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Introduction to Kinesiology & Biomechanics

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Introduction to Kinesiology &
Biomechanics
Definitions
 Kinesiology
 Biomechanics
Definitions
 Kinematics
 Kinetics
Definitions
 Static Analysis
 Dynamics Analysis
Definitions
 Anthropometrics
Why study biomechanics?
 Biomechanist vs
Applied
Biomechanist
 Sports
Performance
 Ergonomics
 Injury Prevention
 Improved
Rehabilitation
Ways to Solve Biomechanical
Problems
 Qualitative vs
Quantitative
 Scalar vs Vector
Quantities
Basic Structural Analysis
 Stress-Strain Curve
 Stress
 Strain
 Key Points on Curve








Elastic Modulus
Yield Point
Plastic Region
Elastic Region
Residual Strain
Failure
Safety Factor
Mechanical Energy
Basic Structural Analysis
 Stress-Strain Curve
 Stress
 Strain
 Key Points on Curve








Elastic Modulus
Yield Point
Plastic Region
Elastic Region
Residual Strain
Failure
Safety Factor
Mechanical Energy
Basic Structural Analysis
 Stress-Strain Curve
 Stress
 Strain
 Key Points on Curve








Elastic Modulus
Yield Point
Plastic Region
Elastic Region
Residual Strain
Failure
Safety Factor
Mechanical Energy


= ½ stress * strain
Area under the
curve
Types of Materials
 Elastic
 Linear relationship
between stress &
strain
Types of Materials
 Viscoelastic
 Nearly all biologic
tissues
 Manifestations of
Viscoelastic Properties
 Rate of Loading
 Hysteresis
 Creep
Types of Materials
 Viscoelastic
 Nearly all biologic
tissues
 Manifestations of
Viscoelastic Properties
 Rate of Loading
 Hysteresis
 Creep
Types of Materials
 Viscoelastic
 Nearly all biologic
tissues
 Manifestations of
Viscoelastic Properties
 Rate of Loading
 Hysteresis
 Creep
Types of Materials
 Viscoelastic
 Nearly all biologic
tissues
 Manifestations of
Viscoelastic Properties
 Rate of Loading
 Hysteresis
 Creep
Material Characteristics
 Stiff
 Compliant
 Brittle
Review Anatomical Terms
 Directional Terms





Superior/Inferior
Proximal/Distal
Anterior/Posterior
Medial/Lateral
Superficial/Deep
 Movement Terms
 Flexion/Extension
 Abduction/Adduction
 Horizontal
Abduction/Hor.
Adduction
 Internal
Rotation/External
Rotation
 Radial
Deviation/Ulnar
Deviation
 Supination/Pronation
 Inversion/Eversion
Reference Systems
Reference Systems
 Why?
 Absolute vs Relative
 Absolute Reference
Frame
 Segments intersect
in joint center &
movement of
segment is
described with
respect to that joint
Reference Systems
 Why?
 Absolute vs
Relative
 Absolute Reference
Frame
 Relative Reference
Frame
 Movement of
segment
described relative
to adjacent
segment
Reference Systems
Up (+)
z
x
Forward
(+)
 Spatial Reference
Frame
 Movement of body
relative to ground
 Occurs in xyz
directions
Down (-)
y
Left (+)
Backward (-)
Right (-)
Reference Systems
 Cartesian
Coordinate System
 Fixed reference
point
 x,y and z
coordinates
Anatomical Planes & Axes
 Plane of Motion
 2 dimensional flat surface
 Axis
 point about which movement occurs
 perpendicular to the plane of movement
 Whole Body Planes and Axes
 Segmental Planes and Axes
Anatomical Planes
Planes of movement
 Sagittal
 left/right halves
 Perpendicular Axis Frontal or
Mediolateral
Planes & Axes
 Frontal Plane
 Anterior/posterior
halves
 Axis Anteroposterior or
Sagittal
Planes & Axes
 Transverse Plane
 Upper/lower halves
 Axis - Longitudinal
Other Planes and axes
 Diagonal or
Oblique
 plane of movement
 perpendicular to
the plane
 how to find
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