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第 4 回 EU ワークショップ in ルーヴェン大学

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関西大学大学院文学研究科副専攻「EU-日本学」
日本学」
関西大学大学院文学研究科副専攻「
国際ワークショップ
第 4 回 EU ワークショップ
in ルーヴェン大学
研究報告要旨集
2012 年 11 月 7 日(水
日(水)
ルーヴェン大学(ベルギー)
Faculty of Arts Building (Erasmushuis), room: LETT. 08.16 (Justus Lipsius)
Proceedings
The 4th EU Workshop in University of Leuven
7 November, 2012
University of Leuven, Belgium
Faculty of Arts Building (Erasmushuis), room: LETT. 08.16 (Justus Lipsius)
Sub-Major Curriculum EU-Japanology, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters
関西大学大学院文学研究科
Japan-EU Research Center
副専攻「EU-日本学」
Catholic University of Leuven
〒564-8680
7th Floor, Room 07.17
大阪府吹田市山手町 3-3-35
Blijde Inkomststraat 21
Tel. +81 (0) 6-6368-1121
3000 Leuven
Tel. +32 (0) 49481511
Contents
第 4 回 EU ワークショップ in ルーヴェン大学 プログラム
1
第 1 セッション
IKEMURA, Akiko
2
Dream and Reality in The Chimes by Charles Dickens
DAVIDSON, Sara
5
日本におけるお菓子
第 2 セッション
SONODA, Erika
6
Gustav Klimt -the Process of Creating PhilosophyEZAKI, Asami
8
日本の洋画家小磯良平について―エドガー・ドガ作品との関係を中心に―
第 3 セッション
JACOB, Jarl
10
欧州連合と日本に於ける消費者信用法
DEGUCHI, Shoko
11
Who Owns the Child? : Adoption and Foster Care in Japan
第 4 セッション
SON, Jihye
13
Lee Gi-Young’s Buddhist Studies and Its Impact on Korea Buddhist Academia
LEYSEN, Bert
16
東京における韓流:ケイ・ポップのブーム
編集
関西大学:
山口
哲史
(関西大学大学院文学研究科副専攻「EU-日本学」
リサーチ・アシスタント)
ルーヴェン大学:
櫻井
直子
(ルーヴェン大学日本学科
専任講師)
Nicholas Peeters
(ルーヴェン大学 関西大学日本・EU 研究センター
リサーチ・アシスタント)
第 4 回 EU ワークショップ in ルーヴェン大学 プログラム
日時:2012 年 11 月 7 日(水)
9:30~17:30
場所:Faculty of Arts Building (Erasmushuis), room: LETT. 08.16 (Justus Lipsius)
9:30~9:45
開会挨拶
第 1 セッション
9:45~10:25
IKEMURA, Akiko
(Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters)
Dream and Reality in The Chimes by Charles Dickens
10:35~11:15
DAVIDSON, Sara
(ルーヴェン大学日本学科修士課程)
日本におけるお菓子
コーヒー・ブレイク
第 2 セッション
11:30~12:10
SONODA, Erika
(Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters)
Gustav Klimt -the Process of Creating Philosophy12:20~13:00
EZAKI, Asami
(関西大学大学院文学研究科博士課程後期課程)
日本の洋画家小磯良平について―エドガー・ドガ作品との関係を中心に―
昼食
第 3 セッション
14:10~14:50
JACOB, Jarl
(ルーヴェン大学日本学科修士課程)
欧州連合と日本に於ける消費者信用法
15:00~15:40
DEGUCHI, Shoko
(MA Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters)
Who Owns the Child? : Adoption and Foster Care in Japan
コーヒー・ブレイク
第 4 セッション
16:00~16:40
SON, Jihye
(Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of East Asian Cultures)
Lee Gi-Young’s Buddhist Studies and Its Impact on Korea Buddhist Academia
16:50~17:30
LEYSEN, Bert
(ルーヴェン大学日本学科修士課程)
東京における韓流:ケイ・ポップのブーム
-1-
Dream and Reality in The Chimes by Charles Dickens
IKEMURA, Akiko
Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters
Charles Dickens (1812-1870) published A Christmas Carol suitably in the
Christmas season of 1843 and he kept presenting a story for Christmas each
succeeding year. In this series of Christmas stories, A Christmas Carol was followed
by the second work The Chimes (1844) and subsequently by The Cricket on the Hearth
(1845), The Battle of Life (1846) and The Haunted Man (1848). 1847 passed as a
vacant year for this series, as Dickens was too much engaged in writing Dombey and
Son (1846-48). These Christmas stories were compiled in one volume under the title
The Christmas Books.
