なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか 出典&参考文献

なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
(ダイヤモンド社刊)
出典
出 典
はじめに──「信じる者は救われる」を科学的に解明できるか?
P.8「高さを大袈裟に見積もる」:Jackson, R. E., and L. K. Cormack, “Evolved Navigation Theory and
the Descent Illusion,” Perception and Psychophysics 69 (2007): 353–62.
P.8「あの女性は絶対、僕に気がある」:Haselton, M. G., and D. M. Buss, “Error Management Theory: A New Perspective on Biases in Cross-Sex Mind Reading,” Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology 78 (2000): 81–91.
P.9「予想どおりに不合理」:ダン・アリエリー『予想どおりに不合理──行動経済学が明かす
「あなたがそれを選ぶわけ」
』熊谷淳子訳、早川書房、2008年
P.9「合理的システム」:Epstein, S., “Integration of the Cognitive and the Psychodynamic Unconscious,” American Psychologist 49 (1994): 709–24.
P.10「マルヤーナ・リンデマン」:Lindeman, M, and K. Aarnio, “Superstitious, Magical, and Paranormal Beliefs: An Integrative Model,” Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007): 734.
第1章 「つながる」で幸せになれるって本当?──伝染る、感じる、宿るの正体
P.25「“手品まがい”の実験」:Hood, B. M., and P. Bloom, “Children Prefer Certain Original Objects
over Perfect Duplicates,” Cognition 106 (2008): 455–62.
P.27「“本物性”」:Frazier, B. N., et al., “Picasso Paintings, Moon Rocks, and Hand-Written Beatles
Lyrics: Adults’ Evaluations of Authentic Objects,” Journal of Cognition and Culture 9 (2009):
1–14.
P.28「ミスター・ロジャース」:Johnson, C. N., and M. G. Jacobs, “Enchanted Objects: How Positive
Connections Transform Thinking about the Very Nature of Things” (poster presented at the Society
for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, April 2001).
P.29「1970年12月」:BBC, “George Michael Buys Lennon’s Piano” (October 18, 2000), http://news.
bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/974485.stm.
P.29「カーター元大統領は」:Turpin, C. (executive producer), All Things Considered [radio broadcast]
(Washington, D.C.: National Public Radio, November 5, 2006).
P.29「ジョージ・マイケル」:Zimmerman, A., “Why Piano Owned by John Lennon Is Touring America,” Wall Street Journal (August 2, 2007).
P.31「隠れた作用」:ジェイムズ・フレイザー『金枝篇』永橋卓介訳、岩波書店、1951年
P.32「心理学者のポール・ロジン」:Rozin, P., et al., “Operation of the Laws of Sympathetic Magic in
the Interpersonal Domain in American Culture,” Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (1989):
367–70.
P.34「病気(物理的本質)
」
「運の悪さ(心理的本質)
」
「残忍さ(道徳的本質)
」:Rozin, P., M.
Markwith, and C. McCauley, “Sensitivity to Indirect Contacts with Other Persons: AIDS Aversion
as a Composite of Aversion to Strangers, Infection, Moral Taint, and Misfortune,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 103 (1994): 495–505.
P.34「食べ物の味覚に対する不快感」:Darwin, C., The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1965; original work published 1872), 256. Cited in Rozin,
P., and A. E. Fallon, “A Perspective on Disgust,” Psychological Review 94 (1987): 23–41.
1
なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
(ダイヤモンド社刊)
出典
P.34「人間や動物の老廃物」:Angyal, A., “Disgust and Related Aversions,” Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology 36 (1941): 393–412.
P.35「自分の好きなセレブが着たセーター」:Newman, G. E., G. Diesendruck, and P. Bloom, “Celebrity Contagion and the Value of Objects,” Journal of Consumer Research (in press).
P.35「ヒトラーの伝記を手にするより」:Rozin et al., “Operation of the Laws of Sympathetic Magic
in the Interpersonal Domain in American Culture,” 369.
P.37「成長の早い植物」:Meigs, A., Food, Sex, and Pollution: A New Guinea Religion (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1984).
P.37「敵の心臓」:ジェイムズ・フレイザー『金枝篇』永橋卓介訳、岩波書店、1951年
P.38「アルミン・マイヴェス」:Fager, J. (producer), 60 Minutes (New York: CBS, March 16,2008).
P.38「ビールがすごく飲みたいわ」:クレア・シルヴィア『記憶する心臓──ある心臓移植患者
の手記』飛田野裕子訳、角川書店、1998年
P.39「その男性を吸い込んでしまったみたい」:クレア・シルヴィア『記憶する心臓──ある心
臓移植患者の手記』飛田野裕子訳、角川書店、1998年
P.39「イスラエルの調査」:Yoram, I., D. David, and I. Kutz, “Another Person’s Heart: Magical and
Rational Thinking in the Psychological Adaptation to Heart Transplantation,” Israel Journal of
Psychiatry and Related Sciences 41 (2004): 161–73.
P.39「動物の臓器」:Coffman, K., et al., “Survey Results of Transplant Patients’ Attitudes on Xenografting,” Psychosomatics 39 (1998): 379–83.
P.39「女性からの移植をためらう」: Sanner, M. A., “Transplant Recipients’ Conceptions of Three
Key Phenomena in Transplantation: The Organ Donation, the Organ Donor, and the Organ Transplant,” Clinical Transplantation 293 (2003): 391–400.
P.39「元の持ち主に影響を及ぼす」: Rozin et al., “Operation of the Laws of Sympathetic Magic in
the Interpersonal Domain,” 369.
P.41「イスラエルの土」:Rozin, P., and S. Wolf, “Attachment to Land: The Case of the Land of Israel
for American and Israeli Jews and the Role of Contagion,” Judgment and Decision Making 3
(2008): 325–34.
P.41「旧ヤンキー・スタジアム」: Schussler, R. M., “Own a Piece of Yankee Stadium,” ABC News
(September 19, 2008), http://abcnews.go.com/Business/story?id=5835764.
P.42「魅力的な客が試着」:Argo, J. J., D. W. Dahl, and A. C. Morales, “Positive Consumer Contamination: Responses to Attractive Others in a Retail Context,” Journal of Marketing Research 45
(2008): 690–701.
P.42「病原菌を描いて」:Nemeroff, C., “Magical Thinking about Illness Virulence: Conceptions of
Germs from ‘Safe’ Versus ‘Dangerous’ Others,” Health Psychology 14 (1995): 147–51.
P.43「スカーレット・ヨハンソン」:Leno, J. (producer), The Tonight Show with Jay Leno (New York:
NBC, December 17, 2008).
P.44「5,300ドル」BBC, “Johansson Tissue Sells for $5,300” (December 23, 2008), http://news.bbc.
co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7796991.stm.
P.44「恋人から性病をうつされる」:Comer, L. K., and C. Nemeroff, “Blurring Emotional Safety with
Physical Safety in AIDS and STD Risk Estimations: The Casual/ Regular Partner Distinction,”
Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30 (2000): 2467–90.
P.44「望まない性交渉」:Fairbrother, N., and S. Rachman, “Feelings of Mental Pollution Subsequent
to Sexual Assault,” Behavior Research and Therapy 42 (2004): 173–89.
P.45「野心家のマクベス夫人」: Zhong, C., and K. Liljenquist, “Washing Away Your Sins: Threatened
2
なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
(ダイヤモンド社刊)
出典
Morality and Physical Cleansing,” Science 313 (2006) : 145–46.
P.45「ギャンブラーは賭け金を」: Xu, A. J., R. Zwick, and N. Schwarz, “Washing Away Your (Good
or Bad) Luck: Superstition, Embodiment, and Gambling Behavior,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (in press).
P.46「“大腸菌メガネ”」:Michaels, L. (producer), Saturday Night Live (New York: NBC, March 16,
1996).
P.47「コーシェル」:Nemeroff and Rozin, “The Makings of the Magical Mind.”
P.48「カプグラ症候群」: Ellis, H. D., and M. B. Lewis, “Capgras Delusion: A Window on Face Recognition,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (2001): 149–56.
P.48「建物や家具や街全体」:Anderson, D. N., “The Delusion of Inanimate Doubles: Implications for
Understanding the Capgras Syndrome,” British Journal of Psychiatry 153 (1988): 694–99.
P.48「スーパーセンスを失った時に」:ブルース・フード『スーパーセンス̶ヒトは生まれつき
超科学的な心を持っている』小松淳子訳、インターシフト、2011年
P.48「コタール症候群」: Ramachandran, V. S., The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for What
Makes Us Human (New York: Random House, 2011). Also see McKay, R., and L. Cipolotti, “Attributional Style in a Case of Cotard Delusion,” Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2007): 349–59.
P.49「ポリネシアでは“マナ”」: Stevens, P., “Mana,” in Encyclopedia of Anthropology (Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006), 1525–26.
P.49「カリフォルニア州の下院議員」: Brown, P. L., “California Measure Would Align Building
Rules with Feng Shui,” New York Times (January 30, 2004), http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.
html?res=9D03E6DA1138F933A05752C0A9629C8B63.
P.49「ホメオパシー(同種療法)
」: Stevens, P., “Magical Thinking in Complementary and Alternative
Medicine,” Skeptical Inquirer 25 (2001): 32–37.
P.49「エナジー・ヒーリング」: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, “What
is Complementary and Alternative Medicine?” (April 1, 2011), http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam.
第2章 思い込みのパワーを侮るな──お守り、呪い、儀式の力
P.56「ゴールド・ダスト・ツインズ」: Beattie, J., “Lynn Thrilled for Rice, His ‘Gold Dust Twin’
Hall of Famer,” NESN (July 23, 2009), http://www.nesn.com/2009/07/lynn-thrilled-for-rice-hisgold-dust-twin-hall-of-famer.html.
