CHMP summary of positive opinion for Synjardy

Herbal Supplement Reference Chart
Part 1
5400 Kennedy Avenue • Cincinnati, OH • 45213 • (513) 924-5300
LaValle Metabolic Institute
Do not use herbs if you are pregnant or nursing unless under the care and supervision of a doctor or other qualified health care professional. Anyone taking prescription
or non-prescription medications OR with pre-existing health care conditions should only take herbal supplements under the care and supervision of a doctor or qualified
health care professional.
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Reported Uses
Dosage and
General immune
support: 250-500mg,
two to three times a day
Aggressive therapy: 4 x
250mg, three to four
times a day for two to
four weeks, then 2 x
250mg, two to three
times a day thereafter
Enhances immunity
Immune support in cancer therapy
Support in chemotherapy and radiation
Used in conditions needing immune
support such as HIV infection, colds and
Adverse Effects*
- Do not use if allergic to
mushrooms or fungus
- Use with caution if taking
immunosuppressive drugs or
drugs for the immune system
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Popular Uses
Immune enhancement
General health tonic
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Reported Uses
Dosage and
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
daily, standandardized
caffeoylquinic acids
Stimulates the flow of bile
May lower cholesterol levels
Eczema and skin disorders
Liver protective agent
Non-ulcer dyspepsia (upset stomach)
450-900mg daily,
standardized to 1.5%
withanolides, 1% alkaloids
Adaptogen (enhances mental and
physical performance, improves learning
ability, and decreases stress and fatigue)
May improve resistance to diseases such
as cancer and diabetes
May improve immune function
General tonic in stressful situations,
especially insomnia, overwork,
nervousness, and restlessness
Chemoprotective agent (protects the
body against radiation or chemotherapy
damage); may help chemotherapy and
radiation therapy work on cancer
(Withania somniferum)
Adverse Effects*
- Do not use if allergic to plants in
the daisy family
- Do not use if biliary obstruction
or gallstones are present
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Use with caution in sedatives
and hypnotics such as
barbiturates (reported to
increase the effects of these
May alter thyroid hormone
levels; use with caution in
thyroid hormone replacement
and thyroid disease
Use with caution in patients on
anticoagulants or anti-platelet
Ashwagandha is rich in iron; use
caution in individuals taking
iron supplementation or on lowiron diets
Popular Uses
Liver and gallbladder health
Healthy cholesterol support
Improve resistance to diseases
Immune enhancement
Stress; fatigue (adrenal function)
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Astragalus membranaceus)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
250-500mg, 4 times a day,
standardized to a minimum
of 0.4% 4’-hydroxy-3'methoxyisoflavone 7-sug
(Bacopa monniera)
(Vaccinium myrtillus)
100mg, 1-4 times a day,
standardized to contain 20%
bacosides A and B
80-480mg daily,
standardized to 25%
anthocyanosides, calculated
as anthocyanidins
Adaptogen (enhances mental and
physical performance, improves
learning ability, and decreases
stress and fatigue)
May improve resistance to
diseases such as cancer and
May improve immune function
Used to support the body during
chemotherapy and radiation
May increases oxygen to tissues
Memory enhancement and
improving cognitive function
Stress reduction
Gastric ulcers
Eye health
Diabetic retinopathy, myopia,
diminished visual acuity, dark
adaptation, day and night
blindness, cataracts
Cardiovascular health – helps
maintain healthy blood vessels
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution in individuals
on immune therapies such as
immunosuppressive drugs or
immune globulin therapy
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Popular Uses
Improve resistance to diseases
Immune enhancement
May increase cellular
May affect liver enzymes that
metabolize certain prescription
medications; use with caution
May alter thyroid hormone
levels; use with caution in
thyroid hormone replacement
and thyroid disease
Mental function
Stress reduction
Use with caution if taking
anticoagulants (blood thinning
agents) including aspirin
Eye health
Cardiovascular health
Diabetic complications
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Bitter Melon
(Momordica charantia)
Black Cohosh
(Actaea racemosa OR
Cimicifuga racemosa)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
200-500mg, 2-3 times a
day, standardized to
5.1% triterpenes OR
standardized to 10%
20mg, 2 times a day,
standardized to 1mg
triterpenes (27deoxyacteine)
May help the body regulate blood sugar
levels; useful in diabetes
Antiviral; may be useful in HIV
May help in lowering cholesterol levels
Weight loss
Hormonal replacement therapy
Used in menopausal complaints
and PMS, especially hot flashes
May be useful in cancer therapies,
including breast and prostate
May have protective effects
against breast cancer development
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution in individuals
taking medications for blood
sugar control
Bromelain (from pineapple,
Anas comosus)
250-750mg 2-3 times a
day between or before
meals containing at
least 2000 mcu/ gram
Used in arthritis and other
inflammatory conditions
Used to decrease swelling after
Also used as a digestive enzyme
May help improve cardiovascular
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Do not use if liver problems
May cause muscle weakness in
long-term use
Contraindicated in pregnancy
and lactation
Use caution if taking hormonal
drugs such as estrogen or birth
control pills
May cause nausea, vomiting,
and headache in high doses
Use with caution if taking
anticoagulants (blood thinning
agents) including aspirin
Use with caution in individuals
susceptible to gastric ulcers
Popular Uses
Diabetes and diabetic complications
Support of healthy pancreas function
Weight loss
Female related hormonal
Cancer protection, including
breast and prostate
Enzyme function
Cardiovascular health
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Cascara sagrada
(Rhamnus persiana)
Cat’s Claw
(Uncaria tomentosa)
Root bark
Reported Uses
Dosage and
Adverse Effects*
derivatives daily,
calculated as
cascaroside A.
Laxative (anthraquinone type)
250-1000mg, 3 times a
day, standardized to
contain 3% alkaloids
and 15% total phenols;
OR 20-40mg, 3 times
daily standardized to
contain not less than
1.3% pentacyclic
oxindole aldkaloids and
not more than 0.006%
tetracyclic oxindole
alkaloids; OR 6001800mg daily
standardized to 0.5%
pentacyclic oxindole
alkaloids (TOA free)
May improve resistance to
diseases such as cancer
May be sued to improve immune
Antibacterial, antifungal, and
Useful in cancer support
Lyme disease (TOA free product)
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Popular Uses
Avoid in children under 12 years of
May alter absorption and effects of
some oral medications and deplete
vitamins and fluids from the body; use
only under the supervision of a doctor
or qualified health care professional if
on prescription medications or using
more than occasionally
Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Immune therapies such
as immunosuppressive
drugs or immune
globulin therapy
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
Immune enhancement
Cancer support
Gastrointestinal health; bowel terrain
- Lyme disease (TOA free product)
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Capsicum annuum)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
400mg, 3 times a day,
standardized to
Scoville heat units
(SCU), with
150,000SCU being
Topically, apply 3-4
times daily to unbroken
skin standardized to
0.25% or greater
capsaicin content
Digestive stimulation
Heart and blood vessel health
Topically for inflammation and
pain such as in arthritis
May decrease “bad” cholesterol
Adverse Effects*
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Use with caution in peptic or duodenal
ulcer and in gastroesophageal reflux
disease (GERD)
Use with caution if taking
anticoagulants (blood thinning agents)
including aspirin
Use with caution if taking MAO
Popular Uses
- Anti-inflammatory agent
- Cardiovascular health
- Digestion
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Matricaria recutita,
Anthemis nobilis)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
400-1600mg daily in
divided doses
standardized to 1-1.2%
apigenin and 0.5%
essential oil
May use tea (1 heaping
teaspoonful in hot
water – steep 10
minutes, drink up to 3
times a day)
Carminative (stomach settling),
Mild sedative, anti-anxiety agent
Adverse Effects*
Topically for mild inflammation and
other skin disorders
Mouth rinse and gargle for oral health
Gargle with mouth
rinse 2-3 times a day or
as needed.