The first two Christmas books bear a great resemblance to each other in
appealing, at the occasion of joyful season which Dickens is enjoying, the importance
of being kind and considerate to the poor people and presenting the scenes illustrating
the mental journey of the protagonists with different characters in the respective books
who regain humanity after receiving a warning in their dream worlds. We cannot
overlook that Dickens closes up for the attention of readers the dark side of the English
society of the time overshadowed by the sunny side, the flourishing new life and
culture. In The Chimes they are manifested directly composing of a social and political
satire in which Dickens’s social thought is vividly depicted.
Toby (Trotty) Veck, the central figure of this story is a poor old worker who
earns his living as a ticket-porter working on street corners in London regardless of
heat and cold. In this respect he is illustrated as a sympathetic figure in marked contrast
to Scrooge, the money monger. Why such a good-natured old man as he has to convert
his mind? This is because he, good but ignorant, and readily influenced by the words of
the powerful men or newspaper articles, has fallen into a mistaken idea that ‘we’, the
poor people are bad by birth and have no right to live. Therefore, Toby’s conversion in
this case has an implication of Salvation for a reason different from that of Scrooge’s
conversion.
-2-
Dickens expressed criticism on social problems of England of his time in
many of his works. In The Chimes among others we encounter Dickens’s sharper
criticism. No doubt Dickens devoted his strong efforts to attenuate as much as possible
the cruelty of various social systems and institutions like the New Poor Law, which
had been seriously oppressed the poor people or weak people, and the inherent
conflicts and anxiety of the society.
However, the important mission of Dickens as a writer was not only to
criticize the society but also to write a story that entertains the reader. The Chimes
came out as another enjoyable book, following A Christmas Carol, with many
elements of fantasy. Dickens wish to the reader confided in this book is awakening to
humanity hence everyone has a heart full of thoughtfulness and kindness to others and
is always ready to help each other with good will. Joy and pleasure of the common
people in their family life are vividly reproduced in the landscape of the happy family
life of the Bob Cratchit in Camden Town in A Christmas Carol or in the scene of the
happy wedding of Meg and Richard illustrated at the end of The Chimes. We recognize
here the images of ideal family full of fantastic nature created by the inner sentiment of
Dickens longing for a warm family which he had missed in his childhood, overlapping
with the memory of his humiliating works which latently resided in his heart like a
shadow. Furthermore, both of these books feature supernatural things and the real
world and the dream world intermingle. Such a strange cosmos of a curious mixture of
two worlds could only be so impressively given life by the skillful hands of Dickens.
Our last question is why these fantasy novels were widely accepted by the
English people of that time. It was just the light era when England was in its climax of
prosperity based on the Industrial Revolution. However, while new civilizations were
created progressively, there existed a shadow side of the world with destruction of
nature, dominance of materialistic ideas of people, cruel working conditions of
labourers and coldness and indifference of people to the poor. Many people felt
admiration but at the same time also apprehension. It was just the time when the
Christmas books of Dickens full of fancy and imagination appeared. In his compassion
for the people in lower class of the society he tried to convey their anger to the readers
-3-
in general through these books and thus hurled accusations at the situation of the lower
class and the treatment of them by the State. Nevertheless, he is credited with a success
not only in appealing for reform of the society but also in arousing interest of the
reader in the world of spirit and fantasy. From this book many people, not only
children but also grown-ups could induce full pleasure and enjoyment forgetting the
bitter reality.
In reading this book we could get acquainted with the multitude of images and
figures of England of that time and at the same time, would we be able to share with
Toby the feeling of conversion, having been convinced of the importance of living like
a human being? Many English people of that time derived from this book a model of
happy family life poor but full of love. So enormous was the effect this book had given
on the society in general.