P.57「バンビーノの呪い」: Shaughnessy, D., The Curse of the Bambino (New York: Penguin, 2004).
P.57「デイヴィッド・オルティス」: Shaughnessy, D., Reversing the Curse (New York: Houghton
Mifflin Harcourt, 2005).
P.58「オルティスのユニフォーム」: Associated Press, Associated Press, “Yankees will donate onceburied Red Sox jersey to Boston-area charity” (April 13, 2008). http://sports.espn.go.com/mlb/
news/story?id=3344825; Guarneri, B., M. Nestel, and A. Montefi nise, “Yankees’ Hole of Fame,”
New York Post (May 3, 2009), http://www.nypost.com/p/news/regional/yankees_hole_of_fame_
oVS9S58wE6FCZcJ2eAP0fL; Montefinise, A., et al., “Hammering the Hex,” New York Post (April
13, 2008), http://www.nypost.com/p/news/regional/item_iUPZZD0uk9zkV9ugSUsjXI.
P.59「ポスト紙へ」: New York Yankees, “Statement from Alice McGillion, Spokesperson for the New
York Yankees” [press release] (2008).
P.61「“想像上のつながり”」: Tylor, E. B., Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of
3
なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
(ダイヤモンド社刊)
出典
Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art, and Custom, 6th ed., vol. 1(London: John Murray,
1920; original work published 1874), 136.
P.62「ケネディ大統領」: Rozin, P., L. Millman, and C. Nemeroff, “Operation of the Laws of Sympathetic Magic in Disgust and Other Domains, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50
(1986): 703–12.
P.62「アフリカに写真が紹介された」: Behrend, H., “Photo-Magic: Photographs in Practices of
Healing and Harming in Kenya and Uganda,” Journal of Religion in Africa 33 (2003): 129–45.
P.62「写真と現実とを混同」: Flavell, J. H., “The Development of Children’s Knowledge about the
Appearance-Reality Distinction,” American Psychologist 41 (1986): 418–25.
P.62「ファッジと呼ばれる柔らかいキャンディ」: Rozin et al., “Operation of the Laws of Sympathetic Magic in Disgust and Other Domains.”
P.64「わざとピンぼけ写真に」: Hood, B. M., et al., “Implicit Voodoo: Electrodermal Activity Reveals
a Susceptibility to Sympathetic Magic,” Journal of Cognition and Culture 10 (2010): 391–99.
P.64「米家電販売チェーン」: Orsi, P., “Soccer: Voodoo Doll Promotion Spooks RadioShack,” Associated Press ( January 29, 2009), http://www.dispatch.com/live/content/sports/stories/2009/01/29/
gameplan_voodoo.ART_ART_01-29-09_C2_9UCNMNM.html.
P.65「経験則」: Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman, “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases,”
Science 185 (1974): 1124–31.
P.66「田畑に水を撒けば」: ジェイムズ・フレイザー『金枝篇』永橋卓介訳、岩波書店、1951
年
P.67「黄熱」: Nisbett, R. E., and L. Ross, Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social
Judgment (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980).
P.68「錠剤」: de Craen, A. J. M., et al., “Effect of Colour of Drugs: Systematic Review of Perceived
Effect of Drugs and of Their Effectiveness,” British Medical Journal 313 (1996): 1624–26.
P.68「アズーリ」: Moerman, D. E., Meaning, Medicine, and the “Placebo” Effect (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002).
P.69「隠喩セラピー」: Li, X., L. Wei, and D. Soman, “Sealing the Emotions Genie: The Effects of
Physical Enclosure on Psychological Closure,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 1047–50.
P.72「ギタリスト」: Fernandez, K. V., and J. L. Lastovicka, “Making Magic: Fetishes in Contemporary
Consumption,” Journal of Consumer Research (in press).
P.73「シアン化ナトリウム(毒)
」: Rozin et al., “Operation of the Laws of Sympathetic Magic in
Disgust and Other Domains.”
P.73「
「舐める」
「拾う」
「蹴る」
」: Hauk, O., I. Johnsrude, and F. Pulvermuller, “Somatotopic Representation of Action Words in Human Motor and Premotor Cortex,” Neuron 41 (2004) : 301–7.
P.73「
「毒ではありません」
」: Rozin, P., M. Markwith, and B. Ross, “The Sympathetic Magical Law
of Similarity, Nominal Realism and Neglect of Negatives in Response to Negative Labels,” Psychological Science 1 (1990) : 383–84.
P.73「ブリトニー(・スピアーズ)
」: http://www.ssa.gov/cgi-bin/babyname.cgi.
P.74「自分と同じ名前やイニシャル」: Pelham, B. W., M. Carvallo, and J. T. Jones, “Implicit Egotism,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 14 (2005): 106–10.
P.74「働くスタッフの間で」: Pilette, W. L., “Magical Thinking by Inpatient Staff Members,” Psychiatric Quarterly 55 (1983): 272–74.
P.75「13恐怖症」: Lachenmeyer, N., 13: The Story of the World’s Most Notorious Superstition (New
York: Plume, 2004).
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なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
(ダイヤモンド社刊)
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P.75「ブリュッセル航空」: Casert, R., “13 Dots in an Airplane Logo? Superstitious complaints
prompt change” Associated Press (February 21, 2007), http://www.usatoday.com/travel/
flights/2007-02-21-brussels-airlines-superstitious-fliers-logo_x.htm.
P.76「ウォルター・キャノン」: Cannon, W. B., “ ‘Voodoo’ Death,” American Anthropologist 44
(1942): 169.
P.77「ストレスホルモン」: Sternberg, E. M., “Walter B. Cannon and ‘ “Voodoo” Death’: A Perspective from 60 Years On,” American Journal of Public Health 92 (2002): 1564–66.
P.77「ビリー・ゴート」: Gatto, S., Da Curse of the Billy Goat: The Chicago Cubs, Pennant Races,
and Curses (Lansing, MI: Protar House, 2004).
P.78「ステレオタイプ脅威」: Schmader, T., M. Johns, and C. Forbes, “An Integrated Process Model
of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance,” Psychological Review 115 (2008) : 336–56.
P.79「“愛すべき敗者”」: Herrera, N., “The Chicago Cubs and the Curse of a Stereotype (Part 1)” [blog
post] (October 26, 2009), http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/personality-and-social-interaction/200910/the-chicago-cubs-and-the-curse-stereotype-part-1.
P.79「スティーブ・バートマン」: Berkow, I., “Memories of Bartman Die Hard for Cubs Fans,” New
York Times (September 10, 2004), http://www.nytimes.com/2004/09/10/sports/baseball/10bartman.
html.
P.80「レストラン経営者」: Altobelli, L., “The Beat,” Sports Illustrated (February 28, 2005), http://
sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1109768/index.htm.
第3章 験を担いで幸運を引き寄せろ──運を育てる技術
P.84「最も命の危険にさらされる職業」: Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities” (2010), http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshcfoi1.htm.
P.86「鳩の迷信行動」: Skinner, B. F., “ ‘Superstition’ in the Pigeon,” Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1948): 168–72.
P.88「実験開始から約5分後」: Ono, K., “Superstitious Behavior in Humans,” Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 47 (1987): 265.
P.89「錯誤相関」: Shweder, R., “Likeness and Likelihood in Everyday Thought: Magical Thinking in
Judgments about Personality,” Current Anthropology 18 (1977): 637–48.
P.90「星座別の性格」: Glick, P., and M. Snyder, “Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The Psychology of Belief
in Astrology,” Humanist 50 (1986): 20–25.
P.90「確証バイアス」: Nickerson, R. S., “Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many
Guises,” Review of General Psychology 2 (1998): 175–220.
P.91「アルベール・ミショット」: Michotte, A., The Perception of Causality, T. R. Miles and E.Miles,
trans. (New York: Basic Books, 1963; original work published in 1945).
P.91「コントロールの錯覚」: Langer, E., “The Illusion of Control,” Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology 32 (1975): 311–28.
P.92「パスカルの賭け」: Pascal, B., Pensées, A. J. Krailsheimer, trans. (New York: Penguin, 1995;
original work published 1669), 122.
P.93「あの女性は絶対、僕に気がある」: Haselton, M. G., and D. M. Buss, “Error Management
Theory: A New Perspective on Biases in Cross-Sex Mind Reading,” Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology 78 (2000): 81–91.
P.93「遊ばれるリスクを避ける」: Geher, G., “Accuracy and Oversexualization in Cross-Sex Mind-
5
なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
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Reading: An Adaptationist Approach,” Evolutionary Psychology 7 (2009): 331–47.
P.93「“偏執的楽観主義者”」: Haselton, M. G., and D. Nettle, “The Paranoid Optimist: An Integrative
Evolutionary Model of Cognitive Biases,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 10 (2006):
47–66.
P.93「エラーマネジメント理論」: Haselton and Buss, “Error Management Theory.” P.94「自己愛が膨らんでいれば」: Taylor, S. E., and J. D. Brown, “Illusion and Well-being: A Social
Psychological Perspective on Mental Health,” Psychological Bulletin 103 (1988): 193–210.
P.95「108人の漁師」: Poggie, J. J., and R. B. Pollnac, “Danger and Rituals of Avoidance among New
England Fishermen,” Maritime Anthropological Studies 1(1988): 66–78.
P.95「湾岸戦争の時」: Keinan, G., “Effects of Stress and Tolerance of Ambiguity on Magical Thinking,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67 (1994): 48–58.
