CST States of Ma,er Review Solid Liquid Gas Molecule Movement Vibrate in Place Lowest Energy Can slide past each other Medium Energy Frequent Collisions High Energy Molecule Arrangement Regular RepeaDng Pa,ern form a Crystal LaEce Close together Total Disorder Molecules Far Apart Definite Shape? Yes/No YES No, take the shape of it s container NO Definite Volume? Yes/No YES YES NO Physical Changes in Ma,er MelDng = Solid à Liquid Freezing = Liquid à Solid VaporizaDon/Boiling = Liquid à Gas CondensaDon = Gas à Liquid *The more molecules move, the more energy they have. Which of the following represents the right order of molecular movement from least to greatest? a.  Solid, liquid, gas b. Liquid, gas, solid c. Gas, liquid, solid Which of the following has atoms that are loosely connected and can move past each other? a. Gas b. Solid c. Liquid Which of the following is a solid? a. b. c. Physical vs. Chemical Changes Physical Change -­‐ change in a substance where there is a change in form (shape, size, state) but the idenFty remains the same Ex. Break a piece of wood Ice melDng into liquid water Boiling, evaporaDon, melDng, and freezing are physical changes. The substance does not change into something new. Chemical Change: one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances. During a chemical change atoms are rearranged and : 1.  Break bonds 2.  Form new bonds Substances can be classified by their properDes, including melDng temperature, density, hardness, and thermal and electrical conducDvity. Atoms & Periodic Table CST Review a.  The nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons in the orbitals of the atom. b.  Proton – Charge of +1 c.  Neutron – No Charge (Neutral) d.  Electron – Charge of -­‐1 Atomic Number – tells the number of protons and neutrons # of Neutrons = Atomic Weight (Mass) – Atomic # CARBON What do you find in the nucleus of an atom? A. Protons B. Protons and Electrons C. Protons and Neutrons Protons = _________________-­‐ A. Neutrons B. Electrons Which of the following is found farthest from the center of the atom? A. Nucleus B. Proton C. Neutron D. Electron i.  32 protons = atomic number 32 = Germanium j. 33 protons = atomic number 33 = Arsenic k. 13 electrons = 13 protons = Aluminum Isotope l. An atom of the same element (same # of protons), but different mass. m. Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Isotope Carbon -­‐14 Neutrons 8 Protons 6 Electrons 6 The table below shows the atomic mass of four Ca isotopes What characterisDc is different in each isotope? A. The posiDon in the periodic table of the elements B. The net charge of the nucleus C. The mass of the protons in the nucleus D. The number of neutrons in the nucleus The drawing below shows an atom of a certain element. The atom has 4 protons, 4 electrons, and 5 neutrons. Which of the following atoms is a different isotope of this element? a. 
An atom with 4 protons, 4 electrons, and 6 neutrons. An atom with 4 protons, 4 electrons, and 5 neutrons. An atom with 3 protons, 4 electrons and 5 neutrons. None of the above Steps to name:
1.  Count protons
2.  Name atom
3.  Count all circles
(protons and
4. Name the atom
Atom – Mass #
Which of the following is the correct name of the isotope above? a.  Carbon – 15 b.  Oxygen – 8 c.  Carbon – 14 d.  Oxygen -­‐ 6 Which of the following is true about one atom of chlorine? a.  Chlorine has 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 17 electrons. b.  Chlorine has 35 protons, 17 neutrons, and 35 electrons. Atoms form solids by building up repeaDng pa,erns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl. PERIODIC TABLE The Periodic Table – organizes elements according to size, similarity and reacDvity. The table is organized by increasing atomic number. LOCATION ON PERIODIC TABLE CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES METALS Lel of the zigzag Good conductors of heat and electricity NON-­‐METALS Right of the zigzag Poor conductors of heat and electricity METALLOIDS Along the zigzag Semi-­‐conductors of heat and electricity NOBLE GASES Group: 18 Far Right Inert (do not react) 8 valence electrons VerDcal columns of elements with same # of valence electrons. 18 groups total A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table. Atoms increase in size from lel to right