-4-
日本におけるお菓子
日本におけるお菓子
ルーヴェン大学日本学科
修士課程
DAVIDSON, Sara
本発表では、日本におけるお菓子、つまり和菓子、日本にある洋菓子と和洋菓子、はど
のようなものであるかを明確にし、日本のお菓子に対する日本人の意見も紹介したい。最
後に将来の見通しを述べる。
まず日本におけるお菓子の種類(和菓子、洋菓子と和洋菓子)を紹介する。和菓子の日
本文化との関係、起源と歴史的な変遷に関して述べ、同じ点について日本にある洋菓子を
説明し、さらにまだあまり知られていない「和洋菓子」という概念も明確にする。和洋菓
子を最後に説明するのは和洋菓子が
「和洋折衷」、つまり「和菓子が洋菓子に影響を与えた」
こと、及び「洋菓子が和菓子に影響を与えた」という現象から生まれたものだからである。
次に、和洋菓子に関して、一例として Kit Kat というお菓子を取り上げ、Kit Kat がなぜ
日本ですばらしく成功したかを日本文化や社会を分析しながら、検討する。そして、その
成功のため、Kit Kat はなぜ他の外国の会社のお手本としてふさわしいか述べたいと思う。
次に、日本人消費者の考え方(例:健康志向)や日本社会の現状(例:高齢化)などによる
日本におけるお菓子への影響も考察する。それは、社会的・文化的な視点から、どうやっ
て日本におけるお菓子が日本らしくなったかということの説明を試みるためである。その
「日本らしさ」は外国のお菓子製造者にも興味深いことであろう。外国の会社が日本であ
まり成功していないのはおそらくその会社が日本人の考え方・日本文化・日本社会があま
り分からないからではないだろうか。
最後に、去年日本の留学のときに行った調査について述べる。その調査は 72 人の 18 歳
から 80 歳までの日本人を対象に行ったアンケートで、日本人の和菓子と和洋菓子に関す
る意見を調査した。その結果から現代の日本におけるお菓子のイメージがわかり、いつど
のようなお菓子を買うかということも分かった。又、その結果を基にし、将来も予想した
い。
以上のように、
「日本におけるお菓子」を日本文化の特徴(例:お土産の文化、年中行事)、
日本の歴史の視点説明し、上記 3 種のお菓子の背景や起源、日本のお菓子の現状と消費者
の好みをできるだけ明確にしたいと考えている。
-5-
Gustav Klimt
- the Process of Creating Philosophy SONODA, Erika
Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters
Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) is one of the representative Austrian painters in the
turn of 20th century. His career started as a stage designer with his brother and his
friend, Franz von Matsch (1861-1942). They had worked for the historical theatres and
halls inside and outside the country since 1878. Nevertheless they were still in their
twenties, they reached at prominent artists in Vienna. But Klimt wasn’t satisfied to be a
historical painter. In 1897, Klimt and his companies established a progressive artist
group, which is called "Wien Secession (Vienna Secession)”. They frequently held the
Secession Exhibition and tried to absorb the art’s movements in foreign countries and
to improve the art’s quality in Vienna.
In this workshop, I’m going to make a presentation about one of his artworks,
Philosophy (1900/07). This is one of the most important artworks because it became
his turning point. He took 13 years to finish it. But finished Philosophy met with strong
opposition of contemporaries. While creating this painting, his concept made numerous
transformations. So I focus on the process of creating Philosophy. But unfortunately
we cannot see the original painting because it already had been lost in fire in WWII.
To summarize the process, in 1894, the Ministry for Culture and Education
committed Klimt and Matsch to create the ceiling paintings of the Auditorium of the
Vienna University. The ceiling paintings are called Faculty Paintings and consist of
five paintings; the Light over the Darkness, Theology, Philosophy, Medicine and
Jurisprudence. Klimt created Philosophy, Medicine and Jurisprudence.
In 1898, Klimt submitted the painted studies to the Ministry for Culture and
Education. But it also had been lost in fire in WWII so that I have to use black and
white photograph. The painted study already contained of fundamental elements of his
concept leading to final version.
Seeing the painted study, the Ministry for Culture and Education made
-6-
disagreements and requested him to modify some points. So Klimt polished his idea
and made the transfer sketch in 1899. His concept made numerous transformations
from the first painted study.
