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Lesson 14

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Part II Lesson 14
The History of Blood Transfusions
Lesson
14
The History of Blood Transfusions1
1
Although it appears that even before Harvey discovered the principle
of the circulation of blood 2 in 1628, there were attempts to transfuse3 blood
for the improvement of health, authentic4 references date back5 no farther
than the middle of the 17th century. In his diary, Samuel Pepys refers to 6 a
transfusion7 between dogs and ruminants8 "this technic9 may be of mighty
use to 10 man's health for the amending11 of bad blood by borrowing from a
better body . . ."
2
The first authentically-recorded12 successful transfusion of humans
was performed by Jean Denis, physician13 to Louis XIV14, in June, 1667.
Because their possible mental effect appealed15 to the interest of early
investigators, transfusions were tried on lunatics16. The fourth transfusion
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blood transfusions .................................................................................................................輸血
circulation of blood ....................................................................................................... 血液循環
transfuse ....................................................................................................................... 輸血する
authentic ................................................................................................ 信ずべき、信頼に足る
date back.....................................................................................∼年に遡る(ことができる)
refer to ...................................................................................................................∼に言及する
transfusion ............................................................................................................................輸血
ruminant ....................................................................................................................... 反芻動物
technic ......................................................................................................... 技術(=technique)
be of use to ............................................................................................................∼の役に立つ
amend........................................................................................................................... 改良する
authentically-recorded.................................................................................... 正式に記録された
physician ..............................................................................................................................医者
Louis XIV................................................................................................................... ルイ 14 世
appeal ..................................................................................... (∼に興味を)引き起こさせる
lunatic....................................................................................................................... 精神病患者
検査技師のための英語 第2版 河合 忠・鈴木伝次 医学書院 p47-51
Part II Lesson 14
The History of Blood Transfusions
which Denis administered17 resulted in the death of his patient, and he was
tried for murder 18. Subsequently19, the procedure was legally20 prohibited in
France, Italy and England.
3
In 1818, interest was revived again when James Blundell was
successful with 5 out of the 10 transfusions he administered. By 1875, there
were on record 21 347 transfusions, 128 of the involving22 animal blood. As
late as 187823, a transfusion of cow's milk was advocated24.
4
In 1900, Karl Landsteiner's discovery of the ABO blood group25
system opened the way to26 successful therapy27, thus solving the mystery
of why some transfusions produced dire28 results while others were
successful.
5
The subsequent introduction of syringe-valve methods29 marked30
another advance in transfusion therapy, making it possible to regulate flow
from donor31 to recipient32. The discovery of sodium citrate33 as an
anticoagulant34 in 1914 was another important step toward successful
17
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administer ..................................................................................................................... 施行する
he was tried for murder ...................................................................殺人罪で裁判にかけられた
subsequently ................................................................................................................. それ以降
legally........................................................................................................................... 法律的に
on record................................................................................................................... 記録にある
involving ............................................................................................... ∼絡みの、∼に関する
As late as 1878.............................................................................................. 1878 年に至っても
advocate.................................................................................................................... 推奨される
ABO blood group..................................................................................................... ABO 血液型
opened the way to ................................................................... ∼への[∼のために]道を開く
therapy..................................................................................................................................治療
dire ................................................................................................................................... 悲惨な
syringe-valve method............................................................................. 注射器と弁を用いる法
mark .....................................................................................................................................示す
donor ................................................................................................................................ ドナー
recipient.................................................................................................................レシピエント
sodium citrate ............................................................................................ クエン酸ナトリウム
anticoagulant................................................................................................................. 抗凝固剤
検査技師のための英語 第2版 河合 忠・鈴木伝次 医学書院 p47-51
Part II Lesson 14
The History of Blood Transfusions
transfusion therapy.
6
During recent years, several other distinct blood groups, in addition
to35 the ABO system, have been discovered. Existence of the Rh system
was discovered by Landsteiner and Wiener in 1940.
What is Blood?
7
Blood is a complex fluid (plasma) in which red cells, white cells and
platelets36 are suspended. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin37, which
carries oxygen38 from the lungs to the body tissues. The white blood cells
fight disease. Platelets aid blood coagulation39, thus arresting bleeding40.
While all of these cells have important functions, the oxygen-carrying red
cells are the major life-sustaining41 substance.
8
Red cells also contain a number of different chemicals known as
blood group factors42, or antigens43. Each person has his own complex
arrangement of blood group factors, making his cells almost as distinctive44
as his fingerprints,
9
For a successful transfusion. blood does not have to be identical ----if they did, only identical twins could donate blood45 for each other --- but
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in addition to............................................................................................................. ∼とは別に
platelet.............................................................................................................................. 血小板
hemoglobin............................................................................................................ヘモグロビン
oxygen..................................................................................................................................酸素
blood coagulation.......................................................................................................... 血液凝固
bleeding ................................................................................................................................出血
life-sustaining ............................................................................................ 生命を維持している
blood group factor..................................................................................................... 血液型因子
antigen..................................................................................................................................抗原
distinctive ......................................................................................................................... 特有の
donate blood ................................................................................................................. 献血する
検査技師のための英語 第2版 河合 忠・鈴木伝次 医学書院 p47-51
Part II Lesson 14
The History of Blood Transfusions
they must be compatible46 .
10 The ABO is the most important of the blood group systems. It is
comprised of 47 the four major blood groups - A, B, O, and AB - into which
all human blood can be differentiated48. The approximate incidence49 of
these groups within the population of the United States is: O (most
common), 45 Percent; A, 40 percent; B, 10 percent; and AB, 5 percent.