Topically – apply
preparation 3-4 times
daily to unbroken skin
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Use with caution in individuals with
severe ragweed allergy or allergy to
members of the daisy
(chrysanthemum) family
Popular Uses
Digestive tonic
Stress, especially in children
Mouth rinse
Topically for wound healing
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Chaste berry
(Vitex agnus-castus)
(Coleus forskohlii)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
200-400mg every
morning, preferably on
an empty stomach,
either 1 hour before or
2 hours after breakfast,
standardized to contain
at least 0.5% agnuside
and 0.6% aucubin; OR
20-40mg daily of fruit
extract; OR 4mg daily
standardized to 6%
250mg 1-3 times daily
standardized to 1%
forskolin/ OR 50mg 13 times daily
standardized to 18%
Hormonal replacement therapy
Progesterone-like action with uses
in PMS, menopause, corpus
luteum insufficiency and other
menstrual irregularities
Insufficient lactation and
Breast discomfort
High blood pressure and other
cardiovascular conditions
Allergies, eczema
Weight loss
Adverse Effects*
- May alter hormonal therapy
such as birth control and
hormone replacement therapy
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Use with caution in low blood
Avoid in peptic ulcer disease
Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Antihypertensives
o Decongestants
o Antihistamines
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
o Thyroid medications
Popular Uses
- Female related hormonal imbalances
Weight loss
High blood pressure
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Cordyceps sinensis)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
1050mg, 2-3 times a
day, standardized to
contain 0.14%
adenosine and 5%
(Taraxacum officinale)
250-500mg, 3 times a
day of whole root,
standardized extract
OR 5-10ml, 3 times a
day, of liquid extract
(1:1w/v fresh plant or
1:4w/v dried plant) in
water or juice.
Adverse Effects*
Supports healthy lung and kidney
Support wellness, longevity, and
general health
Used to support the body during
chemotherapy and radiation
Improves sexual vitality
Liver protective
May lower cholesterol levels
Beneficial for athletes in
increasing stamina and endurance
Helps reduce tiredness and fatigue
Improves resistance to disease and
immune function
Do not use if allergic to mushrooms or
Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
Disorders of bile secretion
Appetite stimulation
Dyspeptic complaints
Diuretic (plant)
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Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents) including
MAO inhibitors
Immune therapies such as
immunosuppressive drugs or
immune globulin therapy
Popular Uses
Immune system enhancement
Stress, fatigue
Liver protection
Support general health and wellness
Lung health
Do not use if allergic to plants in - Detoxification
the daisy family
- Diuretic
Do not use if biliary obstruction
or gallstones are present
Dandelion plant may increase
fluid loss; use with caution if
taking diuretics
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Echinacea purpurea
Echinacea angustifolia)
Flower, herb
Reported Uses
Dosage and
Acute – 500-1000mg, 3
times a day for day 1,
then 250-500mg, 4
times a day.
Prevention – 250mg
daily, 3 weeks on and 1
week off. Products
should be standardized
to contain 4%
echinacosides or 4%
sesquiterpene esters;
liquid succus dosages
range from 6-9mL
daily in divided doses,
for five to seven days
TO 60 drops three
times a day with food
for 1 day, then 40 drops
three times a day with
food for up to 10 days,
standardized to contain
not less than 2.4
percent soluble beta-1,2
D-5 fructofuranosides;
some products may
also be standardized to
isobutyl amide content
Improves resistance to disease and
immune function; may be used to
stimulate immunity after
Used in prevention and treatment
of colds, flu, minor infections,
tonsillitis, sore throat;
Topically for wounds and skin
disorders such as eczema
Popular Uses
Adverse Effects*
- Do not use if allergic to plants in - Immune enhancement
the daisy family
- Support in colds/influenza; may
- Recommended for no longer
decrease length and severity of a
than 10 days of therapy in
cold or upper respiratory condition
treatment of infections
- Not for use in patients with
chronic immunosuppression
- Use in caution in individuals
with kidney disorders
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Herb/ Plant Part Used
Evening Primrose
(Oenothera biennis)
Oil from seed
(Tanacetum parthenium)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
2-8 grams daily in
divided doses,
standardized to 8%
gamma-linolenic acid
(equal to 180-720mg
gamma-linolenic acid
(GLA); dosage depends
on severity of
100-250mg daily,
standardized to 0.20.4% parthenolide.