In 1900, Klimt made the final version of Philosophy with oil on canvas. He
still added some important figures. It had already been lost but we can know the color
from the contemporary criticisms.
In March 1900 at the 7th Secession Exhibition, the reaction to this painting
separated pros and cons. The professors of the Vienna University protested to install
this painting in the ceiling of the Auditorium. Finally Klimt himself recalled this
commission. In the end, Klimt sold this painting to his patron in 1905.
To conclude, he was prominent historical painter in his early career. But he
wasn’t satisfied with it. Since he received some disagreements of his painted study of
Philosophy from the Ministry for Culture and Education, he was gradually separating
from academicism. He absorbed from his contemporary artists. His concept made
numerous transformations from the first painted study. In the end, he made his own
allegory of Philosophy which revealed a scene of the universe. Philosophy couldn’t be
installed in the ceiling but became a tableau.
-7-
日本の洋画家小磯良平について
―エドガー・ドガ作品との関係を中心に―
関西大学大学院文学研究科
博士課程後期課程
EZAKI, Asami
小磯良平(KOISO Ryohei, 1903-1988)は大正から昭和にかけて活躍した、日本の洋画
家である。彼は初期から晩年にいたるまで一貫して女性像を描き続け、また、ポスターや
雑誌の表紙絵、新聞の連載小説の挿絵も数多く手がけた。彼は戦後の日本において、最も
大衆的な人気を得た画家の一人に挙げられるだろう。だが一方で、描かれる対象が多くの
場合若く美しい女性であり、一見平易で親しみやすいため、
「誰にも描ける絵」「退屈で小
奇麗な絵」などと言われることもあった。大衆的な人気を得てきたがために、かえって客
観的な評価がされず、小磯芸術の真価は見逃されがちであったのではないだろうか。
小磯は、2 度渡欧し美術館を巡って直接芸術作品を見た他に、およそ 2300 冊にものぼ
る美術書を所蔵しており、古代から現代に至るまでのあらゆる西洋の芸術・技法を熱心に
研究して、その成果を自身の作品に反映させていた。若干例を挙げるなら、ピエロ・デラ・
フランチェスカ(Piero della Francesca, 1412-1492)、ヨハネス・フェルメール(Johannes
Vermeer, 1632-1675)
、ドミニク・アングル(Dominique Ingres, 1780-1867)、エドゥア
ール・マネ(Édouard Manet, 1832-1883)などであり、晩年にはジョルジュ・ブラック
(Georges Braque, 1882-1963)らのキュビスムにも感化されている。他にも小磯が摂取
した西洋画家の名を挙げれば枚挙に遑が無いが、本発表では、小磯作品に特に大きな影響
を与えた画家の一人であるエドガー・ドガ(Edgar Degas, 1834-1917)を中心にとりあげ
たい。
一度目の渡仏を経た後の 1930 年代に小磯は、ドガからの影響を窺わせる、踊り子や裁
縫する女性などをテーマにした作品を数多く描いた。小磯自身が生前に「ドガの影響がな
ければ、ぼくのバレエの作品は生まれなかったかも知れませんね。」と述べており、従来
の小磯研究においても、その影響関係は幾度となく指摘されてきた。しかし、
「踊り子」な
どモティーフの借用という観点に囚われ、作品の詳細な分析を行った研究は意外に多くな
い。《練習場の踊り子達》
(1938 年)という作品一つをとっても、
「踊り子」というモティ
ーフの借用だけに留まらず、構図や構成の類似したドガ作品と比較、分析することによっ
て、小磯が、モティーフを借用しつつ、それをいかに別種の絵画作品に変容させていたか
-8-
を知ることができるのではないだろうか。
本発表では、小磯良平という日本の洋画家を紹介するとともに、大きな変化がないよう
に見られがちなその画風の変化を追いながら、小磯作品とドガ作品との影響関係を指摘し、
さらには具体的な比較、分析を行う。今回は小磯が影響を受けた多くの西洋画家の内の一
人をとりあげて分析するにしか及ばないが、それでも、みずからの現状のスタイルに自足
せず、西洋の芸術・技法を研究しながら、新しい表現を模索していた画家小磯良平の一端
を知ることができると考える。
-9-
欧州連合と日本に於ける消費者信用法
ルーヴェン大学日本学科
修士課程
JACOB, Jarl
近年、消費者が消費者信用契約を締結する可能性がだんだん増えてきた。クレジットカ
ード、ストアクレジット、貸金業者の貸付け等、可能性が山ほどある。この増加が立法者
に消費者保護が充分あるように消費者信用を規律することを求める。日本と欧州連合では
最近、消費者信用を律する法的枠組みが改正された。しかし、改正された理由は大いに異
なる。日本では改正貸金業法が多重債務者と自己破産や自己再生の申立数を減らすために
制定され、欧州連合では新しい消費者信用指令が消費者保護と共に欧州連合の消費者信用
市場の調和、欧州市民の国境を超える消費者信用の利用を促進することを目的として発布
された。
本発表はこの法律を調べ、消費者保護がどこまで行われているかを検討する。この検討
を通して、この法律の中でどちらが消費者信用契約を締結している消費者を保護するのに
優れているか明らかにしたい。日本と欧州連合を比較するのは加盟国の法律も検討しなけ
ればならないため、本発表はさらに、
ベルギーとイギリスの消費者信用法の検討を通して、
加盟国がどのように指令を実行したかも検討したいと考えている。これは日本と欧州連合
の法律の差についてより明確な比較を可能すると考えられる。
- 10 -
Who Owns the Child? : Adoption and Foster Care in Japan
DEGUCHI, Shoko
MA Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters
As of 2010, there are 36,450 children who were deprived of parental care in
Japan. Only 12% are placed under foster care, and 0.8% became adopted, meaning
87.2% remained in residential care facilities. This is strikingly low compared to other
countries. For example, in the United States 77% of such children are raised by foster