11 Bloods may differ because of blood group systems other than the
ABO systems. The best known of these is the Rh system, but there are
more than 10 others, characterized by the presence of other antigens50.
These less important blood group systems include MNS, P, Lewis,
Lutheran, Duffy, Kell, Kidd and Diego. Transfusion problems which they
present are rare in comparison to51 those caused by Rh and ABO
differences.
12 Blood containing certain of these factors may react unfavorably52 with
another type blood when the two are mixed. This is due to the reaction of
antibodies53 in the recipient's54 plasma55 against antigens of the donor's56 red
cells, which results in the destruction57 of the donor's red cells.
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compatible .............................................................................................................互換性がある
be comprised of.............................................................................................. ∼から成っている
differentiate .................................................................................................................. 識別する
incidence .................................................................................................................. 出現(率)
antigen..................................................................................................................................抗原
in comparison to ....................................................................................................∼と比べれば
unfavorably............................................................................................................好ましくなく
antibody................................................................................................................................抗体
recipient.................................................................................................................レシピエント
plasma ..................................................................................................................................血漿
donor ................................................................................................................................ ドナー
destruction ............................................................................................................................破壊
検査技師のための英語 第2版 河合 忠・鈴木伝次 医学書院 p47-51
Part II Lesson 14
The History of Blood Transfusions
13 When cells with a particular antigen are mixed with a serum58
containing the corresponding antibody, the red cells are agglutinated59 or
clumped60 together. The cells become distorted61, and the cell membranes
may break, liberating hemoglobin, resulting in the destruction of the cell.
(From FACTS ABOUT BLOOD BANKING prepared by American
Association of Blood Banks.)
58
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serum....................................................................................................................................血清
agglutinate .................................................................................................................... 凝集する
clump............................................................................................................................ 凝集する
distort ........................................................................................................................... 変形する
検査技師のための英語 第2版 河合 忠・鈴木伝次 医学書院 p47-51
Part II Lesson 14
The History of Blood Transfusions
NOTE 14
l
2
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blood transfusion........................................................................... 輸血
authentic = reliable, trustworthy .......................................... 信ずべき
ruminant ............................................................................... 反芻動物
Louis XIV .......................................................................... ルイ 14 世
lunatic ............................................................................... 精神病患者
result in ............................................................. (∼の結果に)終わる
be tried for murder ................................... 殺人罪で公判に付される
As late as 1878 .................................................... 1878 年に至っても
syringe-valve methods ................................. 注射器と弁を用いる法
sodium citrate ................................................... クエン酸ナトリウム
anticoagulant ........................................................................ 抗凝固剤
plasma .......................................................................................... 血漿
blood coagulation ................................................................. 血液凝固
life-sustaining ................................................... 生命を維持している
blood group factor ............................................................ 血液型因子
fingerprint .................................................................................... 指紋
identical twin ................................................................ 一卵性双生児
blood group system .................................................. 血液型システム
is comprised of = consists of ............................ ∼で構成されている
recipient ................................................................................... 受皿者
donor ........................................................................................ 供血者
be agglutinated or clumped together ..................... (血球が)凝集する
cell membrane .......................................................................... 細胞膜
検査技師のための英語 第2版 河合 忠・鈴木伝次 医学書院 p47-51
Part II Lesson 14
The History of Blood Transfusions
EXERCISES 14
A
Answer the following questions in English.
l
Who discovered the principle of the circulation of blood?
Harvey did.
2
Who performed the first authentically-recorded successful transfusion of human blood?
Jean Denis did.
3
What did Karl Landsteiner discover in 1900?
He discovered the ABO blood group system.
4
What is the function of platelets?
They aid blood coagulation.
5
What happens when cells with a particular antigen are mixed with a serum containing the
corresponding antibody?
The red cells are agglutinated or clumped together.
B Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition.
1
In his diary, Samuel Pepys refers ( to ) a transfusion between dogs.
2
Transfusions were tried ( on ) lunatics.
3
The transfusion resulted ( in ) the death of his patient.
4
Red cells contain a number of different chemicals known ( as ) blood group f actors .
5
Transfusion problems which the less important blood group systems present are rare ( in )
comparison to those caused by Rh and ABO differences.
C Translate the following Japanese into English.
1
輸血
blood transfusion
2
抗原
antigen
3
抗体
antibody
4
細胞膜
cell membrane
5
体組織
body tissue
6
抗凝固剤
anticoagulant
7
血液型因子
blood group factor
8
供血者
the donor of blood
9
受皿者
the recipient of blood
10
血液凝固
blood coagulation
11
献血する
donate blood
12
凝集する
be agglutinated or clumped together
13
血液の循環
circulation of blood
14
クエン酸ナトリウム
sodium citrate
D Translate the following Japanese into English.
1
ハーベイは 1628 年の血液循環の原理を発見しました。
Harvey discovered the principle of the circulation of blood in 1628.
2
輸血は精神病患者に試みられました。
Transfusions were tried on lunatics.
3
白血球は病気と闘います。
The white blood cells fight (with or against) disease.
4
輸血がうまくいくためには、血液は全く同じである必要はありません。
For a successful transfusion, blood does not have to be identical.
5
ABO は血液型の中で最も重要なものです。
The ABO is the most important of the blood group systems.
検査技師のための英語 第2版 河合 忠・鈴木伝次 医学書院 p47-51
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