P.96「学生の間で効果があると評判の」: Rudski, J. M., and A. Edwards, “Malinowski Goes to
College: Factors Influencing Students’ Use of Ritual and Superstition,” Journal of General Psychology 134 (2007): 389–403.
P.96「理性とはほど遠い儀式」: Albas, D., and C. Albas, “Modern Magic: The Case of Examinations,” Sociological Quarterly 30 (1989): 604.
P.97「ある教授の講義を聞きながら」: Gmelch, G., “Baseball Magic,” rev. ed., in E. Angeloni (ed.),
Annual Editions: Anthropology 11/12 (McGraw-Hill Contemporary Learning Series, 2010; essay
originally published 1971), 150.
P.97「17年間欠かさず鶏肉を食べた」: Curry, J., “Boggs Is Beyond Compare, and He’s the First to
Say So,” New York Times (1994), http://www.nytimes.com/1994/03/15/sports/baseball-boggs-isbeyond-compare-and-he-s-the-first-to-say-so.html?action=click&module=Search%C2%AEion=sea
rchResults#0&version=&url=http://query.nytimes.com/search/sitesearch/#/
Boggs+Is+Beyond+Compare/.
P.97「老人ホームの入居者」: Langer, E. J., and J. Rodin, “The Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal Responsibility for the Aged: A Field Experiment in an Institutional Setting,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34 (1976): 191–98; Rodin, J., and E. J. Langer, “Long-Term Effects
of a Control-Relevant Intervention with the Institutionalized Aged,” Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology 35 (1977): 897–902.
P.98「シンガポール航空」: Charette, R. N., “The Psychology of Comfortable Air Travel,” IEEE
Spectrum (September 2008), http://spectrum.ieee.org/consumer-electronics/gadgets/the-psychology-of-comfortable-air-travel.
P.99「エレベーター」: Paumgarten, N., “Up and Then Down: The Lives of Elevators,” New Yorker
(April 21, 2008), http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2008/04/21/080421fa_fact_paumgarten.
P.99「自分に電気ショックをかける実験」: Staub, E., B. Tursky, and G. E. Schwartz, “Self-Control
and Predictability: Their Effects on Reactions to Aversive Stimulation,” Learning and Motivation
18 (1971): 157–62.
P.100「抑うつリアリズム」: Alloy, L. B., and L. Y. Abramson, “Judgment of Contingency in Depressed and Nondepressed Students: Sadder but Wiser?” Journal of Experimental Psychology:
General 108 (1979): 441–85; Msetfi , R. M., et al., “Depressive Realism and Outcome Density Bias
in Contingency Judgments: The Effect of the Context and Intertrial Interval,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 134 (2005): 10–22.
P.100「経験によって身についた無力感」: Abramson, L. Y., M. E. P. Seligman, and J. D.
Teasdale,“Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation,” Journal of Abnormal
6
なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
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Psychology 87 (1978): 49–74.
P.101「フィードバックを無視」: Matute, H., “Learned Helplessness and Superstitious Behavior as
Opposite Effects of Uncontrollable Reinforcement in Humans,” Learning and Motivation 25 (1994):
216–32.
P.102「運とは個人に備わった特徴や力」: Maltby, J., et al., “Beliefs around Luck: Confirming the
Empirical Conceptualization of Beliefs around Luck and the Development of the Darke and Freedman Beliefs around Luck Scale,” Personality and Individual Differences 45 (2008): 655–60; Wagenaar, W. A., and Keren, G. B., “Chance and Luck Are Not the Same,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 1 (1988): 65–75.
P.102「マイア・ヤング」: Young, M. J., N. Chen, and M. W. Morris, “Belief in Stable and Fleeting
Luck and Achievement Motivation,” Personality and Individual Differences 47 (July 2009): 150–
54.
P.103「マイケル・ウォールとマイケル・エンズル」: Wohl, M. J. A., and M. E. Enzle, “The Deployment of Personal Luck: Illusory Control in Games of Pure Chance,” Personality and Social
Psychology Bulletin 28 (2002): 1388–97.
P.104「ライサン・ダミッシュ」: Damisch, L., B. Stoberock, and T. Mussweiler, “Keep Your Fingers
Crossed!: How Superstition Improves Performance,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 1014–20.
P.107「バラク・オバマ」: Zeleny, J., “No Ordinary Day for Obama; Back Home, a Bow to Superstition,” New York Times (November 5, 2008), http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800E
EDC143FF936A35752C1A96E9C8B63&action=click&module=Search&region=searchResults%2
30&version=&url=http%3A%2F%2Fquery.nytimes.com%2Fsearch%2Fsitesearch%2F%23%2FNo
%2BOrdinary%2BDay%2Bfor%2BObama%3ABack%2BHome%2Ca%2BBow%2Bto%2BSuperst
ition%2F.
P.107「日食と月食」: Lepori, G. M., “Dark Omens in the Sky: Do Superstitious Beliefs Affect Investment Decisions?” (2009), http://ssrn.com/abstract=1428792.
P.107「マイヤー・フォーティス」: Tambiah, S. J., Magic, Science, Religion, and the Scope of Rationality (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990), 54.
P108「子どもの世界」: Evans, D. W., et al., “Magical Beliefs and Rituals in Young Children,” Child
Psychiatry and Human Development 33 (2002): 43–58.
P.108「男の子の症例」: Robertson, M. M., and A. E. Cavanna, “The Disaster Was My Fault!” Neurocase 13 (2007) : 446–51.
P.109「強迫障害」: Einstein, D. A., and R. G. Menzies, “The Presence of Magical Thinking in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder,” Behaviour Research and Therapy 42 (2004): 539–49.
P.110「スリーピースのスーツ姿」: Albas and Albas, “Modern Magic.”
P.111「宝くじ券」: Risen, J. L., and T. Gilovich, “Another Look at Why People Are Reluctant to Exchange Lottery Tickets,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93 (2007): 12–22.
P.112「スタンフォード大学」: Risen, J. L., and T. Gilovich, “Why People Are Reluctant to Tempt
Fate,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95 (2008): 293–307.
P.113「ネガティブな筋書き」: Baumeister, R. F., et al., “Bad Is Stronger Than Good,” Review of
General Psychology 5 (2001): 323–70.
P.113「研修医」: Naidech, A., N. K. Parek, and M. J. Kahn, “Superstitions of House Officers,” Resident
and Staff Physician 50 (2004): 47–49.
P.113「アゼルバイジャン」: Patterson, J., and A. Aghayeva, “The Evil Eye: Staving off Harm̶with a
Visit to the Open Market,” Azerbaijan International 8 (2000): 55–57.
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P.114「ギャンブルに勝ち続ける」: Kruger, J., et al., “Why Does Calling Attention to Success Seem
to Invite Failure?” (paper presented at the Association for Consumer Research Conference, San
Francisco, CA, November 2008).
P.115「木製品に触るおまじない」: Keinan, G., “The Effects of Stress and Desire for Control on
Superstitious Behavior,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (2002): 102–8.
P.115「迷信に逆らう」”: Risen and Gilovich, “Why People Are Reluctant to Tempt Fate,” 303.
P.116「はしごの下をくぐる」: Miller, D. T., and B. R. Taylor, “Counterfactual Thought, Regret, and
Superstition: How to Avoid Kicking Yourself,” in N. J. Roese and J. M. Olson (eds.), What Might
Have Been: The Social Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1995),
305–32.
第4章 信じる心はどこまで届くのか──引き寄せの法則は本当に可能なのか?
P.120「サポーターの応援」: Moskowitz, T. J., and L. J. Wertheim, Sportscasting: The Hidden Influences Behind How Sports Are Played and Games Are Won (New York: Crown Archetype, 2011).
P.120「アポロ13号」: Lovell, J. A., “Houston, We’ve Had a Problem,” National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (1975).
P.121「誕生日ケーキ」: Woolley, J. D., et al., “Where Theories of Mind Meet Magic: The Development of Children’s Beliefs about Wishing,” Child Development 70 (1999): 571–87.
P.122「エミリー・プローニン」: Pronin, E., et al., “Everyday Magical Powers: The Role of Apparent
Mental Causation in the Overestimation of Personal Influence,” Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology 91 (2006): 218–31.
P.125「磁石のように引き寄せる」: ロンダ・バーン『ザ・シークレット』山川紘矢、山川亜希
子、佐野美代子訳、角川書店、2007年
P.125「カタログで注文したみたいに」: ロンダ・バーン『ザ・シークレット』山川紘矢、山川
亜希子、佐野美代子訳、角川書店、2007年
P.125「おおぜいの人が」: Chabris, C., and D. Simons, “Fight ‘The Power,’ ” New York Times (September 24, 2010), http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/26/books/review/Chabris-t.html.
P.126「あらゆるものごとの原因」: ロンダ・バーン『ザ・シークレット』山川紘矢、山川亜希
子、佐野美代子訳、角川書店、2007年
P.126「どんな思考も現実化する」: ロンダ・バーン『ザ・シークレット』山川紘矢、山川亜希
子、佐野美代子訳、角川書店、2007年
P.128「パズルに取り組んで」: リチャード・ワイズマン『運のいい人の法則』矢羽野薫訳、角
川書店、2011年
P.129「ポジティブな体験」: Stinson, D. A., et al., “Deconstructing the ‘Reign of Error’: Interpersonal
Warmth Explains the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Anticipated Acceptance,” Personality and Social
Psychology Bulletin 35 (2009): 1165–78.
P.132「脳波を使って」: Libet, B., et al., “Time of Conscious Intention to Act in Relation to Onset of
Cerebral Activity (Readiness-Potential): The Unconscious Initiation of a Freely Voluntary Act,”
Brain 106 (1983): 623–42.