Rich in gamma-linolenic acid
(GLA, an omega-6 essential fatty
Eczema, psoriasis and other skin
PMS, menopause
Rheumatoid and osteo-arthritis
Diabetes and diabetic neuropathy
Multiple sclerosis
Used in the preventative treatment
of migraine headaches
Inflammatory conditions such as
Adverse Effects*
- Do not use in schizophrenia or
seizure disorders
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Antisychotic
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
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Popular Uses
- Omega-6 essential fatty acid
- PMS, menopause
- Skin health
- Arthritis support
- Diabetic neuropathy
Do not use in pregnancy
- Headache therapy
Do not use if allergic to plants in - Anti-inflammatory
the daisy family
Use with caution if taking
anticoagulants (blood thinning
agents) including aspirin
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Allium sativum)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
Aged garlic extract,
600-1200mg daily in
divided doses or Вј-ВЅ
teaspoon (300-600mg)
or 30-60 drops
with a meal twice daily
; garlic 400mg, 3 times
a day; standardized to
contain 10-12mg/Gm
alliin and/or 4000mcg
of Total Allicin
Potential (TAP)
Aged garlic reported to:
o Antioxidant
o Protects against cancer
o May improve immune
system health
o Heart and liver protective
o May lower cholesterol
o May lower c-reactive
protein and homocysteine
levels, major causes of
heart disease
o High blood pressure and
o May decrease fatigue
o May protect against health
problems associated with
o May lower stress
Antibacterial/antifungal – use high
allicin content garlic
May be useful in stomach ulcers
Topically as insect repellant
Adverse Effects*
May cause gastrointestinal distress in
sensitive individuals, such as nausea,
vomiting and stomach upset
Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
- Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents) including
aspirin Blood thinning
- Blood sugar lowering agents
- Blood pressure lowering
- Anti-retroviral agents
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Popular Uses
Heart health
Blood pressure
Cholesterol lowering
Cancer prevention
Immune system health
Enzyme function
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Ginkgo biloba)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
120-240mg daily in
divided doses,
standardized to 24-32% ginkgo flavone
(heterosides), and 612% triterpene lactones
Ginger (Zingiber
officinalis) root
75-2000mg in divided
doses with food,
standardized to contain
4% volatile oils or 5%
total pungent
compounds including
6-gingerol and/or 6shogaol; 1-4gm of the
fresh root daily in
divided doses
CHILDREN (ages 612) – use 1/3 of adult
Memory enhancement
Alzheimer’s disease; senile dementia
Reported to increase peripheral blood
Cerebral vascular insufficiency,
peripheral vascular insufficiency
Cardiovascular protection; may deter
homocysteine damage to blood
Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
Seasonal depression
May be neuroprotective
May help protect against cancer,
including ovarian
- Nausea and vomiting
- Anti-inflammatory
- Antioxidant
- May be protective from cancer
and heart disease
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
o Calcium channel
blocking drugs
o MAO inhibitors
o SSRI antidepressants
o Thiazide diuretics such
as hydrochlorothiazide
Discontinue use 2-3 weeks prior to
some surgical and dental procedures
due to increased risk of bleeding
Use with caution if taking
anticoagulants (blood thinning
agents) including aspirin
Discontinue use 2-3 weeks prior
to some surgical and dental
procedures due to increased risk
of bleeding
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Popular Uses
Alzheimer’s disease and dementia
Memory enhancement
Helps in circulatory problems
Oxygenation of tissues
Cardiovascular protection
- Nausea/vomiting
- Gastrointestinal health
- Inflammatory conditions such as
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Ginseng, Asian (Korean
(Panax ginseng)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
200-600mg daily,
standardized to 4-5%
ginsenosides; 1-4gm of
dried root daily (red or
white ginseng)
Adaptogen (enhances mental and
physical performance, improves learning
ability, and decreases stress and fatigue)
May improve resistance to disease and
immune function
Improve concentration and memory
Improve physical endurance
General tonic in stressful situations,
especially insomnia, overwork,
nervousness, and restlessness
Chemoprotective agent (protects
the body against radiation or
chemotherapy damage)
General protection from diseases
such as cancer, heart disease and
May decrease blood alcohol
concentration (BAC); metabolism
of alcohol increased
Adverse Effects*
- Do not use in kidney failure
- Do not use in pregnancy
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
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Hormonal replacement
therapy or birth control
Anhypertensive drugs
MAO inhibitors
May cause mastalgia (breast
tenderness) in prolonged and
high doses
May cause vaginal breakthrough
Popular Uses
- Immune enhancement
- Fatigue/stress
- General health and protection from
diseases such as cancer, heart
disease and diabetes
- Improve concentration and memory
- Improve physical endurance
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Ginseng, Siberian
Reported Uses
Dosage and
100-200mg, 2 times a
day, standardized to
contain 0.8-1%
eleutherosides Band E;
500-3000mg daily of
dried root. A regimen
of 4 weeks on, 2 weeks
off is recommended for
maximum benefits.
May improve immune function
General tonic in stressful situations,
especially insomnia, overwork,
nervousness, and restlessness
Chemoprotective agent (protects
the body against radiation or
chemotherapy damage)
General protection from diseases
such as cancer, heart disease and
- Use with caution if taking anticoagulants
(blood thinning agents) including aspirin
May improve general circulation
and protect blood vessels from
fragility; heart health
Periodontal disease
Cancer protection; may protect the
body from chemotherapy and
radiation side effects
Grape seed
(Vitis vinifera)
25-100mg, 1-3 times a
day, standardized to
proanthocyanidins or a
procyanidolic value of
not less than 95 and
90% total phenols;
Adaptogen (enhances mental and
physical performance, improves
learning ability, and decreases
stress and fatigue)
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
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Popular Uses
- Immune enhancement
- Adrenal function
- Fatigue/stress
- General health and protection from diseases
such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes
Hypoglycemic agents
Anhypertensive drugs
- Support in colds/influenza and
- Antioxidant
- Anti-aging
- Asthma related symptoms
- Cardiovascular health
- Cancer protection
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Grapefruit seed extract
(Citrus paradisi)
Pulp, juice
Green Tea
(Camellia sinensis)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
100-250mg 1-3 times a day
with meals or 5-10 drops in
favorite beverage, 3 times a
day; may be standardized to
polyphenol content
250-500mg daily,
standardized to contain
40-75% catechins
(-)epigallocatechin-3gallate (EGCG); drink
quality green tea, 3-6
cups daily.
Adverse Effects*
Popular Uses
Antifungal, antibacterial, antiparasitic
Used in resortation of gastrointestinal
May be effective in urinary tract
- Very bitter; must dilute liquid before using
- Gastrointestinal health
- Antibacterial/antifungal
Cancer prevention and protection
Cardiovascular diseases
Support for chemotherapy and
radiation treatment
May lower cholesterol
Anticariogenic (reduces dental
Helps increase longevity and
general health
May improve immune function
May help improve blood sugar
Used in weight loss formulas
- Caffeine-free products are available
Use with caution if taking anticoagulants
(blood thinning agents) including aspirin
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Cardiovascular health
Healthy cholesterol management
Weight loss
Cancer prevention
General health
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Commiphora mukul)
Gymnema (Gymnema
sylvestre) leaf
Reported Uses
Dosage and
500-1500mg, 3 times a
day, standardized
guggulsterones (E and
Z); a typical daily dose
is 75-100mg
250-600mg, 1-3 times a day,
standardized to contain 2575% gymnemic acids
Used in lowering blood cholesterol levels
Weight loss
Anti-inflammatory; may be effective in
Thyroid support
Regulation of blood sugar levels
Complications associated with diabetes,
including cataracts
Weight loss
May help regulate healthy cholesterol levels
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Thydoid lowering
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
o Cholesterol lowering
o Reported to interfere
with diltiazem and
propranolol metabolism,
so caution should be
used in calcium channel
blocker and beta-blocker
- May cause rhabdomyolysis
(muscle aches/pains); if this
occurs stop immediately and
contact your doctor
- Use with caution in individuals
taking medications for blood
sugar control
LaValle Metabolic Institute
Popular Uses
Cholesterol lowering
Thyroid support
Inflammation; arthritis
Blood sugar regulation
Pancreas support
Weight loss
Cholesterol support
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Crataegus oxyacantha)
Holy Basil (Occimum
sanctum) Leaf
Reported Uses
Dosage and
160-900mg, 1-3 times a day,
standardized to 2-3%
flavonoids and/OR 18-20%
oligomeric procyanidins OR
1.8 percent vitexin-2rhamnosides
400-800mg daily,
standardized to contain 1.0 2.5% ursolic acid;
supercritical extracts contain
a minimum of 7-11%
eugenol and 4%
hydroethanolic extracts
contain 0.7-4.0%
triterpenoic acids, including
ursolic and oleanolic acids;
steam distilled extracts
contain a minimum of 40%
eugenol and 15%
Heart disease; heart protection
Treatment of angina, low or high blood
pressure, peripheral vascular diseases,
congestive heart failure (CHF)
May help regulate healthy cholesterol
Anti-inflammatory agent (COX-2
Blood sugar regulation; diabetes
Antistress; may lower cortisol (stress
hormone) levels
Wound healing
Protective effects in chemotherapy
and/or radiation
Ulcer-healing properties
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Antihypertensives
o Digoxin
o Angiotensin converting
enzyme inhibitors (ACE
- Use with caution if taking
anticoagulants (blood thinning
agents) including aspirin
- Use with caution in individuals on
anti-epileptic medications or
individuals with a history of
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Popular Uses
Heart tonic
Blood pressure regulation
CHF (congestive heart failure)
Stress; adrenal support
Healthy blood sugar support
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Reported Uses
Dosage and
(Humulus lupulus)
100mg, 2 times a day as
needed, standardized to
contain 5.2% bitter acids
and 4% flavonoids
Mild sedative and hypnotic
Sleep, relaxation
May have anticancer effects
May have estrogenic activity
Antiviral; may be useful in HIV
Horse Chestnut
(Aesculus hippocastanum)
100 – 300mg 2 times daily;
horse chestnut seed extracts
are standardized for aescin
content (16 - 21%) or
isolated aescin preparations
are often recommended at
an initial dose of 50 150mg of aescin per day.