parents. This number is 71.7% in the United Kingdom, and 43.6% in nearby South
Korea.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child provided that
children should grow up in “a loving and understanding family environment” and that
“family-based care should precede alternative care.” It is made clear that family-based
care is necessary for children without parental care “for the full and harmonious
development of their personality.” In this regard, the Japanese government is far
behind other governments in terms of child welfare. In 2010, the United Nations
Committee on the Rights of the Child showed its concern over governmental inaction
on family-based care for children without parental care.
Why so many children are left in institutional care in Japan, instead of
receiving family-based care? This paper argues that the Japanese government
emphasizes parental rights or the custody of natural parents over the welfare of
children. The purpose of this study is to consider the adoption and foster care system in
Japan from the viewpoint of parental rights and the best interests of the individual
child.
In the first section, this paper details the adoption and foster care system in
Japan. There are two different types of adoption in Japan: the one is called “ordinary
adoption,” and the other is known as “special adoption,” The latter was introduced in
1988, precisely because “ordinary adoption” is not suitable for the purpose of adopting
children without parental care. One of the conditions of special adoption is that it
requires parental consent and allows the natural parents to revoke their consent until
- 11 -
the court approves adoption. The foster care system has the same requirement: the
placement of a child under foster care requires parental consent, as foster care is meant
to be a temporary placement, with the aim of reintegrating the child and the natural
parents in the future. This requirement of parental consent for adoption and foster care
in Japan is one of the major factors that keep children in institutional care, blocking
their right to be raised in a permanent home.
The second section of this paper discusses a specific court case, the Yamagata
foster parents trial, as a case study to demonstrate Japan’s strong emphasis on parental
rights. As a result of this trial, foster parents that had raised a child for more than four
years in the hope of an eventual adoption were forced to return the child back to the
natural mother. This case demonstrates that the Japanese legal system viewed the rights
of the natural parents as most important. The court failed to take the child’s wellbeing
into consideration, largely ignoring the close relationship the child and the foster
parents had built up over more than four years together.
The final section explains how the governments in other countries react when
the natural parents refuse the child’s foster care placement, by giving example of the
situations in the few countries in Europe. The governments in other countries
sometimes compulsorily place the child under foster care in order to protect the child’s
wellbeing, whereas the Japanese government is reluctant to place the child under foster
care against the will of natural parents.
In conclusion, this study seeks to demonstrate that the adoption and foster
care in Japan put too much emphasis on the rights of natural parents over the welfare
of the child. The system has little respect for children or their right to determine their
own lives.