P.132「頭に電極」: Fried, I., R. Mukamel, and G. Kreiman, “Internally Generated Preactivation of
Single Neurons in Human Medial Frontal Cortex Predicts Volition,” Neuron 69 (2011) : 548–62.
P.135「お金をごまかし」: Vohs, K. D., and J. Schooler, “The Value of Believing in Free Will: Encouraging a Belief in Scientifi c Determinism Increases Cheating,” Psychological Science 19 (2008):
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49–54.
P.135「コーヒー&シガレッツ」: Nordgren, L. F., et al., “The Restraint Bias: How Illusions of Restraint Promote Impulsive Behavior,” Psychological Science 20 (2009): 1523–28.
P.136「温かいコーヒーの入ったカップ」: Williams and Bargh, “Experiencing Physical Warmth.”
P.137「アポロ14号」: Mitchell, E., The Way of the Explorer, rev. ed. (Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page
Books, 2008; original work published 1996).
P.138「科学的な調査」: E.g., Bem, D. J., “Feeling the Future: Experimental Evidence for Anomalous
Retroactive Influences on Cognition and Affect,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100
(2011): 1–19.
P.139「真に大数の法則」: Diaconis, P., and F. Mosteller, “Methods for Studying Coincidences,” Journal of the American Statistical Association 84 (1989): 859.
P.141「予知夢」: Morewedge, C. K, and M. I. Norton, “When Dreaming Is Believing: The (Motivated)
Interpretation of Dreams,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (2009): 249–64.
P.141「フォーチュンクッキー」: Lee, J.8, The Fortune Cookie Chronicles: Adventures in the World of
Chinese food (New York: Twelve, 2008).
P.141「ルーマ・フォーク」: Falk, R., “Judgment of Coincidences: Mine versus Yours,” American
Journal of Psychology 102 (1989): 477–93.
P.142「疑り深くて頭の固い」: トーマス・ギロビッチ『人間この信じやすきもの──迷信・誤
信はどうして生まれるか』守一雄、守秀子訳、新曜社、1993年
P.142「ブルース・フード」: ブルース・フード『スーパーセンス──ヒトは生まれつき超科学
的な心を持っている』小松淳子訳、インターシフト、2011年
P.144「我を忘れる体験」: エドガー・ミッチェル『月面上の思索』前田樹子、めるくまーる、
2010年
P.145「歌や交響曲、映画」: Keltner, D., and J. Haidt, “Approaching Awe, a Moral, Spiritual, and
Aesthetic Emotion,” Cognition and Emotion 17 (2003) : 310.
P.145「リチャード・ドーキンス」: リチャード・ドーキンス『虹の解体──いかにして科学は
驚異への扉を開いたか』福岡伸一訳、早川書房、2001年
P.145「クリストファー・ヒッチェンズ」: Hitchens, C., God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons
Everything (New York: Twelve, 2009), 286. ポール・ブルーム『喜びはどれほど深い?──心
の根源にあるもの』小松淳子訳、インターシフト、2012年に引用
P.146「自分は信用しない」: http://hitchensdebates.blogspot.com/.
P.146「ミッシェル・シオタ」: Shiota, M. N., D. Keltner, and A. Mossman, “The Nature of Awe:
Elicitors, Appraisals, and Effects on Self-Concept,” Cognition and Emotion 21 (2007): 944–63.
P.146「宇宙飛行士のなかには」: エドガー・ミッチェル『月面上の思索』前田樹子、めるく
まーる、2010年
P.147「自殺を防げるのではないか」: Maslow, Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences, 75–76.
第5章 信じれば、死ぬことだって怖くない──死後の世界を信じる? 信じない?
P.153「フラー夫妻」: The Argus, “Our Daughter’s Killer Wrecked Our Lives Too” (March 26, 2004),
http://www.theargus.co.uk/archive/2004/03/26/6718044.Our_daughter_s_killer_wrecked_our_
lives_too/?ref=arc; Independent, “Couple’s Killer Gets Two Life Sentences” (March 24, 1994),
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/couples-killer-gets-two-life-sentences-security-video-andtape-of-phone-call-trapped-insurance-man-1431145.html; R v Young [1995] QB 324 CA.
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P.155「大脳皮質に電気的な刺激」: Selimbeyoglu, A., and J. Parvizi, “Electrical Stimulation of the
Human Brain: Perceptual and Behavioral Phenomena Reported in the Old and New Literature,”
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4 (2010): 1–11.
P.155「赤ちゃんネズミ」: Bering, J. M., and D. F. Bjorklund, “The Natural Emergence of Reasoning
about the Afterlife as a Developmental Regularity,” Developmental Psychology 40 (2004): 217–33.
P.157「ジェイムズ・ブラウン」: Preston, J., K. Gray, and D. M. Wegner, “The Godfather of Soul,”
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2006): 483.
P.158「己の死を想像」: Lifton, R. J., The Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life
(New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979), 13.に引用
P.158「リチャード」: Bering, J. M., “Intuitive Conceptions of Dead Agents’ Minds: The Natural Foundations of Afterlife Beliefs as Phenomenological Boundary,” Journal of Cognition and Culture 2
(2002): 263–308.
P.159「とりわけ熱心な消滅論者」: ジェシー・ベリング『ヒトはなぜ神を信じるのか──信仰
する本能』鈴木光太郎訳、化学同人、2012年
P.160「トマス・ネーゲル」: トマス・ネーゲル『どこでもないところからの眺め』中村昇他訳、
春秋社、2009年
P.160「死は至るところにあり」: Nichols, “Imagination and Immortality,” 230.
P.161「ホレーショ・ネルソン」: Hibbert, C., Nelson: A Personal History (Cambridge, MA: Perseus,
1994).
P.161「直接的な証拠」: Ramachandran, V. S., and W. Hirstein, “The Perception of Phantom Limbs:
The D. O. Hebb Lecture,” Brain 121 (1998): 1604.
P.161「ジョージ・デドロー」: Mitchell, S. W., “The Case of George Dedlow,” Atlantic Monthly 18
(July 1866): 7.
P.162「米国陸軍医療博物館」: Ibid., 11.
P.162「フィラデルフィアの病院」: Goler, R. I., “Loss and the Persistence of Memory: ‘The Case of
George Dedlow’ and Disabled Civil War Veterans,” Literature and Medicine 23 (2004): 160–83.
P.163「ドアのところで立ち止まった」: ジョーン・ディディオン『悲しみにある者』池田年穂
訳、慶應義塾大学出版会、2011年
P.164「ミッチ・ホッジ」: Hodge, K. M., “On Imagining the Afterlife,” Journal of Cognition and
Culture (in press).
P.164「その時、窓の外で」: Bering, J. M., “The Cognitive Psychology of Belief in the Supernatural,”
American Scientist 94 (2006): 148.
P.165「ギャラップ社の世論調査」: Gallup, “Three in Four Americans Believe in Paranormal” (June
16, 2005), http://www.gallup.com/poll/16915/three-four-americans-believe-paranormal.aspx.
P.165「死者と接触」: GSS data, cited in MacDonald, W. L., “Idionecrophanies: The Social Construction of Perceived Contact with the Dead,” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 31 (1992):
215–23.
P.165「幽霊が登場する話」: McCue, P. A., “Theories of Hauntings: A Critical Overview,” Journal of
the Society for Psychical Research 66 (2002): 1–21.
P.165「エリザベス・キューブラー=ロス」: Maciejewski, P. K., et al., “An Empirical Examination
of the Stage Theory of Grief,” Journal of the American Medical Association 297 (2007): 716–23.
P.165「ジェイ・バラム」: Time, “The Conversion of Kübler-Ross” (November 12, 1979).
P.166「臨死体験」: スーザン・ブラックモア『生と死の境界──「臨死体験」を科学する』由
布翔子訳、読売新聞社、1996年; Blanke, O., and S. Dieguez, “Leaving Body and Life
10
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Behind:Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experiences,” in S. Laureys and G. Tononi (eds.), The Neurology of Consciousness (London: Academic Press, 2009), 303–25; Moody, R., Life after Life (San
Francisco: Harper SanFrancisco, 2001; original work published 1975); Nelson, K. R., et al., “Does
the Arousal System Contribute to Near Death Experience?” Neurology 66 (2006) : 1003–9.
P167「体外離脱」: Blanke and Dieguez, “Leaving Body and Life Behind”; Blanke, O., and G.Thut,
“Inducing Out-of-Body Experiences,” in S. D. Salla (ed.), Tall Tales about the Mind and Brain:
Separating Fact from Fiction (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2007), 424–39; Lenggenhager, B., et
al., “Video Ergo Sum: Manipulating Bodily Self- Consciousness,” Science 317 (2007): 1096–99.
P.167「高い棚の上」: E.g., Horizon Research Foundation, “An Interview with Dr. Sam Parnia on the
Aware Study 2010” (2010), http://www.horizonresearch.org/main_page.php?cat_id=233&pid=38.
P.168「魂の在り処」: Descartes, R., The Passions of the Soul, S. Voss, trans. (Indianapolis: Hacket
Publishing Company, 1989; original work published 1649), 36.
P.169「男性の魂の重さ」: MacDougall, D., “Hypothesis concerning Soul Substance Together with
Experimental Evidence of the Existence of Such Substance,” Journal of the American Society of
Psychical Research 1 (1907): 231–44.
P.169「ジーン・ロッデンベリー」: Simons, M., “A Final Turn-on Lifts Timothy Leary Off,” New
York Times (April 22, 1997), http://www.nytimes.com/1997/04/22/world/a-final-turn-on-liftstimothy-leary-off.html?action=click&module=Search®ion=searchResults#0&version=&url=http://
query.nytimes.com/search/sitesearch/#/A+Final+Turn-on+Lifts+Timothy+Leary+Off.
