࡾ
⤊ῥᏕࡡຝᯕࢅ᭿ᙽࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ࡛ぜࡾࡆ࡛࠿࡚ࡀࡾࡓࢀ࠹ࠊ
5. ࠽ࢂࡽ࡞
࣐ࣜࠖዥᛮࡡよᨲࠗࡢࠉ
ࠔᏰධ࡝ࡾྜྷᶊࡡཋ⌦ࠕࢅ୹ᘿࡊࡗࡗࡵ 1860 ᖳ࡞ࡢฝ∟ࡈࡿ࡝
࠾ࡖࡒࠊࡐࡿࡢࠔཿ࠷โᗐ࡛ៈ⩞࠿Ꮼࡖ࡙࠷ࡾࠕ᭩ࡵ᰷῕࠷វ᝗ࡹ࠻࡞㔕⺽࡚ࡒࡔ࠿ᝇ࠷
ࡒࡴࠉዥᛮよᨲࡢ࠷ࡱࡓᅏ㞬࡚࠵ࡾ࡛࠷࠹࣐ࣜࡡ⩻࠻࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࡾࠊዥᛮࢅ↋⬗ງ࡞ࡊ࡙࠽
ࡂࡆ࡛࡚ࠉᚉᒌ㛭౿ࢅ⥌ᣚࡊࡻ࠹࡛ࡌࡾୠ㛣ࡡ⩻࠻᪁࡞ᑊࡊ࡙ࠉዥᛮ࠿⏠ᛮ࡛❿ணࡊ࡙⫃
ຸ࡞ࡗࡂࡆ࡛࠿セࡈࡿ࡝࠷ࡡࡢ♣ఌ࡞ᑊࡌࡾ᥾ᐐ࡚࠵ࡾ࡛୹ᘿࡌࡾ࣐ࣜࡡ⩻࠻᪁ࡢࠉࡐࡡ
ࡱࡱ࣑ࣚࣤ࢝࣬ࣈࣝ࢕ࢪ࣬ࢡ࣭ࣜࣈࡡ⩻࠻᪁࡚ࡵ࠵ࡽࠉࡐࡡ≁ᚡࡢࠖཋ⌦ࠗ࡞࠽ࡄࡾ༝഼
ࡡཋ⌦࡞Ὡິࡡㄵᣈࢅịࡴࠉዥᛮ࠿⤊ῥⓏ⮤❟ࢅ㐡ᠺࡌࡾ࡛ࡆࢀ࡞࠵ࡖࡒࠊࡱࡒ࣐ࣜྜྷᵕ
࡞ୌ⯙ᩅ㣬ᩅ⫩ࢅ㔔っࡌࡾࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ࠿᩺ฦ㔕ࡡ⤊ῥᏕᩅ⫩ࢅ࣐ࣜ࡞㢏ࢆ࡚⇍ᚨ࡞Ꮥ⏍࡞
᪃ࡌࡡࡵྜྷᵕࡡ⌦⏜࠾ࡼ࡚࠵ࢀ࠹ࠊࢢࣤࢩࣤࢹࣤ࣬ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔ࡡ᭩ᖳᑛఌဤࡓࡖࡒ࣐ࣛࢬ
ࣤࢹ࣬ࣆ࢚࣭ࢬࢴࢹࡵࡱࡒࠉⴥ᭡ Political Economy for beginners ࡡ୯࡚࣐ࣜࡡࠖཋ⌦ࠗ
41
ࡡさ⣑ࢅ⾔࠷ࡗࡗࠉິឺㄵ࡞࠽ࡄࡾ༝഼ࡡཋ⌦࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ࡢ᫤௥࡞༳ࡊࡒࡵࡡ࡛ࡌࡾࡒࡴ࡞
ቌ⿭ᨭゖࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊᙴዥࡒࡔࡡࣆ࣐࢘ࢼࢫ࣑ࡢ⌟ᐁၡ㢗ࡡよỬࡡࡒࡴ࡞ࠖཋ⌦ࠗࡡ࢓ࢮࢨ
࢙࣭ࢨࣘࣤㄵࡡࡵ࡛ࠉ༝഼࡞ࡻࡾ♣ఌⓏฺ─ࢅᕰሔཋ⌦ࡡአ࡞᝷ᏽࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ࠉ⮤
ฦࡒࡔࡡὩິ࡞౮ೋࢅ୙࠻ࠉ࣐ࣜࡡࠖዥᛮࡡよᨲࠗࢅೇࡽ࡙⌦ㄵⓏ⿤ࡘࡄ࡛ࡊࡒࡵࡡ࡚࠵
ࡾ࡛⩻࠻ࡾࠊࡐࡊ࡙ࡐࡡណ࿝࡚ࠉ
ࠖよᨲࠗࡡ⌦ㄵࡢࠉᙔ᫤ࡌ࡚࡞࣒ࣤࣁ࣭භ㏳ࡡ୹ᘿ࡞࡝ࡖ
࡙࠽ࡽࠉ࣐ࣜࡢ 1869 ᖳ࡛࠷࠹ዥᛮࡡ㐅ฝࡡ➠ୌṄࢅ᭿ࡊ࡙ࠉᑑᮮࡡࠔᏰධ࡝ࡾྜྷᶊࡡཋ
⌦ࠕࡡࡒࡴࠉ࠵࠻࡙ࠖよᨲࠗࢅฝ∟ࡊࡒࡡ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ࡓࢀ࠹࠾ࠊ
CW.V. Essay on Economics and Society :Appendix C.pp.764-765, Examination paper
set by JSM,1872.