- 12 -
Lee Gi-Young’s Buddhist Studies and Its Impact
on Korean Buddhist Academia
SON, Jihye
Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of East Asian Cultures
This presentation introduces Lee Gi-Young ( 李箕永 , 1922-1996), Korea’s
pre-eminent modern Buddhist scholar, who studied Buddhist research methodologies
under Étienne Lamotte (1903-1983) at Leuven University in Belgium in the 1950s. The
presentatation addresses the introspective nature of Buddhist studies today, the lack of
practice and faith in Buddhism worldwide, and implications for Buddhist studies and
the practices of Lee Gi-Young.
Bul-Yeon Lee Gi-Young reestablished research methodologies for Korean
Buddhist studies in the modern era; he is the leading scholar on Won-hyo (元暁,
617-686), a famous high priest in the seventh century. Bul-Yeon came to study at
Leuven University in 1954 with the support of the Catholic Church. He met Fr. Étienne
Lamotte, who was the greatest authority on Buddhism in the West at that time. Lamotte
asked him: “Why do you want to study Western philosophy when your country has the
great thinker Won-hyo?” Bul-Yeon subsequently changed his major and earned a
doctoral degree in 1960; his dissertation was entitled “Aux origines du Tchan Houei
(懺悔), Aspects buddhitiques de la pratique penitentielle.” After returning to Korea,
Bul-Yeon worked as a professor at Dongguk University and immersed himself in
studies on Buddhism and Won-hyo. He founded the Korean Institute for Buddhist
Studies (1974) and the Wonhyo School (1988), which is committed to spreading Lay
Buddhism. His works include “Wonhyo-sasang (1967)” and “Lectures on
Vimalakīrtinirdeśa”
Modern Korean Buddhist studies have been mainly influenced indirectly by
Western Buddhist studies through Korean students sent to Japan in the early 1900s.
The Japanese approach involved empirical and objective linguistic and philological
studies and exploration of the original language. After World War II, Korean Buddhist
circles attempted to abolish pro-Japanese Buddhism and to recover Zen through the
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traditional Korean Jogye Order. Thus, modern Western Buddhist studies are not well
established in Korean. Bul-Yeon returned to Korea after learning a precise Sutra
translation methodology, which in the 1960s caused a sensation in Korean Buddhist
circles because of its emphasis on the importance of the original language (Sanskrit,
Pali, Tibetan) and comparisons with Western philosophy. Most translations had
focused on ancient Chinese, contributing to a trend to downplay the importance of
Buddhism.
Research methodologies for Buddhism and the practices of Bul-Yeon can be
largely divided into 1) translation and interpretation of the Sutras and 2) studies on
Won-hyo. 1) ①importance of textual language; ②comparison with translations of
scholars from various countries; ③ translations into the modern language; ④
emphasis on practical text reading and creative interpretation. 2) He noted that
Won-hyo was demoted to the lowest class because of his dancing (無碍舞); therefore
①he hoped to replicate popularization of Won-hyo’s Buddhism; and ②he strove for
communication between Eastern and Western religions on the basis of the
harmonization thought (和諍) of Won-hyo.
In particular, Bul-Yeon emphasized that Lamotte attached importance to
Vimalakirti (a symbolic figure of Bodhisattva conduct and Lay Buddhism). He
intended to connect Vimalakirti-Lamotte-Wonhyo and his own spirit to seek the truth.
That is, Bul-Yeon recommended not the Buddhism buried in texts but ‘to do
philosophy and to think’ as the next stage, on the basis of reading the Sutras. He
compared the Sutras with reality (studies on text ⇔ creative interpretation ⇔
practice) .
Current Korean Buddhism is considered difficult for the public because of its
focus on Zen practices. On the other hand, in academia, Buddhist studies is considered
a branch of philosophy. In this sense, there are great implications for studying
Bul-Yeon’s Buddhist methodology.
Current Korean Buddhist circles have disregarded the impact of Lamotte on
Bul-Yeon and that Bul-Yeon devoted himself to the creative interpretation of the Sutras
and practical Buddhist activities despite his learning a strict philological methodology.
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Yet it is constructive to study Buddhism based on “piety and seeking the truth,” which
is considered contrary to “historical empirical studies focusing on objectified literature,”
and yet which is fused in Bul-Yeon.