P.169「ジョージ・デドローの手記」: Mitchell, “The Case of George Dedlow,” 8.
P.170「ふたりのティーンエイジャー」: A Columbine Site, “Basement Tapes” (n.d.), http://acolumbinesite.com/quotes1.html; Cullen, D., Columbine (New York: Twelve, 2010); Zimmerman, “Case
Report No. 99-7625-A,” Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office (1999), http://www.davecullen.com/
columbine/columbine-guide/video/basement-tapes-columbine.htm.
P.172「人間共通の本能」:ウィリアム・ジェイムズ『宗教的経験の諸相(上)
(下)
』桝田啓三郎
訳、岩波書店、1969年
P.172「3人の社会心理学者」: Solomon, S., J. Greenberg, and T. Pyszczynski,“The Cultural Animal:
Twenty Years of Terror Management Theory and Research,” in J. Greenberg, S. L. Koole, and T.
Pyszczynski (eds.), Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology (New York: The Guilford
Press, 2004), 13–34.
P.172「文化的世界観」: For a review, see Solomon et al., “The Cultural Animal.”
P.174「不死の公式」: アーネスト・ベッカー『死の拒絶』今防人訳、平凡社、1989年
P.174「自尊心」: Pyszczynski, T., et al., “Why Do People Need Self- Esteem? A Theoretical and Empirical Review,” Psychological Bulletin 130 (2004): 435–68.
P.174「抽象的なモダンアート」: Landau, M. J., et al., “Windows into Nothingness: Terror Management, Meaninglessness, and Negative Reactions to Modern Art,” Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology 90 (2006) : 879–92.
P.174「恋人に対する気持ち」: Florian, V., M. Mikulincer, and G. Hirschberger, “The Anxiety Buffering Function of Close Relationships: Evidence That Relationship Commitment Acts as a Terror
Management Mechanism,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82 (2002): 527–42.
P.174「好きなブランド」: Rindfleisch, A., J. E. Burroughs, and N. Wong, “The Safety of Objects:
Materialism, Existential Insecurity, and Brand Connection,” Journal of Consumer Research 35
(2009): 1–16.
P.175「生物社会的モードと創造的モード」: Lifton, The Broken Connection.
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P.175「著名人」: Kesebir, P., and C.-Y. Chiu, “The Stuff That Immortality Is Made Of: Existential
Functions of Fame” (poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality
and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM, 2008).
P.176「建物に自分の名前を刻み」: Sargeant A., W. Wymer, and T. Hilton, “Marketing Bequest Club
Membership: An Exploratory Study of Legacy Pledgers,” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly
35 (2006): 384–404.
P.178「エルヴィス・プレスリー」: Forbes “The Top-Earning Dead Celebrities” (October 10, 2010),
http://www.forbes.com/2010/10/22/top-earning-dead-celebrities-business-entertainment-deadcelebs-10_land.html.
P.178「クエンティン・タランティーノ」: A Columbine Site, “Basement Tapes.”
P.178「自己の命を犠牲に」: Routledge, C., and J. Arndt, “Self-Sacrifice as Self-Defense: Mortality
Salience Increases Efforts to Affirm a Symbolic Immortal Self at the Expense of the Physical Self,”
European Journal of Social Psychology 38 (2008): 531–41.
P.179「ハリスは日記に」: Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office, “Columbine document JC-001-026007”
(n.d.), http://denver.rockymountainnews.com/pdf/900columbinedocs.pdf.
P.179「独自の存在」: Simon, L., et al., “Perceived Consensus, Uniqueness and Terror Management:
Compensatory Responses to Threats to Inclusion and Distinctiveness Following Mortality Salience,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 23 (1997): 1055–65.
P.179「あとに続くヤツ」: A Columbine Site, “Basement Tapes.”
P.179「ハリスとクレボルドのような殉教者」: CNN, “Shooter: ‘You Have Blood on Your Hands’”
(April 18, 2007), http://edition.cnn.com/2007/US/04/18/vtech.nbc/.
P.181「セックスの肉体的な面」: Goldenberg, J. L., et al., “Understanding Human Ambivalence about
Sex: The Effects of Stripping Sex of Its Meaning,” Journal of Sex Research 39 (2002): 310–20.
P.181「独自の方法で食べたり飲んだり」: Dunderberg, I. O., Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle,
and Society in the School of Valentinus (New York: Columbia Univ.Press, 2008), 22.
P.182「神のような存在のスターリン」: Subbotsky, E., Magic and the Mind: Mechanisms, Functions,
and Development of Magical Thinking and Behavior (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2010), 112.
P.183「クリスマス・キャロル」: チャールズ・ディケンズ『クリスマス・キャロル』村岡花子
訳、新潮社、2011年、ほか
P.183「冷酷なふるまいを改める」: Jonas, E., et al., “The Scrooge Effect: Evidence That Mortality
Salience Increases Prosocial Attitudes and Behavior,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
28 (2002): 1342–53.
P.183「マイケル・カール」: Kearl, M. C., “Immortality, Symbolic,” in Encyclopedia of Death and
Dying (n.d.), http://www.deathreference.com/Ho-Ka/Immortality-Symbolic.html.
P.183「ファイト・クラブ」: 1999年公開のアメリカ映画
P.184「死の肉体的な側面」: Yalom, I. D., Existential Psychotherapy (New York: Basic Books, 1980),
30.
P.184「死と隣り合わせの体験」: Martin, L. L., W. K. Campbell, and C. D. Henry, “The Roar of
Awakening: Mortality Acknowledgment as a Call to Authentic Living,” in J. Greenberg, S. L.
Koole, and T. Pyszczynski (eds.), Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology (New York:
Guilford Press, 2004), 431–38.
P.184「気づきを促す声」: Kuhl, D., What Dying People Want: Practical Wisdom for the End of Life
(New York: Public Affairs, 2003), 227.
12
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第6章 孤独をはね返す疑人化のすすめ──なぜ、私たちはモノに話しかけてしまうのか
P.188「心理学者のピアジェ」: Piaget, J., The Child’s Conception of the World, J. Tomlinson and A.
Tomlinson, trans. (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefi eld Publishers, 2007; original work published 1929).
P.189「反響定位」: Baron-Cohen, S., Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995), 4に引用
P.190「その人が見ている方向」: Hood, B. M., J. D. Willen, and J. Driver, “Adult’s Eyes Trigger
Shifts of Visual Attention in Human Infants,” Psychological Science 9 (1998): 131–34.
P.191「ミラーニューロン」: Carr, L., et al., “Neural Mechanisms of Empathy in Humans: A Relay
from Neural Systems for Imitation to Limbic Areas,” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Science 100 (2003): 5497–5502.
P.191「身体の感覚」: Cheng, Y., et al., “The Perception of Pain in Others Suppresses Somatosensory
Oscillations: A Magnetoencephalography Study,” Neuro-Image 40 (2008): 1833–40.
P.191「意図」: Iacoboni, M., et al., “Grasping the Intentions of Others with One’s Own Mirror Neuron
System,” PLoS Biology 3 (2005): 529–35.
P.192「自己中心性」: Epley, N., et al, “Perspective Taking as Egocentric Anchoring and Adjustment,”
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87 (2004): 327–39.
P.193「犬の“パーソナリティ ”」: Gosling, S. D., V. S. Y. Kwan, and O. P. John, “A Dog’s Got Personality: A Cross-Species Comparative Approach to Evaluating Personality Judgments,” Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology 85 (2003): 1161–69.
P.194「パロの内部状態」: Wada, K., and T. Shibata, “Living with Seal Robots: Its Sociopsychological
and Physiological Influences on the Elderly at a Care House,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics 23
(2007): 974.
P.194「一次感情と二次感情」: Demoulin, S., et al., “Dimensions of Uniquely and Non-uniquely
Human Emotions,” Cognition and Emotion 18 (2004): 71–96.
P.195「犬の罪悪感」: Horowitz, A., “Disambiguating the ‘Guilty Look’: Salient Prompts to a Familiar
Dog Behavior,” Behavioral Processes 81 (2009): 451.
P.195「全体の74%」: Morris, P., C. Coe, and E. Godsell, “Secondary Emotions in Non-primate Species? Behavioral Reports and Subjective Claims by Animal Owners,” Cognition and Emotion 22
(2008): 3–20.
P.195「ミラーテスト」: de Waal, F. B. M., “The Thief in the Mirror,” PLoS Biology 6 (2008): e201.
P.196「エピソード記憶」: Episodic-like memory has been demonstrated in birds and rats. For a review, see Roberts, W. A., and M. C. Feeney, “The Comparative Study of Mental Time Travel,”
Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (2009): 271–77.
P.196「チャットルーム」: Friedman, B., P. H. Kahn Jr., and J. Hagman,“Hardware Companions? What
Online AIBO Discussion Forums Reveal about the Human-Robotic Relationship,” CHI Letters 5
(2003): 273–80.
P.197「ロボット掃除機ルンバ」: Sung, J.-A., et al., “Housewives or Technophiles? Understanding
Domestic Robot Owners,” HRI 2008 (2008): 129–36.
P.197「ルンバ所有者」: Sung, J.-A., et al., “ ‘My Roomba Is Rambo’: Intimate Home Appliances,”
UbiComp 2007 (2007): 145–62.
P.197「スター・ウォーズ」: Gazzola, V., et al., “The Anthropomorphic Brain: The Mirror Neuron
System Responds to Human and Robotic Actions,” NeuroImage 35 (2007): 1683.