Once improvement is noted,
this is usually reduced to a
maintenance dose of 35 - 70
mg of aescin per day
Topical: Apply 2% escin
gel, 1-2 times a day to
affected area
Varicose veins
Venous insufficiencies; deep venous
Used topically in the same conditions
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Sedatives, hypnotics
o Sleep medications
o Anti-anxiety medications
o Antipsychotics
o Antidepressants
o Alcohol
- Use caution when driving an
automobile or operating heavy
- Use with caution if taking
anticoagulants (blood thinning
agents) including aspirin
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Popular Uses
- Promote sleep
- Stress
- Support in hormonal replacement
therapy (HRT)
- Beer manufacturing
- Topically and internally for varicose
- Hemmorhoids
- Venous insufficiency
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Equisetum arvense)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
300mg, 3 times a day,
standardized to contain 10 15% silica
High mineral content (including silicic
Nail, skin and hair health
Used in bone and connective tissue
strengthening, including osteoporosis
May improve memory and cognition
(animal studies)
May have sedative and anticonvulsant
May be liver protective (antioxidant
Found in cruciferous vegetables such as
broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower
Used in cancer protection, including
breast , bone, cervical, melanoma and
Positively affects estrogen metabolism;
hormonal replacement therapy alternative
Found to increase the ratio of 2hydroxyestrone to 16 alphahydroxyestrone (“good” estrogen) and
also to inhibit the 4-hydroxylation of
estradiol (“bad” estrogen)
Anti-inflammatory action
May inhibit cysts caused by the human
papilloma virus (HPV)
200-800mg daily;
standardized for 0.3%
sulforaphane, 1% total
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution if taking diuretic
- May deplete thiamine (vitamin B1)
from the body
- May alter hormonal therapy such as
birth control and hormone
replacement therapy (HRT)
- Not recommended when taking
ulcer medications due to a
decrease in stomach acid may
cause indole-3-carbinol not to be
metabolized appropriately
LaValle Metabolic Institute
Popular Uses
- Hair, skin, bone, and nail health
- Diuretic
- Cancer protection and treatment
- Hormonal replacement therapies
- Inflammation
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Kava Kava
(Piper methysticum)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
100-300mg, 1-3 times a
day as needed,
standardized to contain
30-70% kavalactones
Anxiety, nervousness
May improve cognitive function due to
increased mood
Skeletal muscle relaxation
Popular Uses
Adverse Effects*
Not recommended for longer than 3
- Anxiety, stress, nervousness
months without a 2 weeks rest
- Mood improvement
- Anxiety associated with PMS,
Do not use if prone to liver problems
or liver dysfunction
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Sedatives, hypnotics
o Sleep medications
o Anti-anxiety medications
including alprazolam
o Antidepressants
o Antisychotics
o Alcohol
May cause drowsiness or sedation in
higher doses
Use caution when driving an
automobile or operating heavy
- Long-term use of high doses has
resulted in rash
- Do not use in Parkinson’s Disease
- Not recommended for use in
individuals with urinary retention
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Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Glycyrrhiza glabra)
(Glycyrrhiza uralensis, or
Chinese licorice)
DGL licorice supplements
are without the chemical
constituent glycyrrhizin
Reported Uses
Dosage and
Adrenal stress: 250500mg, 3 times a day,
standardized to contain 20%
glycyrrhizinic acid OR 1530 drops of liquid extract, 3
times a day in juice or other
Stomach ulcer: DGL
Licorice, 250-500mg, 3
times a day chewed either 1
hour before or 2 hours after
meals and at bedtime,
standardized to contain no
more than 2% glycyrrhizin
Tea: One cup of hot water
over one teaspoonful of herb
after each meal.
Food sweetener
Adrenal insufficiency
Expectorant and antitussive
Chewable DGL products used in GI
Liver protection
May protect against the development
of cognitive impairment (Glycyrrhiza
May protect against development of
certain cancers
May lower blood cholesterol levels
May improve immunity
May have estrogen like activity;
female hormonal replacement therapy
support; may also aid in depression
associated with PMS or menopause
Antiviral; glycyrrhizin component
found effective against SARS
coronavirus in the laboratory
Adverse Effects*
- Do not use in high blood pressure
unless using the DGL licorice
- Use with caution in individuals with
liver or kidney problems
- Use with caution in individuals
taking diuretics
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Popular Uses
Adrenal supplement
Ulcers (DGL licorice)
Expectorant and antitussive
Liver protection
Food sweetener
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Milk Thistle
(Silybum marianum)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
80-160mg, 1-3 times a day,
standardized to contain 80%
NexrutineВ® isolated from
Phellodendrum amurense
250-500mg, 2-3 times a day
Olive Leaf
(Olea europaea)
250-500mg, 1-3 times a day,
standardized to contain 1223% oleuropein
Antioxidant for the liver
Liver injury, including cirrhosis and
High cholesterol levels
May improve glycemic control for Type
II diabetics
Cancer protection
May improve chemotherapy effects
Arthritis and other inflammatory
May be effective in cancer therapies,
especially prostate
Antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral (may be
effective in HIV)
Gastrointestinal health
May increase immune function
Heart protection
May lower blood pressure
May lower cholesterol levels
May protect against radiation damage
May increase thyroid hormone
Popular Uses
Adverse Effects*
- Do not use if allergic to plants in the - Liver protection and detoxification
daisy family
- Antioxidant for the liver
- Milk thisle may alter the
- Cancer protection
metabolism of some mediations;
use with caution if taking
prescription medications
- Minor side effects such as
nausea/vomiting and
gastrointestinal upset
o Thyroid medications
- Use with caution if you have thyroid disorders
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Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
- Inflammation
- Artritis
Gastrointestinal health
Immune function
Antiviral, antifungal
Heart protection
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Reported Uses
Dosage and
Passion Flower
(Passiflora spp.)
