Element Project Created By: Travis Wieland Period 7 Physical Science Hydrogen - H Hydrogen has one valence electron. Hydrogen’s atomic number is 1. Hydrogen forms a +1 cation. 4 Facts Hydrogen reacts quickly with oxygen. Hydrogen is colorless. About 75% of the element mass of the universe is Hydrogen. Most hydrogen is used for processing fossil fuels. Group 1- Alkali Metals Group 1 elements have 1 valence electrons. Group 1 elements form +1 cations. Group 1 elements are soft,shiny, and react violently with water. Potassium - K Potassium is in group 1 because it has one valence electron. Potassium’s atomic number is 19. 4 Facts Potassium is an Alkali Metal. Potassium emits a violet flame color when burned. Potassium is highly reactive. You will NEVER find Potassium in its Pure form. Group 2 - Alkaline-Earth Metals Group 2 elements has 2 valence electrons. Group 2 elements form +2 cations. Group 2 elements are less reactive than group 1 elements. Radium - Ra Radium is in group 2 because it has 2 valence electrons. Radium’s atomic number is 88. 4 Facts Radiums Melting point is 1,292 F (699.8 C) Its color is metallic. Located in period 7. Radium was discovered in France (1898) Groups 3-12 - Transition Metals Electrons can vary depending on the element. They lose electrons to form positive ions. They are MUCH less reactive than groups 1 and 2. Iron - Fe Iron’s atomic number is 26 Iron is in groups 3-12 because it can lose electrons to form a positive bond. 4 Facts Irons color is a metallic or greyish tinge. Iron is in group 8. Iron is also located in period 4. Iron is in the d-block. Group 13 - Boron Family Group 13 elements have 3 valence electrons. Group 13 elements form +3 cations. Atomic radius increases down the group. Aluminium - Al Aluminium’s atomic number is 13. Aluminium is in Group 13 because it has 3 valence electrons. 4 Facts Aluminium is the most common metal in the Earth’s outer layer. Aluminium is also found in cans,foil, and siding. Aluminium is in period 3. Aluminiums color is silvery and its located in the p-block. Group 14 - Carbon Family Group 14 elements have 4 valence electrons. Group 14 elements don’t form any ions they form covalent bonds. All elements of Group 14 and form 4 bonds, the most of any family. Carbon - C Carbon is in Group 14 because they have 4 valence electrons. Carbon’s atomic number is 6. 4 Facts Carbon in its pure form is graphite or diamond. Carbon is found in all living substances. Carbon is in period 3. Carbon in the human body is the second most abundant element in mass right after oxygen. Group 15 - Nitrogen Family Group 15 elements have 5 valence electrons. Group 15 elements form an anion with a -3 charge. The atomic radii is increased in size as you go down the group. Arsenic - As Arsenic’s atomic number is 33. Arsenic is in group 15 because it has 5 valence electrons. 4 Facts Arsenic is in period 4. Melting Point: 1,502.6 F (817 C) Discovered: 2500BC Boiling Point: 1,117.4 F (603 C) Group 16 - Oxygen Family Group 16 elements have 6 valence electrons. Group 16 elements form -2 anions. Can also be called the Chalcogen Family. Oxygen - O Oxygen's atomic number is 8. Oxygen is in group 16 because it has 6 valence electrons. 4 Facts Oxygen is in period 2. Most common elements on Earth's outer layer. Melting Point: Minus 361.82 F (Minus 218.79 C) Its a Gas at room temperature. Group 17 - Halogen Family Group 17 elements have 7 valence electrons. Group 17 elements form -1 anions. Group 17 elements react most readily with alkali to form white solids known as salts. Fluorine - F Fluorine’s atomic number is 9. Fluorine is in group 17 because it has 7 valence electrons. 4 Facts Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive element. Fluorine’s atomic weight is 18.9984032. Melting Point: -363.41 F (-219.67 C) Fluorine comes from the french and latin word fluere which means flux or flow. Group 18 - Noble Gas Noble Gases have 8 valence electrons. Noble Gases are pure and don’t form ions. All elements in this category are gases. Neon - Ne Neon’s atomic number is 10. Neon is in group 18 because it has 8 valence electrons. 4 Facts Neon is in period 2. Atomic Weight: 20.1797. Neon is colorless. Neon is in the p-block. Lanthanides - Pulled out of the d-block Lanthanides valence electrons can not be predicted. Some Lanthanides are used in the production of steel and glass. Lanthanides have unpredicted cations. Lanthanum - La Lanthanum’s atomic number is 57. Lanthanum has unpredicted cations. (Why its in the group) 4 Facts Lanthanum is in the f-block. Lanthanum is in period 6. Lanthanum is a solid. Melting Point: 1193K (920 C) (1688 F) Actinides - Pulled out of the d-block Actinides valence electrons can not be predicted. Actinides have unpredicted cations. All actinides are radioactive. Actinium - Ac Actinium’s atomic number is 89. Actinium has an unpredicted cations. (Why its in the group) 4 Facts Silvery-White glowing with blue. Its in group N. Located in a,f-block. It is a solid.
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