13
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P.197「人とコンピュータとのやりとり」: Nass, C., and Y. Moon, “Machines and Mindlessness:
Social Responses to Computers,” Journal of Social Issues 56 (2000): 81–103.
P.198「エチオピア人」: Lesher, J. H., Xenophanes of Colophon: Fragments (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto
Press, 1992), 25.
P.199「神の心を読む」: Epley, N., et al., “Believers’ Estimates of God’s Beliefs Are More Egocentric
Than Estimates of Other People’s Beliefs,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106
(2009): 21533–38.
P.200「モノクロのアニメーション」: Heider, F., and M. Simmel, “An Experimental Study of Apparent Behavior,” American Journal of Psychology 57 (1944): 243–59.
P.201「ドアのへりに身体をぶつけると」: Guthrie, S. E., Faces in the Clouds : A New Theory of
Religion (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993) 47.
P.201「ニューロイメージング」: Castelli, F., et al., “Movement and Mind: A Functional Imaging
Study of Perception and Interpretation of Complex Intentional Movement Patterns,” NeuroImage
12 (2000): 314–25.
P.202「取り憑かれた陰嚢の症例」: Harding, J. R., “The Case of the Haunted Scrotum,” Journal of
the Royal Society of Medicine 89 (1996): 600.
P.202「火星の人面岩」: Phillips, T, “Unmasking the Face on Mars,” [email protected] NASA Headline News
(May 24, 2001), http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast24may_1/.
P.202「チーズトースト」: Associated Press, “ ‘Virgin Mary Grilled Cheese’ Sells for $28,000” (November 23, 2004), http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6511148/.
P.202「悪魔の顔」: Snopes, “Faces in the Cloud” (April 23, 2008), http://www.snopes.com/rumors/
wtcface.asp.
P.203「ロボットの顔」: Dubal, S., et al., “Human Brain Spots Emotion in Non Humanoid Robots,”
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 6 (2011): 90–97.
P.203「ニコニコマーク」: Eger, E., et al., “Rapid Extraction of Emotional Expression: Evidence from
Evoked Potential Fields during Brief Presentation of Face Stimuli,” Neuropsychologia 41 (2003):
808–17.
P.203「ふわふわの毛の固まり」: Johnson, S., V. Slaughter, and S. Carey, “Whose Gaze Will Infants
Follow? The Elicitation of Gaze Following in 12-Month-Olds,” Developmental Science 1 (1998) :
233–38.
P.203「不気味の谷」: MacDorman, K. F., et al., “Too Real for Comfort: Uncanny Responses to Computer Generated Faces,” Computers in Human Behavior 25 (2009): 695–710.
P.203「犬や猫の試作品」: Shibata, T., and K. Wada, “Robot Therapy: A New Approach for Mental
Healthcare of the Elderly,” Gerontology 57 (2011): 378–86.
P.204「胎児が笑っているように」: Borland, S., “The Foetus Who Broke into a Big Smile . . . Aged
Only 17 Weeks,” Daily Mail (October 11, 2010), http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1319373/The-foetus-broke-big-smile-aged-17-weeks.html.
P.204「デイリー・メール」: O’Connor, M., “Smiling Fetus Joins Abortion Debate” [blog post], (October 11, 2010), http://gawker.com/5661238/smiling-fetus-joins-abortion-debate.
P.204「ニコンの像」: Evans, E. P., The Criminal Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals
(London: William Heinemann, 1906).
P.205「道徳の絡む行為」: Gray, K., and D. M. Wegner, “Blaming God for Our Pain: Human Suffering
and the Divine Mind,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 14 (2010): 7–16.
P.206「捕食者と餌食」: New, J., L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby, “Category-Specific Attention for Animals
14
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Reflects Ancestral Priorities, Not Expertise,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104
(2007): 16593–16603.
P.206「ハイカーにとって」: Guthrie, Faces in the Clouds, 6.
P206「恐怖を感じると」: Epley, N., et al., “Creating Social Connection through Inferential Reproduction: Loneliness and Perceived Agency in Gadgets, Gods, and Greyhounds,” Psychological Science
19 (2008): 114–20.
P.207「H・ジャクソン・ブラウン・ジュニア」: Brown, H. J., Jr., P.S. I Love You: When Mom
Wrote She Always Saved the Best for Last (Nashville: Routledge Hill Press, 1990), 125.
P.207「H・L・メンケン」: Mencken, H. L., A Mencken Chrestomathy (New York: Vintage, 1982;
original work published 1949), 617.
P.207「代金箱」: Bateson, M., D. Nettle, and G. Roberts, “Cues of Being Watched Enhance Cooperation in a Real-World Setting,” Biology Letters 2 (2006) : 412–14.
P207「社会規範を取り込む」: Gintis, H., “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Altruism: Gene-Culture Coevolution and the Internalization of Norms,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 220 (2003): 407–18.
P.208「まるで予測不可能」: BBC, “World Cup 2010: David James Criticises Jabulani Ball” (June 2,
2010), http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/world_cup_2010/8716699.stm.
P.208「酷評される」”: Associated Press, “World Cup Players Complain about ‘Terrible’ Adidas Ball”
(May 31, 2010), http://www.nesn.com/2010/05/world-cup.html.
P.209「気まぐれに動く子犬」: Epley, N., et al., “When We Need a Human: Motivational Determinants of Anthropomorphism,” Social Cognition 26 (2008): 143–55.
P.209「別の実験」: Waytz, A., et al., “Making Sense by Making Sentient: Unpredictability Increases
Anthropomorphism,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99 (2010): 410–35.
P.210「単なる比喩ではない」: Ibid., 419.
P.211「古代の航海者」: Guthrie, Faces in the Clouds.
P.211「被験者の孤独感」: Epley et al., “Creating Social Connection through Inferential Reproduction.”
P.212「パロは患者の気持ちを明るくし」: For a review, see Shibata and Wada, “Robot Therapy.”
P.213「相手の行為に意図を見出す」: Rosset, E., “It’s No Accident: Our Bias for Intentional Explanations,” Cognition 108 (2008): 771–80; Bègue, L., et al.,“There Is No Such Thing as an Accident,
Especially When People Are Drunk,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36 (2010): 1301–
4.
第7章 すべてのものごとには理由がある──幸運と不運の分かれ道
P.217「キリマンジェロの雪」: アーネスト・ヘミングウェイ『キリマンジェロの雪』龍口直太
郎訳、角川書店、1969年
P.217「マイケル・ルプファー」: Weeks, M., and M. B. Lupfer, “Religious Attributions and Proximity of Influence: An Investigation of Direct Interventions and Distal Explanations,” Journal for the
Scientific Study of Religion 39 (2000): 348–62.
P.218「就学前の幼児の4人に3人」: Kelemen, D., “The Scope of Teleological Thinking in Preschool Children,” Cognition 70 (1999): 241–72.
P.220「予期せぬ重大なできごと」: Weiner, B. “ ‘Spontaneous’ Causal Thinking,” Psychological
Bulletin 97 (1985) : 74–84.
P.220「交通事故で伴侶を」: Lehman, D. R., C. B. Wortman, and A. F. Williams, “Long-Term Effects
15
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of Losing a Spouse or Child in a Motor Vehicle Crash,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (1985): 218–31.
P.221「無神論者」: Heywood, B. T., “ ‘Meant to Be’: How Religious Beliefs, Cultural Religiosity, and
Impaired Theory of Mind Affect the Implicit Bias to Think Teleologically” (Queen’s Univ. Belfast:
unpublished doctoral dissertation, 2010).
P.222「V1ミサイル」: トーマス・ギロビッチ『人間この信じやすきもの──迷信・誤信はど
うして生まれるか』守一雄、守秀子訳、新曜社、1993年
P.222「統計学者」: Clarke, R. D., “An Application of the Poisson Distribution,” Journal of the Institute
of Actuaries 72 (1946): 481.
P223「ホットハンド現象」: Caruso, E. M., A. Waytz, and N. Epley, “The Intentional Mind and the
Hot Hand: Perceiving Intentions Makes Streaks Seem Likely to Continue,” Cognition 116 (2010):
149–53; Gilovich, T., R. Vallone, and A. Tversky, “The Hot Hand in Basketball: On the Misperception of Random Sequences,” Cognitive Psychology 17 (1985): 295–314.
P.225「背筋がゾクゾク」: Taylor, L. C., “Disney World Photo Captures Couple Together 15 Years
before They Met,” Toronto Star (June 10, 2010), http://www.thestar.com/living/article/821688-disney-world-photo-captures-couple-together-15-years-before-they-met.
P.225「シンクロニシティ」: Beitman, B. D. (ed.), “Synchronicity, Weird Coincidences, and
Psychotherapy”[special issue], Psychiatric Annals 39(5) (2010).
P.226「マーク・チャップマン」: Jones, J., Let Me Take You Down: Inside the Mind of Mark David
Chapman, the Man Who Killed John Lennon (New York: Villard Books, 1992).
P.227「あの写真に気づく前に」: King, R., “A Match Made at Disney,” Daily Mail (June 11, 2010),
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1285238/Engaged-couple-discover-pathscrossed-Disney-World-toddlers.html.
P.228「エドワード・ローレンツ」: Lorenz, E. N., “Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow,” Journal of the
Atmospheric Sciences 20 (1963): 130–41.
P.229「今とは違う現実」: Epstude, K., and N. Roese, “The Functional Theory of Counterfactual
Thinking,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 12 (2008) : 168–92.
P.230「長崎市へ」: The Manhattan Project Heritage Preservation Association, “The Nagasaki Mission̶Timeline” (August 3, 2005), http://www.mphpa.org/classic/HISTORY/H-07m1.htm; Rhodes,
R., The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986).