Whole plant
Anxiety: 100-250mg, 2
times a day, standardized to
contain 3.5-4% isovitexin
per dose
Insomnia/sedation: 200500mg at bedtime,
standardized to contain 3.54% isovitexin per dose
150-300mg, 3-4 times a day,
standardized 4% triterpenes
and 10% polysaccharides
Cancer support
May improve resistance to disease and
immune function
Support in chemotherapy and radiation
Used in conditions needing immune
support such as viruses (including HIV,
colds and influenza) and infections
Liver conditions such as hepatitis B
May lower blood pressure
May lower blood sugar levels; may help
improve diabetic complications such as
May be effective in neurasthenia
(Ganoderma lucidum)
Adverse Effects*
Use caution when driving an automobile or
operating heavy machinery
Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Sedatives, hypnotics
o Sleep medications
o Anti-anxiety medications
Do not use if allergice to
mushrooms or fungus
Do not use if you have preexisting liver conditions
Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
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Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents) including
Antidiabetic drugs/insulin
Antihypertensive drugs
Immune therapies such as
immunosuppressive drugs or
immune globulin therapy
Popular Uses
- Sedation and anxiety
Immune system balance
Cancer support
Liver conditions such as hepatitis B
General health
Viral infections
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Reported Uses
Dosage and
(combination of
Phellodendron amurense
and Magnolia officinalis)
200mg, 3 times daily for at
least 7 days
Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea)
150-300mg, 1-3 times daily,
standardized to contain at
least 3-5% rosavins and less
than 1% salidrosides; 90mg
daily standardized to 4%
rosavins; AdreCorВ®, 1
scoopful or 5 capsules twice
daily, standardized to 16%
rosavins; doses should be
taken on an empty stomach
Anxiety, stress
Irritability, fatigue, restlessness
Adaptogen (enhances mental and
physical performance, improves learning
ability, and decreases stress and fatigue)
General tonic in stressful situations,
especially insomnia, overwork,
nervousness, and restlessness
Adrenal stress
Liver conditions
May lower blood pressure and have heart
protective ability
May lower blood sugar levels
(Rosmarinus officinalis)
100-500mg, 2-3 times daily,
standardized to contain a
minimum of 10% carnosol
or 1-7% rosmarinic acid
Antiinflammatory (COX-2 inhibiting
Adverse Effects*
Use caution when driving an automobile or
operating heavy machinery
Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Sedatives, hypnotics
o Sleep medications
o Anti-anxiety medications
Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o ACE inhibitors
- Anxiety and stress
Adrenal support
Physical performance enhancement
General health
o Antiarrhythmic drugs
Antidiabetic drugs/insulin
Popular Uses
None known
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- Antioxidant
- Inflammation
Herb/ Plant Part Used
Reported Uses
Dosage and
Saw Palmetto
(Serenoa repens)
160mg, 2 times a day,
standardized to contain at
least 80-90% fatty acids and
(Schizandra chinensis)
100-200mg, 2 times a day
with food, standardized to
contain at least 9%
Treatment of benign prostatic
hypertrophy (BPH); enlarged prostate
Mild diuretic
Urinary tract health
May improve immunity
Adaptogen (enhances mental and
physical performance, improves learning
ability, and decreases stress and fatigue)
General tonic in stressful situations,
especially insomnia, overwork,
nervousness, and restlessness
Liver health
May have estrogen activity
Heart health
Support in chemotherapy and radiation
Antiviral; may be effective in HIVand
hepatitis B supportive therapy
May be effective in cancer support
Popular Uses
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution in individuals
- Prostate health
with liver or pancreas conditions
- Use with caution in individuals
with hypertension
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
o Hormonal replacement
therapy including male
o Antiandrogenic drugs
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Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
Immune therapies such as
immunosuppressive drugs or
immune globulin therapy
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
- Stress, fatigue
- Mental and physical performance
- Liver health
- Immune system health
- Heart health
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Cassia senna)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
15-60mg of sennosides per
dose at bedtime; for shortterm use only
Anthraquinone laxative (stimulant
Adverse Effects*
Shiitake mushroom
(Lentinus edodes)
100-400mg, 3 times daily,
standardized to contain 3.26% KS-2 polysaccharides
(Glycine max)
100-300mg daily,
standardized to at least 15%
Popular Uses
May decrease absorption of oral
Do not use long-term (no more 1-2
Do not use if you have intestinal
blockage or inflammatory bowel
disorders (Crohn’s or IBS)
- Laxative
May improve resistance to disease and
immune function
Liver conditions
Support in chemotherapy and radiation
Antiviral; may be effective in HIV
supportive therapy
Cancer support
Antibacterial, antifungal
Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
o Immune therapies such
as immunosuppressive
drugs or immune
globulin therapy
- General health
- Immune system support
Estrogenic effects
PMS, menopause
Hormonal replacement
May help improve mood and cognitive
function in PMS, menopause
High cholesterol levels
Cancer protection
Heart health
Osteoporosis and bone loss
Blood sugar regulation
May decrease inflammatory processes in
the body
Weight loss
May improve the effects of certain
chemotherapy drugs (cisplatin)
May alter hormonal therapy
such as birth control and
hormone replacement therapy
Use with caution if prone to
breast cancer; talk to your health
care provider
Use with caution in individuals
taking thyroid supplementation
or with thyroid disorders
- Hormonal replacement therapy
(HRT); PMS/menopause symptoms
- High cholesterol levels
- Heart health
- Osteoporosis
- Cancer protection
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Herb/ Plant Part Used
St. John's Wort
(Hypericum perforatum)
Flowering buds
Tea Tree
(Melaleuca alternifolia)
Volatile oils
Reported Uses
Dosage and
300mg, 3 times a day,
standardized to contain
0.3-0.5% dianthrones
measured as hypericin
OR 3-5% hyperforin
Topical: Apply oil
(preferably diluted) to
affected area as needed
Mild to moderate depression,
melancholia, anxiety
Anti-viral activity in increased
May be beneficial in smoking
Used in mouthwashes for dental and oral
Used topically for burns, cuts, scrapes, insect
Toenail fungus
Adverse Effects*
- St. John’s wort may interact with
many prescription and nonprescription medications; do not
use unless you have consulted a
medical professional if you are
taking medications
- May cause photosensitivity in
susceptible individuals
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May cause allergic dermatitis in
sensitive individuals
May cause burning or stinging;
may dilute before use
Popular Uses
- Mild to moderate depression
- Mood stabilization
- Skin infections, cuts, scrapes, insect
- Burns
- Acne
- Toenail fungus
- Oral health
Herb/ Plant Part Used
(Curcuma longa)
Reported Uses
Dosage and
300-500mg, 3 times a day
with meals, standardized to
contain 95-98%
curcuminoids; larger doses
are used in cancer
supportive therapy
Used in arthritis
May lower cholesterol levels
Cancer supportive therapy
Gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic
ulcers, dyspepsia, ulcerative colitis, and
irritable bowel syndrome
May be effective in HIV support as an
antiviral agent
May be useful in Alzheimer’s disease
and dementia
May be useful in liver disorders such as
(Valeriana officinalis)
300-500mg, 1-2 hours
before bedtime or as
needed, standardized to
contain 0.4-1% valerenic or
valeric acids; also, 30-60
drops of a liquid extract in
water 1 hour before bedtime
or as needed
Sleep disorders/insomnia
Adverse Effects*
- Use with caution if taking the
following medications:
o Anticoagulants (blood
thinning agents)
including aspirin
Popular Uses
- Inflammation
- Healthy cholesterol levels
Gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic
ulcers, dyspepsia, ulcerative colitis, and
irritable bowel syndrome
- Cancer support
Use with caution if taking the
- Sedative/hypnotic
following medications:
- Sleep disorders/insomnia
o Sedatives, hypnotics
- Used in herbal combination formulas
o Sleep medications
for stress, anxiety and nervousness
o Anti-anxiety medications
o Antidepressants
o Alcohol
- May cause drowsiness or sedation
- Use caution when driving an
automobile or operating heavy
LaValle Metabolic Institute
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LaValle Metabolic Institute
Lagrue G, Robert AM, Miskulin M, et al. Pathology of the microcirculation in diabetes and alterations of the biosynthesis of intercellular matrix macromolecules. Front Matrix Biol 1979;7:324-335.