㸧 JH.ALSJSMILL HUT4 (ࢩࣘࣤ࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪኬᏕᡜⶮ)Emily Davies Collected Letters
㸦
1861-1875.Edited by Ann B.Murphy and Deirdre Raftery. University of Virginia Press
㸨 The English Woman’s Journal(1858-64) Published by The English Woman’s Journal
Company Limited.
㸩 Lamgham Place Group(Circle) ࢕ࣤࢡࣛࢴࢨ࣭࣏ࣖ࣬ࢗࣤࢫ࣬ࢩ࣭ࣔࢻࣜ♣࠿ࡐࡡഘ
ୖࡡ⤄⧂࡛ࡊ࡙ዥᛮ㞘⏕ಀ㐅༝ఌࢅス❟ࡊࠉභྜྷࡡ஥ຸᡜ࡞௛ᒌࡌࡾዥᛮࡡࡒࡴࡡ࣭ࣛࢸ
࢔ࣤࢡ࣭࣑࣬ࣜࡷࢦࣞࣤࢅ㛜ᨲࡊ࡙࠷ࡒࠊࡐࡆࢅ୯ᚨ࡛ࡊ࡙㞗ࡱࡖࡒெࠍࡡࢡ࣭ࣜࣈ࡚ࠉ
࣭ࣛࢩ࢘ࣤ㺙㏳ࡡୌ⣥ࡡሔᡜ࡞࠵ࡖࡒࡒࡴ࡛ࠉJ.S.࣐ࣜࡡ㐽ᣪ࡚ࡢ㐽ᣪ⏕ࡡ㤷㌬ࢅ౐ࡖࡒὬ
ᡥ࡝ᚺᥴࢅࡊࡒࡒࡴἸ┘ࡈࡿࡒࠊ
㸪 ࢕ࣤࢡࣛࢴࢨ࣭࣏ࣖ࣬ࢗࣤࢫ࣬ࢩ࣭ࣔࢻࣜ࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ណᚷࡡࡻࡽ࡜ࡆࢀࢅぜࡗࡄࡒዥᛮࡡ
ᨳ἖⤊ῥⓏ࡝ゞㄵ⤄⧂ࠊ᭩⤂Ⓩ࡞ዥᛮཤᨳᶊࡡࡒࡴࡡㄫ㢢᭡ࢅ࣐ࣜ࡞ォࡌࡾࡆ࡛࡚ᅆ⤎ࡌ
ࡾ࠿ࠉࣉࣝࣤ࣬ࢷ࢕࣭ࣚࡵຊථࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊ
㸫Profession of the Teacher. The English Woman’s Journal. Vol.I.March.1858.English
Woman’s Journal Company.London.
㸬 The Opinion of John Stuart Mill The English Woman’s Journal.
Vol.VI.Sep.I,Nov.XXIX.1860.
㸭 Mid –Victorian Feminism, Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon
Sheilar Harstein. Yale
University Press. 1985. p.134.
㸮 Parliamentary Suffrage for Women’s
Helen Taylor.
Sexual Equality writing by John Stuart Mill, Harriet Taylor Mill, and Helen Taylor.
University of Toronto Press. Edited by Ann P. Lobson and John M. Robson. 1994.
pp.211-212.ࢢࣤࢩࣤࢹࣤ࣬ࢮࢦ࢙ࢷ࢔ࡡ஥ຸᑻ㛏ࡓࡖࡒ࢙࣐࣭ࣛ࣬ࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪࡢහᐖ࠿㐛
⃥ࡌࡁࡾ࡛ᢀึࡊ࡙࠷ࡾࠊࢢࣤࣇࣛࢴࢩࠉ࣭࢝ࢹࣤ࣬࢜ࣝࢴࢩ࣬࢓࣭࢜࢕ࣥᡜⶮ࢙࣐࣭ࣛ࣬
ࢸ࣭ࣥ࢔ࢪ᭡⠾ GC:ALS ED B1.
㸦㸥 Mill-Taylor correspondence LSE., Helen Taylor to Barbara Bdichon, 9.May 1866.
London Metropolitan University, Women’s Library. Box.FL646.7BMC/B/1.Barbara
Bodichon to Helen Talor, 9.May 1866.
㸦㸦“ Helen Taylor suffragist” Barbara McCrimmon. Manuscripts 1978. Spring. P.99.
㸦㸧 ఢࡊ࣐ࣜࡢ࣭࢝ࢹࣤ࡞ࡢᏺᩅⓏ⌦⏜࠾ࡼᐞ௛ࢅ⏞ࡊථࡿ࡙࠷࡝࠷ࠊ Emily Davies and
Girton Coliege Barbara Stephen.1927.Hyperion Press ,INC.p.246.
㸦㸨 The Higher Education of Women Emily Davies 1866.The Hambledon Press.
㸦㸩 Ibid.,Editors introduction.XXXV.
㸦㸪 The Subjection of women. ‘ Collected works of John Stuart Mill..㑝ゼࠖዥᛮࡡよᨲࠗ
ᒷἴᩝᗔ 1857.➠ 3 ❮
㸦㸫ࢩࣘࣤ࣬࣌ࣈ࢞ࣤࢪኬᏕᡜⶮ᭡⠾ Emily Davies Collected Letters 1861-1875. Edited by
Ann B.Murphy and Deirdre Raftery. University of Virginia Press
㸦㸬 ᡥ✇ࡢ࣭࢝ࢹࣤ࣬࢜ࣝࢴࢩ࣬࢓࣭࢜࢕ࣥࠉCW.V.AppendixC.pp.764-765.
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