P.231「ドイツのバイカー」: Teigen, K. H., “When a Small Difference Makes a Big Difference: Counterfactual Thinking and Luck,” in D. R. Mandel, D. J. Hilton, and P. Catellani (eds.), The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking (London: Routledge, 2005), 129–46.
P.231「カール・テイゲン」: ibid.
P.231「運のいいできごと」: Ibid., 133.
P.232「感謝の気持ち」: Emmons, R. A., and M. E. McCullough, “Counting Blessings versus Burdens:
Experimental Studies of Gratitude and Subjective Wellbeing in Daily Life,” Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology 84 (2003): 377–89.
P.235「超自然にその責任を押しつけがち」: Gray, K., and D. M. Wegner, “Blaming God for Our
Pain: Human Suffering and the Divine Mind,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 14 (2010):
7–16.
P.235「スマトラ島沖地震」: English, S., “Tsunami Was ‘God’s Punishment,’ ” Times (February 10,
2005), Washington Times, “Allah Off the Richter Scale” (January 9, 2005), http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2005/jan/09/20050109-102911-9121r/.
16
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P.235「ハリケーン・カトリーナ」: G., T., “Is Katrina God’s Punishment for Abortion?” [blog post],
http://www.salon.com/news/politics/war_room/2005/08/30/hurricane; Martel, B., “Storms Payback
from God, Nagin Says,” Associated Press (January 17, 2006), http://www.washingtonpost.com/
wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/16/AR2006011600925.html.
P.235「東日本大震災」: Dimiero, B., “Beck: ‘I’m Not Not Saying’ God Is Causing Earthquakes” [blog
post] (March 14, 2011), http://mediamatters.org/blog/201103140010.
P.235「良いできごとよりも悪いできごとを」: Morewedge, C. K., “Negativity Bias in Attribution of
External Agency,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 138 (2009): 535–45.
P.236「悪い体験の原因」: Baumeister, R. F., et al., “Bad Is Stronger Than Good,” Review of General
Psychology 5 (2001): 323–70.
P.236「麻痺の残った被害者」: Brickman, P., D. Coates, and R. Janoff-Bulman, “Lottery Winners and
Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36 (1978):
917–27; (Janoff-) Bulman, R., and C. B. Wortman, “Attributions of Blame and Coping in the ‘Real
World’: Severe Accident Victims React to Their Lot,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
35 (1977): 351–63.
P.236「神は苦難の原因であり」: Gray and Wegner, “Blaming God for Our Pain,” 12.
P.236「ザ・シンプソンズ」: Swartzwelder, J. (writer) and B. Anderson (director), “Homer vs. the 18th
Amendment” [television series episode], in M. Groening (creator), The Simpsons (Los Angeles:
20th Century Fox Television, March 16, 1997).
P.237「回復力を秘めている」: Janoff-Bulman, R., and D. Yopyk, “Random Outcomes and Valued
Commitments: Existential Dilemmas and the Paradox of Meaning,” in J. Greenberg, S. L. Koole,
and T. Pyszczynski (eds.), Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology (New York, NY:
Guilford Press, 2004), 122–40; Tedeschi, R. G., and L. G. Calhoun, “The Posttraumatic Growth
Inventory: Measuring the Positive Legacy of Trauma,” Journal of Traumatic Stress 9 (1996):455–
71.
P.238「神の計画の一部」: Pargament, K. I., H. G. Koenig, and L. M. Perez, “The Many Methods of
Religious Coping: Development and Initial Validation of the RCOPE,” Journal of Clinical Psychology 56 (2000): 519–43.
P.239「キャデラックや宝石」: (Janoff-) Bulman and Wortman, “Attributions of Blame and Coping in
the ‘Real World.’ ”
P.239「善を為せば」: Piaget, J., The Moral Judgment of the Child, M. Gabain, trans. (New York: Free
Press, 1997; original work published 1932), 251.
P.239「大学生のほうに」: Raman, L., and G. A. Winer, “Evidence of More Immanent Justice Responding in Adults Than Children: A Challenge to Traditional Developmental Theories,” British
Journal of Developmental Psychology 22 (2004): 255−74.
P.239「幸運もその人の性格や普段の行いから」: Callan, M. J., J. H. Ellard, and J. E. Nicol, “The
Belief in a Just World and Immanent Justice Reasoning in Adults,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 32 (2006): 1646−58.
P.239「ガブリエル・ヴィーヴァス」: Associated Press, “ ‘Let Us Pray’: Peru Survivors Tell Harrowing Tale” (August 25, 2005), http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9071653/%5Benter%20URL%5D;
Caruso, D. B., “Friends Say Brooklyn Family that Survived Plane Crash Deserved Miracle,” Associated Press (August 25, 2005), LexisNexis.
P.240「世界は公正だ」: Hafer, C. L., and L. Begue, “Experimental Research on Just World Theory:
Problems, Developments, and Future Challenges,”Psychological Bulletin 131 (2005): 128−66.
17
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P.240「日々の行動」: Gaucher, D., et al., “Compensatory Rationalizations and the Resolution of Everyday Undeserved Outcomes,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36 (2010): 109–18.
P.240「パターンを探す」: Whitson, J. A., and A. D. Galinsky, “Lacking Control Increases Illusory
Pattern Perception,” Science 322 (2008): 115–17.
P.241「あるできごとと、過去に起きたできごと」: Lindberg, M. J., and K. D. Markman, “When
What Happens Tomorrow Makes Today Seem Meant to Be: The Meaning Making Function of
Counterfactual Thinking” (Ohio Univ.: unpublished doctoral dissertation, 2010).
P.241「外部に求めやすい」: Kay, A. C., et al., “Religious Belief as Compensatory Control,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 14 (2010): 37–48.
P.242「ある調査によれば」: Dweck, C. S., C. Chiu, and Y. Hong, “Implicit Theories and Their Role in
Judgments and Reactions: A World from Two Perspectives,” Psychological Inquiry 6 (1995): 267–
85.
P.242「がん検診」: de los Monteros, K. E., and L. C. Gallo, “The Relevance of Fatalism in the Study
of Latina’s Cancer Screening Behavior: A Systematic Review of the Literature,” International
Journal of Behavioral Medicine (in press).
P.242「食事療法」: Shen, L., C. Condit, and L. Wright, “The Psychometric Property and Validation of
a Fatalism Scale,” Psychology and Health 24 (2009) : 597–613.
P.242「心臓発作」: Agarwal, M., and A. K. Dalal, “Beliefs about the World and Recovery from Myocardial Infarction,” Journal of Social Psychology 133 (1993): 385–94.
P.242「無謀運転」: Kouabenan, D. R., “Beliefs and the Perception of Risks and Accidents,” Risk
Analysis 18 (1998): 243–52.
P.242「シートベルトをしない」: Colón, I., “Race, Belief in Destiny, and Seatbelt Use: A Pilot Study,”
American Journal of Public Health 82 (1992): 875–77.
P.242「無防備なセックス」: Kalichman, S. C., et al., “Fatalism, Future Outlook, Current Life Satisfaction, and Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection among Gay and Bisexual
Men,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 65 (1997): 542–46.
P.243「泳ぎを覚えようとしない漁師」: Gill, A., “All at Sea? The Survival of Superstition,” History
Today 44 (December 1994): 9–11.
P.244「ジャン・ポール・サルトル」: J・P・サルトル『実存主義とは何か』伊吹武彦訳、人
文書院、1996年
P.244「抑うつ症が増えた原因」: Scheibehenne, B., R. Greifeneder, and P. M. Todd., “Can There Ever
Be Too Many Options? A Meta-Analytic Review of Choice Overload,” Journal of Consumer
Research 37 (2010): 409–25.
P.244「選択のパラドックス」: Schwartz, B., “Self-Determination: The Tyranny of Freedom,” American Psychologist 55 (2000): 79–88.
P.244「難しい選択」: Beattie, J., et al., “Psychological Determinants of Decision Attitude,” Journal of
Behavioral Decision Making 7 (1994): 129–44.
P.245「銀メダルを取った人」: Medvec, V. H., S. F. Madey, and T. Gilovich, “When Less Is More:
Counterfactual Thinking and Satisfaction among Olympic Athletes,” Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology 69 (1995): 603–10.
P.247「ジェイムズ・バーレン」: Birren, J. E., and L. M. Fisher, “The Elements of Wisdom: Overview
and Integration,” in R. J. Sternberg (ed.), Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins, and Development (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990), 324.
18
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エピローグ
P.249「ペリン・キーシビル」: Kesebir, P., C.-Y. Chiu, and T. Pyszczynski, The Sacred: An Existential
Anxiety Buffer (manuscript submitted for publication, 2010).
P.250「ベスト・キッド」: 1984年公開のアメリカ映画
P.251「フロー体験」: Csikszentmihalyi, M., “If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?” American
Psychologist 54 (1999): 821–27.
P.251「単純作業」: Hsee, C. K., A. X. Yang, and L. Wang, “Idleness Aversion and the Need for Justifi
able Busyness,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 926–30.
19
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(ダイヤモンド社刊)
参考文献
参考文献
はじめに──「信じる者は救われる」を科学的に解明できるか?
Haselton, M. G., et al. “Adaptive Rationality: An Evolutionary Perspective on Cognitive Bias.” Social
Cognition 27 (2009) : 733–63.
Jahoda, G. The Psychology of Superstition. New York: Penguin, 1969.
Lindeman, M., and K. Aarnio. “Superstitious, Magical, and Paranormal Beliefs: An Integrative Model.”
Journal of Research in Personality 41 (2007) : 731–44.