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Bitter melon
Aguwa CN, Mittal GC. Abortifacient effects of the roots of Momordica angustisepala. J Ethnopharmacol 1983;7(2):169-173.
Akhtar MS. Trial of Momordica charantia Linn (Karela) powder in patients with maturity-onset diabetes. J Pak Med Assoc 1982;32(4):106-107.
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Chan WY, Tam PP, Yeung HW. The termination of early pregnancy in the mouse by beta-momorcharin. Contraception 1984;29(1):91-100.
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LaValle Metabolic Institute
Hulin et al. Intoxication aigue pour Momordica charantica (Sorrossi). A proposdeux cas. Semaine Hospitaux 1988;64:2847-2848.
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Raman A, Lau C. Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). Phytomedicine 1996;2(4):349-362.
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Shibib BA, Khan LA, Rahman R. Hypoglycaemic activity of Coccinia indica and Momordica charantia in diabetic rats: depression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose- 6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and elevation of both liver and red-cell
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Srivastava Y, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H, Verma Y, et al. Retardation of retinopathy by Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) fruit extract in alloxan diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1987;25(8):571-572.
Srivastava Y. Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract:An experimental and clinical evaluation. Phytother Res 1993;7:285-289.
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Wong CM, Yeung HW, Ng TB. Screening of Trichosanthes kirilowii, Momordica charantia and Cucurbita maxima (family Cucurbitaceae) for compounds with antilipolytic activity. J Ethnopharmacol 1985;13(3):313-321.
Black cohosh
Anderson IB, Mullen WH, Meeker JE, et al. Pennyroyal toxicity: measurement of toxic metabolite levels in two cases and review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 1996;124(8):726-734.
Baillie N, Rasmussen P. Black and blue cohosh in labour. N Z Med J 1997;110(1036):20-21.
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Borrelli F, Izzo AA, Ernst E. Pharmacological effects of Cimicifuga racemosa. Life Sci 2003;73(10):1215-1229.
Burdette JE, Liu J, Chen SN, et al. Black cohosh acts as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist of the serotonin receptor. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51(19):5661-5670.
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Dixon-Shanies D, Shaikh N. Growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells by herbs and phytoestrogens. Oncol Rep 1999;6(6):1383-1387.
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LaValle Metabolic Institute
Duker EM, Kopanski L, Jarry H, et al. Effects of extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa on gonadotropin release in menopausal women and ovariectomized rats. Planta Med 1991;57(5):420-424.
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Freudenstein J, Bodinet C. Influence of an isopropanolic aqueous extract of Cimicifuga racemosae rhizoma on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. 23rd International LOF-Symposium on Phytoestrogens, University of Ghent, Belgium (January 15, 1999).
Genazzani E, Sorrentino L. Vascular action of acteina: active constituent of Actaea racemosa L. Nature 1962;194(4828):544-545.
Gunn TR, Wright IM. The use of black and blue cohosh in labour. N Z Med J 1996;109(1032):410-411.
Hailemeskel B, Lee HJ, Thomhe H. Incidence of potential herb-drug interactions among herbal users. ASHP Midyear Clinical Meeting 2000;35:p-267e.
Hemmi H, Kitame F, Ishida N, et al. Inhibition of thymidine transport into phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes by triterpenoids from Cimicifuga species. J Pharm Dyn 1979;2:339-349.
Hemmi H, Kusano G, Ishida N. Selective inhibition of nucleoside transport into mouse lymphoma L- 5178Y cells by cimicfugoside. J Pharmacobiodyn 1980;3(12):636-642.
Hernandez MG, Pluchino S. Cimicifuga racemosa for the treatment of hot flushes in women surviving breast cancer. Maturitas 2003;44 Suppl 1:S59-S65.
Hostanska K, Nisslein T, Freudenstein J, Reichling J, Saller R. Cimicifuga racemosa extract inhibits proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines by induction of apoptosis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004;84(2):151-60.
Hunter A. Cimicifuga racemosa: pharmacology, clinical trials and clinical use. Eur J Herbal Med 1999;5(1):19-25.
Huntley A, Ernst E. A systematic review of the safety of black cohosh. Menopause 2003;10(1):58-64.
Jacobson JS, Troxel AB, Evans J, et al. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001;19(10):2739-2745.
Jarry H, Harnischfeger G, Duker E. [The endocrine effects of constituents of Cimicifuga racemosa. 2. In vitro binding of constituents to estrogen receptors]. Planta Med 1985;51(4):316-319.
Jarry H, Harnischfeger G. [Endocrine effects of constituents of Cimicifuga racemosa. 1. The effect on serum levels of pituitary hormones in ovariectomized rats]. Planta Med 1985;51(1):46-49.
Jarry H, Metten M, Spengler B, et al. In vitro effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055. Maturitas 2003;44 Suppl 1:S31-S38.
Koeda M, Aoki Y, Sakurai N, et al. Studies on the Chinese crude drug "shoma." IX. Three novel cyclolanostanol xylosides, cimicifugosides H-1, H-2 and H-5, from cimicifuga rhizome. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1995;43(5):771-776.
Korn WD. Six month oral toxicity study with remifemin-granulate in rats followed by an 8-week recovery period. International Bioresearch, Hannover, Germany 1991;1.
Lehmann-Willenbrock E, Riedel HH. [Clinical and endocrinologic studies of the treatment of ovarian insufficiency manifestations following hysterectomy with intact adnexa]. Zentralbl Gynakol 1988;110(10):611-618.
Lieberman S. A review of the effectiveness of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) for the symptoms of menopause. J Womens Health 1998;7(5):525-529.