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東京における韓流:ケイ・ポップのブーム
ルーヴェン大学日本学科
修士課程
LEYSEN, Bert
韓国と日本は昔から深くつながっている。韓国は中国の文化への窓口であり、それは日韓
関係において歴史的にかなり重要なことである。20 世紀には 日韓関係は政治・経済が中
心だったが、2003 年から韓国大衆文化も重要になってきた。その韓国大衆文化が日本へ流
れるという韓流が生じた。
「韓流」という言葉は 2001 年に中国とアジア全国へ流れる韓国
大衆文化の現象を表すために Yi Jong-hwan という中国人記者によって生み出されたもの
である。韓流には様々な種類がある。本稿では韓流の種類の中の一つであるケイ・ポップ
の次の点について考察したいと思う。ケイ・ポップはなぜこんなに人気があるのか。日本
には、ケイ・ポップが簡単に流行る他の国にはない特別な特徴があるのだろうか。
韓流の輸出が経済にとって重要であることは、2011 年度の三千億円の国外収入が示して
いる。ケイ・ポップは日本市場進出を目的として変更された。経済的なほかの側面もある。
日本の商品を売るための宣伝にも、韓流が使用されていることだ。韓国で作られた商品を
海外で売ることだけではなく、日本の会社にもケイ・ポップのスターが使われている。又、
2008 年 9 月のリーマン・ショック以降、韓国のウォンが 1997 年のアジア通貨危機以来の
安値まで暴落した。値を元へ戻しながらもウォン安傾向が続いているため、日本市場を重
視してた。その結果、利益が多くなる可能性が高い状態となっていることも、韓国ショー
ビジネスの日本進出の動機の一つとなっている。
韓流には政治的な面もある。1997 年末にアジアの経済危機は韓国に衝撃を与えた。1998
年の韓国の国内総生産が 7 パーセント下がり、政府は景気の下降を止めるため、解決の一
つとして大衆文化に目を向けた。又、他の国との関係をよくするために、政府はケイ・ポ
ップの人気を使用し、韓国の影響を広げようとしている。
ケイ・ポップを音楽の立場から研究すると、ケイ・ポップは洋楽に似ているが、日本で
洋楽より流行っている。その理由はケイ・ポップにアジア的な感じがあるからだ。つまり、
ケイ・ポップは洋楽のアジア的なバージョンとして見られているのである。更にケイ・ポ
ップのプロモーションビデオは質が高く、世界中でインターネット、特に YOUTUBE で
宣伝として使用されている。歌手に視点を移すともう一つのイメージの差が明確になる。
ケイ・ポップの歌手は歌手だけではなくて、アイドルとして作られた。これに対して、日
- 16 -
本の歌手が伝えるイメージなのは、普通か日常の感じである。
以上のことから、ケイ・ポップとそのビデオの良質、歌手のイメージ、そして政治・経
済との有益な関係が主な理由である。
- 17 -
List of Participants from Kansai University
SHIBAI, Keiji (Professor, Kansai University Faculty of Letters, Director)
YAMAGUCHI, Akifumi (Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters,
Research Assistant)
DEGUCHI, Shoko (MA Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters)
EZAKI, Asami (Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters)
IKEMURA, Akiko (Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters)
KIDO, Sachi (MA Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters)
LEE Hyojin (Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of East Asian
Cultures)
OHBA, Sakiko (MA Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters)
SON, Jihye (Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of East Asian
Cultures)
SONODA, Erika (Ph.D. Student, Kansai University Graduate School of Letters)
List of Participants from KU Leuven
VANDE WALLE, Willy (Professor, KU Leuven Faculty of Arts)
VANOVERBEKE, Dimitri (Professor, KU Leuven Faculty of Arts)
SAKURAI, Naoko (Lecturer, KU Leuven Faculty of Arts)
DE COOMAN, David (Lecturer, KU Leuven Faculty of Arts)
PEETERS, Nicholas (Research Assistant, KU Leuven Faculty of Arts)
DAVIDSON, Sara (MA Student, KU Leuven Faculty of Arts)
JACOB, Jarl (MA Student, KU Leuven Faculty of Arts)
LEYSEN, Bert (MA Student, KU Leuven Faculty of Arts)
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