ブロニスワフ・マリノフスキー『呪術・科学・宗教・神話』宮武公夫、高橋巌根訳、人文書院、
1997年
Mauss, M. A General Theory of Magic. Translated by R. Brain. New York: Routledge, 2001; original
work published 1902.
Rosengren, K. S., C. N. Johnson, and P. L. Harris, eds. Imagining the Impossible: Magical, Scientific,
and Religious Thinking in Children. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.
Tambiah, S. J. Magic, Science, Religion, and the Scope of Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.
Press, 1990.
Zusne, L., and W. H. Jones. Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989; original work published1982.
スティーブン・ホーキング『ホーキング、宇宙を語る──ビッグバンからブラックホールまで』
林一訳、早川書房、1995年
バートランド・ラッセル『宗教は必要か』大竹勝訳、荒地出版社、1968年
F・デヴィッド・ピート『シンクロニシティ』管啓次郎、朝日出版社、1989年
ダン・アリエリー『予想どおりに不合理──行動経済学が明かす「あなたがそれを選ぶわけ」
』
熊谷淳子訳、早川書房、2008年
第1章 「つながる」で幸せになれるって本当?──伝染る、感じる、宿るの正体
ジェイムズ・フレイザー『金枝篇』永橋卓介訳、岩波書店、1951年
Frazier, B. N., et al. “Picasso Paintings, Moon Rocks, and Hand-Written Beatles Lyrics: Adults’ Evaluations of Authentic Objects.” Journal of Cognition and Culture 9 (2009) : 1–14.
※ブルース・フード『スーパーセンス──ヒトは生まれつき超科学的な心を持っている』小松
淳子訳、インターシフト、2011年
Hood, B. M., and P. Bloom. “Children Prefer Certain Original Objects over Perfect Duplicates.” Cognition 106 (2008) : 455–62.
Nemeroff, C., and P. Rozin. “The Contagion Concept in Adult Thinking in the United States: Transmission of Germs and of Interpersonal Influence.” Ethos 22 (1994) : 158–86.
クレア・シルヴィア『記憶する心臓──ある心臓移植患者の手記』飛田野裕子訳、角川書店、
1998年
ウィリアム・シェイクスピア『マクベス』福田恒存訳、新潮社、1969年
第2章 思い込みのパワーを侮るな──お守り、呪い、儀式の力
20
なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
(ダイヤモンド社刊)
参考文献
Gilovich, T., and K. Savitsky. “Like Goes with Like: The Role of Representativeness in Erroneous and
Pseudo-Scientific Beliefs.” In T. Gilovich, D. W. Griffin, and D. Kahneman, eds. Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002: 617–24.
Hood, B. M., et al. “Implicit Voodoo: Electrodermal Activity Reveals a Susceptibility to Sympathetic
Magic.” Journal of Cognition and Culture 10 (2010): 391–99.
Piaget, J. The Child’s Conception of the World. Translated by J. Tomlinson and A. Tomlinson. Lanham,
MD: Rowman and Littlefi eld Publishers, 2007; original work published 1929.
Rozin, P., L. Millman, and C. Nemeroff. “Operation of the Laws of Sympathetic Magic in Disgust and
Other Domains.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (1986): 703–12.
Tylor, E. B., Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion,
Language, Art, and Custom. 6th ed. Vol. 1. London: John Murray, 1920; original work published 1874.
第3章 験を担いで幸運を引き寄せろ──運を育てる技術
Damisch, L., B. Stoberock, and T. Mussweiler. “Keep Your Fingers Crossed!: How Superstition Improves
Performance.” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 1014–20.
Keinan, G. “The Effects of Stress and Desire for Control on Superstitious Behavior.” Personality and
Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (2002): 102–8.
Langer, E. “The Illusion of Control.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32 (1975): 311–28.
Risen, J. L., and T. Gilovich. “Why People Are Reluctant to Tempt Fate.” Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology 95 (2008): 293–307.
※スチュアート・A・ヴァイス『人はなぜ迷信を信じるのか̶思いこみの心理学』藤井留美訳、
朝日新聞社、1999年
第4章 信じる心はどこまで届くのか──引き寄せの法則は本当に可能なのか?
Baer, J., J. C. Kaufman, and R. F. Baumeister, eds. Are We Free?: Psychology and Free Will. New York:
Oxford Univ. Press, 2008.
Gilovich, T. How We Know What Isn’t So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life. New York:
Free Press, 1991.
Keltner, D., and J. Haidt. “Approaching Awe, a Moral, Spiritual, and Aesthetic Emotion.” Cognition and
Emotion 17 (2003): 297–314.
Neher, A. The Psychology of Transcendence. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1990; original work published 1980.
Pronin, E., et al. “Everyday Magical Powers: The Role of Apparent Mental Causation in the Overestimation of Personal Influence.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91 (2006): 218–31.
ロンダ・バーン『ザ・シークレット』山川紘矢、山川亜希子、佐野美代子訳、角川書店、2007
年
エドガー・ミッチェル『月面上の思索』前田樹子、めるくまーる、2010年
リチャード・ドーキンス『虹の解体──いかにして科学は驚異への扉を開いたか』福岡伸一訳、
早川書房、2001年
第5章 信じれば、死ぬことだって怖くない──死後の世界を信じる? 信じない?
アーネスト・ベッカー『死の拒絶』今防人訳、平凡社、1989年
21
なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
(ダイヤモンド社刊)
参考文献
※ジェシー・ベリング『ヒトはなぜ神を信じるのか──信仰する本能』鈴木光太郎訳、化学同
人、2012年
Bering, J. M. “The Folk Psychology of Souls,” plus peer commentary. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29
(2006): 453–98.
ポール・ブルーム『赤ちゃんはどこまで人間なのか──心の理解の起源』春日井晶子訳、ラン
ダムハウス講談社、2006年
Goldenberg, J. L. “The Body Stripped Down: An Existential Account of Ambivalence toward the Physical Body.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 14 (2005) : 224–28.
Greenberg, J., S. L. Koole, and T. Pyszczynski, eds. Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology.
New York: Guilford Press, 2004.
ジョーン・ディディオン『悲しみにある者』池田年穂訳、慶應義塾大学出版会、2011年
エリザベス・キューブラー・ロス『死ぬ瞬間──死とその過程について』鈴木晶訳、読売新聞
社、1998年
スーザン・ブラックモア『生と死の境界──「臨死体験」を科学する』由布翔子訳、読売新聞
社、1996年
第6章 孤独をはね返す疑人化のすすめ──なぜ、私たちはモノに話しかけてしまうのか
パスカル・ボイヤー『神はなぜいるのか?』鈴木光太郎・中村潔訳、NTT出版、2008年
ダニエル・C・デネット『
「志向姿勢」の哲学──人は人の行動を読めるのか?』若島正・河
田学訳、白揚社、1996年
Epley, N., A. Waytz, and J. T. Cacioppo. “On Seeing Human: A Three-Factor Theory of Anthropomorphism.” Psychological Review 114 (2007) : 864–86.
Guthrie, S. E. Faces in the Clouds: A New Theory of Religion. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.
デイヴィッド・ヒューム『人間知性研究』斎藤繁雄・一ノ瀬正樹訳、法政大学出版局、2011年
第7章 すべてのものごとには理由がある──幸運と不運の分かれ道
(Janoff-) Bulman, R., and C. B. Wortman. “Attributions of Blame and Coping in the ‘Real World’: Severe Accident Victims React to Their Lot.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35 (1977) :
351–63.
Gray, K., and D. M. Wegner. “Blaming God for Our Pain: Human Suffering and the Divine Mind.”
Personality and Social Psychology Review 14 (2010) : 7–16.
Hafer, C. L., and L. Begue. “Experimental Research on Just World Theory: Problems, Developments,
and Future Challenges.” Psychological Bulletin 131 (2005): 128−66.
Kay, A. C., et al. “Religious Belief as Compensatory Control.” Personality and Social Psychology Review
14 (2010): 37–48.
Kelemen, D., and E. Rosset. “The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults.”
Cognition 111 (2009) : 138–43.
Kray, L. J., et al. “From What Might Have Been to What Must Have Been: Counterfactual Thinking
Creates Meaning.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (2010) : 106–18.
J・P・サルトル『実存主義とは何か』伊吹武彦訳、人文書院、1996年
Shaffer, L. S. “Fatalism as an Animistic Attribution Process.” Journal of Mind and Behavior 5 (1984) :
351–61.
22
なぜ、これを「信じる」とうまくいくのか
(ダイヤモンド社刊)
参考文献
Teigen, K. H. “When a Small Difference Makes a Big Difference: Counterfactual Thinking and Luck.”
In D. R. Mandel, D. J. Hilton, and P. Catellani, eds. The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking.
London: Routledge, 2005: 129–46.
アーネスト・ヘミングウェイ『キリマンジェロの雪』龍口直太郎訳、角川書店、1969年
エピローグ
Baumeister, R. F. Meanings of Life. New York: Guilford Press, 1991.
Belk, R. W., M. Wallendorf, and J. F. Sherry Jr. “The Sacred and the Profane in Consumer Behavior:
Theodicy on the Odyssey.” Journal of Consumer Research 16 (1989) : 1–37.
エミル・デュルケム『宗教生活の原初形態〈上〉
』
『宗教生活の原初形態〈下〉
』古野清人訳、
岩波書店、1975年
ミルチャ・エリアーデ『聖と俗──宗教的なるものの本質について』風間敏夫訳、法政大学出
版局、1969年
ヴィクトール・E・フランクル『夜と霧』池田香代子訳、みすず書房、1961年
『ベスト・キッド』1984年製作のアメリカ映画
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