Liske E, WГјstenberg P, Boblitz N. Human-pharmacological investigations during treatment of climacteric complaints with Cimicifuga racemosa (Remifemin): No estrogen-like effects. ESCOP 2001;1:1.
Liske E, Wustenberg P. Efficacy and safety of phytomedicines with particular references to Cimicifuga racemosa. J Med Assoc Thai 1998;Jan:s108.
Liske E, WГјstenberg P. Therapy of climacteric complaints with Cimicifuga racemosa: herbal medicine with clinically proven evidence [poster presentation]. Menopause 1998;5(4):250.
Liske E. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga racemosa for gynecologic disorders. Adv Ther 1998;15(1):45-53.
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Lontos S, Jones RM, Angus PW, et al. Acute liver failure associated with the use of herbal preparations containing black cohosh. Med J Aust 2003;179(7):390-391.
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Mahady GB. Is black cohosh estrogenic? Nutr Rev 2003;61(5 Pt 1):183-186.
Nappi RE, Malavasi B, Brundu B, Facchinetti F. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: a randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005;20(1):30-5.
Lynch CR, Folkers ME, Hutson WR. Fulminant hepatic failure associated with the use of black cohosh: a case report. Liver Transpl. 2006;12(6):989-92.
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McKenna DJ, Jones K, Humphrey S, et al. Black cohosh: efficacy, safety, and use in clinical and preclinical applications. Altern Ther Health Med 2001;7(3):93-100.
Mills SY, Jacoby RK, Chacksfield M, et al. Effect of a proprietary herbal medicine on the relief of chronic arthritic pain: a double-blind study. Br J Rheumatol 1996;35(9):874-878.
Minciullo PL, Saija A, Patafi M, Marotta G, Ferlazzo B, Gangemi S. Muscle damage induced by black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Phytomedicine. 2006;13(1-2):115-8.
Nesselhut T, Schellhase C, Dietrich R, et al. [Investigations into the growth-inhibitive efficacy of phytopharmacopia with estrogen-like influences on mammary gland carcinoma cells] (translated from German). Arch Gynecol Obstet 1993;254:817-818.
Pepping J. Black cohosh: Cimicifuga racemosa. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56(14):1400-1402.
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Rhyu MR, Lu J, Webster DE, Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR, Wang ZJ. Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Cimicifuga racemosa) Behaves as a Mixed Competitive Ligand and Partial Agonist at the Human mu Opiate Receptor. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(26):98529857.
Sammartino A, Tommaselli GA, Gargano V, di Carlo C, Attianese W, Nappi C. Short-term effects of a combination of isoflavones, lignans and Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric-related symptoms in postmenopausal women: A double-blind, randomized, placebocontrolled trial. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006;22(11):646-650.
Seidlova-Wuttke D, Hesse O, Jarry H, et al. Evidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: comparison with estradiol-17beta. Eur J Endocrinol 2003;149(4):351-362.
Seidlova-Wuttke D, Jarry H, Becker T, et al. Pharmacology of Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055 in rats: bone, fat and uterus. Maturitas 2003;44 Suppl 1:S39-S50.
Seidlova-Wuttke D, Thelen P, Wuttke W. Inhibitory Effects of a Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) Extract on Prostate Cancer. Planta Med. 2006 Apr 28; [Epub ahead of print].
LaValle Metabolic Institute
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Rigney, U., Kimber, S., and Hindmarch, I. The effects of acute doses of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and psychomotor performance in volunteers. Phytother Res 1999;13(5):408-415.
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Roberts, N. M., McCusker, M., Chung, K. F., and Barnes, P. J. Effect of a PAF antagonist, BN52063, on PAF-induced bronchoconstriction in normal subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1988;26(1):65-72.
Roberts, N. M., Page, C. P., Chung, K. F., and Barnes, P. J. Effect of a PAF antagonist, BN52063, on antigen-induced, acute, and late-onset cutaneous responses in atopic subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988;82(2):236-241.
Roncin, J. P., Schwartz, F., and D'Arbigny, P. EGb 761 in control of acute mountain sickness and vascular reactivity to cold exposure. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 1996;67(5):445-452.
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LaValle Metabolic Institute
Singh, B., Song, H., Liu, X. D., Hardy, M., Liu, G. Z., Vinjamury, S. P., and Martirosian, C. D. Dangshen (Codonopsis pilosula) and Bai guo (Gingko biloba) enhance learning and memory. Altern.Ther.Health Med. 2004;10(4):52-56.
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Research, April 12-14 2002;
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Xu, A. H., Chen, H. S., Sun, B. C., Xiang, X. R., Chu, Y. F., Zhai, F., and Jia, L. C. Therapeutic mechanism of ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9(11):2424-2427.
Yasui-Furukori, N., Furukori, H., Kaneda, A., Kaneko, S., and Tateishi, T. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of donepezil. J Clin.Pharmacol 2004;44(5):538-542.
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LaValle Metabolic Institute
Zhu, L., Gao, J., Wang, Y., Zhao, X. N., and Zhang, Z. X. Neuron degeneration induced by verapamil and attenuated by EGb761. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 1997;8(4):301-314.
Ginseng, Asian
Allen JD, McLung J, Nelson AG, et al. Ginseng supplementation does not enhance healthy young adults' peak aerobic exercise performance. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17(5):462-466.
Anderson GD, Rosito G, Mohustsy MA, et al. Drug interaction potential of soy extract and Panax ginseng. J Clin Pharmacol 2003;43(6):643-648.
Awang DV. Maternal use of ginseng and neonatal androgenization. JAMA 1991;266(3):363.
Cardinal BJ, Engels HJ. Ginseng does not enhance psychological well-being in healthy, young adults: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101(6):655-660.
Coleman CI, Hebert JH, Reddy P. The effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life. J Clin Pharm Ther 2003;28(1):5-15.
Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women. Nutr Neurosci 2004;7(5-6):325-333.
Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R, et al. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med 2004;34(1):51-61.
Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, et al. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. J Urol 2002;168(5):2070-2073.
Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effect of St John's wort and ginseng on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2004;57(5):592-599.
Kabalak AA, Soyal OB, Urfalioglu A, et al. Menometrorrhagia and tachyarrhythmia after using oral and topical ginseng. J Womens Health (Larchmt ) 2004;13(7):830-833.
Ohya T, Usui Y, Okamoto K, et al. Management for fistula-in-ano with Ginseng and Tang-kuei Ten Combination. Pediatr Int 2004;46(1):72-76.
Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55(8):567-575.
Ginseng, Siberian (Eleuthero)
Arushanian EB, Shikina IB. [Improvement of light and color perception in humans upon prolonged administration of eleutherococcus]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2004;67(4):64-6.
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Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. Pharmacological investigation of glycosides from Ginseng and Eleutherococcus. Lloydia. 1969;32(1):46-51.
Cicero AF, Derosa G, Brillante R, Bernardi R, Nascetti S, Gaddi A. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2004;(9):69-73.
Dasgupta A, Wu S, Actor J, Olsen M, Wells A, Datta P. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs. Am J Clin Pathol.
Davydov M, Krikorian AD. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;72(3):345-93.
Dowling EA, Redondo DR, Branch JD, Jones S, McNabb G, Williams MH. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28(4):482-9.
Drozd J, Sawicka T, Prosinska J. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Acta Pol Pharm. 2002;59(5):395-401.
Eschbach LF, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, McArthur PD, Evetovich TK. The effect of siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10(4):444-51.
Feng S, Hu F, Zhao JX, Liu X, Li Y. Determination of eleutheroside E and eleutheroside B in rat plasma and tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography using solid-phase extraction and photodiode array detection.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2006;62(3):315-20.
Fulder SJ. Ginseng and the hypothalamic-pituitary control of stress. Am J Chin Med. 1981;9(2):112-8.
Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 2001;70(4):431-42.
Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Sacher F, Esperester A. Antiviral activity of an extract derived from roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Antiviral Res. 2001;50(3):223-8.
Goulet ED, Dionne IJ. Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15(1):75-83.
Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R, et al., Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med. 2004;34(1):51-61.
Kimura Y, Sumiyoshi M. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;95(2-3):447-53.
Kupin VI, Polevaia EB. [Stimulation of the immunological reactivity of cancer patients by Eleutherococcus extract]. Vopr Onkol. 1986;32(7):21-6.
Kwan CY, Zhang WB, Sim SM, Deyama T, Nishibe S. Vascular effcts of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): endothelium-dependent NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxation depending on vessel size. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004;369(5):47380.
McRae S. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng. CMAJ. 1996;155(3):293-5.
Medon PJ, Ferguson PW, Watson CF. Effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on hexobarbital metabolism in vivo and in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol. 1984;10(2):235-41.
Novikov VS, Bortnovskii VN, Mastriukov AA, et al., [Efficacy of the use of biologically active substances to increase the body resistance in sailors]. Voen Med Zh. 1987;(10):50-1.
Novozhilov GN, Sil'chenko KK. [Mechanism of adaptogenic effect of Eleutherococcus on the human body during thermal stress]. Fiziol Cheloveka. 1985;11(2):303-6.
Steinmann GG, Esperester A, Joller P. Immunopharmacological in vitro effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51(1):76-83.
Williamson EM. S. Szolmicki, L. Samochowiec, J. Wojcicki and M. Drozdzik, The influence of active components of eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular defence and physical fitness in man. Phytother Res. 2000;14(3):225.
LaValle Metabolic Institute
Grape seed
Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, Das DK, Bagchi M, Preuss HG, Vinson JA. Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutat Res. 2003;523-524:87-97.
Banerjee B, Bagchi D. Beneficial effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Digestion. 2001;63(3):203-6.
Bielory L. Complementary and alternative interventions in asthma, allergy, and immunology. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004;93(2 Suppl 1):S45-54.
Brooker S, Martin S, Pearson A, Bagchi D, Earl J, Gothard L, Hall E, Porter L, Yarnold J. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration. Radiother
Oncol. 2006;79(1):45-51.
Busserolles J, Gueux E, Balasinska B, Piriou Y, Rock E, Rayssiguier Y, Mazur A. In vivo antioxidant activity of procyanidin-rich extracts from grape seed and pine (Pinus maritima) bark in rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2006;76(1):22-7.
Durak I, Cetin R, Devrim E, Erguder IB. Effects of black grape extract on activities of DNA turn-over enzymes in cancerous and non cancerous human colon tissues. Life Sci. 2005;76(25):2995-3000.
El-Ashmawy IM, El-Nahas AF, Salama OM. Grape seed extract prevents gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;99(3):230-6.
Fitzpatrick DF, Bing B, Maggi DA, Fleming RC, O'Malley RM. Vasodilating procyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;957:78-89.
Houde V, Grenier D, Chandad F. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins against oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharides of periodontopathogens. J Periodontol. 2006;77(8):1371-9.
Hu H, Qin YM. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract induced mitochondria-associated apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukaemia 14.3D10 cells. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006;119(5):417-21.
Joshi SS, Kuszynski CA, Benner EJ, Bagchi M, Bagchi D. Amelioration of the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Antioxid Redox Signal. 1999;1(4):563-70.
Joshi SS, Kuszynski CA, Bagchi D. The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2001;2(2):187-200.
Kalin R, Righi A, Del Rosso A, Bagchi D, et al., Activin, a grape seed-derived proanthocyanidin extract, reduces plasma levels of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin) in systemic sclerosis. Free Radic Res. 2002;36(8):819-25.
Kaur M, Singh RP, Gu M, Agarwal R, Agarwal C. Grape seed extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(20 Pt 1):6194-202.
Kaur M, Agarwal R, Agarwal C. Grape seed extract induces anoikis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells: possible role of ataxia telangiectasia mutated-p53 activation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006;5(5):1265-74.
Khanna S, Venojarvi M, Roy S, et al., Dermal wound healing properties of redox-active grape seed proanthocyanidins. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;33(8):1089-96.
Natella F, Belelli F, Gentili V, Ursini F, Scaccini C. Grape seed proanthocyanidins prevent plasma postprandial oxidative stress in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(26):7720-5.
Nuttall SL, Kendall MJ, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect. J Clin Pharm Ther. 1998;23(5):385-9.
Puiggros F, Llopiz N, Ardevol A, Blade C, Arola L, Salvado MJ. Grape seed procyanidins prevent oxidative injury by modulating the expression of antioxidant enzyme systems. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(15):6080-6.
Preuss HG, Bagchi D, Bagchi M. Protective effects of a novel niacin-bound chromium complex and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on advancing age and various aspects of syndrome X. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;957:250-9.
Preuss HG, Wallerstedt D, Talpur N, Tutuncuoglu SO, Echard B, Myers A, Bui M, Bagchi D. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study. J Med. 2000;31(5-6):227-46.
Sangeetha P, Balu M, Haripriya D, Panneerselvam C. Age associated changes in erythrocyte membrane surface charge: Modulatory role of grape seed proanthocyanidins. Exp Gerontol. 2005;40(10):820-8.
Valls-Belles V, Torres MC, Muniz P, Beltran S, Martinez-Alvarez JR, Codoner-Franch P. Defatted milled grape seed protects adriamycin-treated hepatocytes against oxidative damage. Eur J Nutr. 2006;45(5):251-8.
Vitseva O, Varghese S, Chakrabarti S, Folts JD, Freedman JE. Grape seed and skin extracts inhibit platelet function and release of reactive oxygen intermediates. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005;46(4):445-51.
Yamakoshi J, Sano A, Tokutake S, Saito M, Kikuchi M, Kubota Y, Kawachi Y, Otsuka F. Oral intake of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds improves chloasma. Phytother Res. 2004;18(11):895-9.
Grapefruit seed
Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Drozdowicz D, Konturek SJ, Zayachivska O, Pajdo R, Kwiecien S, Pawlik WW, Hahn EG. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve
pathways. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(41):6450-8.
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LaValle Metabolic Institute
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LaValle Metabolic Institute
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Milk thistle
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LaValle Metabolic Institute
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St. John’s wort
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