RAPHAEL Zoltán Kárpáti Eszter Seres RAPHAEL Drawings in Budapest Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, 2013 Authors Zoltán Kárpáti (Chapters 1–4 and 6) Eszter Seres (Chapters 5 and 7) Curators Zoltán Kárpáti and Eszter Seres with the assistance of Zsófia Vargyas Editor Zoltán Kárpáti Exhibition management Ágnes Pablényi English proofreading John King Label texts Eszter Seres and Zsófia Vargyas Editorial co-ordination Ágnes Pablényi Design Ágnes Megyeri and Zsolt Vidák Photographs Dénes Józsa and Csanád Szesztay Mounting Erzsébet Mózer and István Pankaszi Technical imaging András Fáy Technical assistance László Fehérváry and Miklós Pataky Reproduction rights Sára Kulcsár-Szabó The exhibition has been supported by the Ministry of Human Resources and the National Cultural Fund of Hungary. Layout Zoltán Kárpáti Printing EPC Nyomda, Budapest Publisher Dr. László Baán, General Director ISBN 978-615-5304-20-0 © Authors, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2013 This publication is issued on the occasion of the exhibition The Triumph of Perfection: Raphael: Drawings and Prints from the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest on view at the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, from 18 December, 2013 to 30 March, 2014. Front cover: Raphael, Head of an Angel (detail, fig. 77) Photo credits © Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, fig. 83 © Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice, fig. 16 © Museum of Art, Cleveland, figs. 29 and 72 © Albertina, Vienna, figs. 32 and 35 © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth, fig. 37 © Museo Horne, Florence, fig. 80 © Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, figs. 3, 9, 15, 76, 78 and 81 © Photo Bridgeman Art Library, London, fig. 12 © Photo Fratelli Alinari, Florence, fig. 75 © Photo Scala, Florence, figs. 2, 10, 30, 43, 59, 60, 65, 66, 67, 69, 84, and 85 © The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, figs. 7, 8, 14, 20, 31, 58, 61, and 68 © Royal Collection, Windsor, figs. 21, 34, 38, 42, 52, and 57 © Trustees of the British Museum, London, figs. 13, 16, 18, 22, 28, 33, 50, 62, 73, and 82 © other photo credits are retained by the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest Preface Seven Studies 7 11 Check-List 123 Appendix 133 Bibliography 137 The Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, preserves six drawings by Raphael. Ever since the nineteenth century, they have been widely discussed and included in every significant modern œuvre catalogue and most monographs on the artist. Like the majority of Raphael’s sheets, these drawings have also given rise to a large amount of debate. Among the subjects under constant discussion are the authorship of the early pen drawing for the painter’s first Perugian altarpiece, The Coronation of the Virgin, the compositional study for The Massacre of the Innocents, engraved by Marcantonio Raimondi, and the Head of an Angel associated with the fresco decoration of the Sala di Costantino in the Vatican Palace. The last comprehensive evaluation of Raphael’s Budapest drawings was offered by Loránd Zentai in his exhibition catalogue of 1998, devoted to sixteenth-century Central Italian drawings of the collection. His entries incorporated the results of events and exhibitions held in 1983 to honour the five-hundredth anniversary of the artist’s birth. Since the 1998 catalogue, Raphael’s Budapest drawings have not formed the subject of in-depth discussion. Following a lull in activity immediately after the anniversary year, the study of Raphael has gained renewed impetus in the last decade. Volumes of the new catalogue raisonée by Jürg Meyer zur Capellen on Raphael’s paintings have been published consecutively since 2001. A magisterial collection of documents relating to Raphael’s life and work, compiled and annotated by John Shearman, appeared in 2003. A comprehensive account of the artist has been given in two recent exhibitions. The first in 2004 at the National Gallery, London, curated by Hugo Chapman, Tom Henry and Carol Plazzotta, was devoted to Raphael’s formative years and early activity in Rome, while the second, a joint exhibition organized by Tom Henry and Paul Joannides in the Louvre and the Prado in 2012–13, covered his late Roman period. In addition to the principal articles written on Raphael, new research on the painter’s influential older colleagues and his most gifted assistants has broadened our understanding of Raphael’s art. The present exhibition, drawn entirely from our collection, focuses on drawings by Raphael, and endeavours to shed further light on his artistic legacy by including drawings by his most talented assistants, as well as some outstanding prints from the period. As part of the preparations for the exhibition, a 8 research project was carried out by András Fáy, chief conservator of the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, on Raphael’s drawings as well as the Esterházy Madonna. Ultraviolet and infrared imaging provided information on the materials of the drawings and their condition, the results of which have contributed to the studies in this volume. In the case of drawings, the ultraviolet radiation was used in the property of 366 nm and infrared in the range of 1100–1200 nm. In addition, the Esterházy Madonna was also examined with ultraviolet reflective imaging technique at 403 nm. As preparation for the exhibition proceeded, we realized that the flurry of recent publications on the artist, combined with the new, detailed findings on the drawings’ technique garnered from recent technical imaging, presented the case for a comprehensive reconsideration of Raphael’s Budapest drawings. Accordingly, it was decided that the accompanying publication would focus on Raphael’s six sheets and on the Esterházy Madonna, included in the exhibition for its clearly visible underdrawing. However, as six drawings and a single panel are far from sufficient to outline Raphael’s entire career, each is integrated in the context of a broader aspect of the painter’s œuvre, presented in the form of longer studies. Raphael’s early pen drawing for his first Perugian altarpiece, The Coronation of the Virgin, facilitated a reassessment of his relationship with two painters who were instrumental in his early career, Pietro Perugino and Bernardino Pintoricchio. The Saint Jerome, drawn in Florence, demonstrates Raphael’s new approach to figure studies, in which the pattern-book tradition of the Perugino workshop came up against the innovative method of anatomical drawing perfected by Leonardo and Michelangelo at the turn of the sixteenth century. The Massacre of the Innocents, one of Raphael’s most fervently debated sheets, demanded a clarification of its possible function, which could only be explained in the light of the Roman printmaking enterprise of Raphael and Marcantonio Raimondi. The only painting in this volume, the small-scale Esterházy Madonna is included for its underdrawing, detectible even to the naked eye under the most transparent layers. For the first time, high-resolution infrared reflectographs were taken of the unfinished panel work, revealing its underdrawing in its entirety, and thus providing new insight into Raphael’s method of painting. His pen sketch of putti and an angel for the Disputa, frescoed in the Stanza della Segnatura in the Vatican Palace, raises the issue of the painter’s constraints when accommodating his previous preparatory methods with the growing demands placed upon him. The silverpoint Venus, one of the artist’s most beautiful female nudes drawn in all'antica style, illustrates his close connection with classical antiquity, and reveals how Raphael reutilized his motifs in a number of works. Finally, the impressive chalk drawing of an angel, destined for a fresco in the Sala di Costantino, prompted a review of Raphael’s Roman workshop practices, and served to highlight the difference between the approach of modern connoisseurship and the Renaissance definition of the artist’s hand. Like all exhibitions, this one would not have been possible without the assistance of many colleagues and friends. We are indebted, first and foremost, to Zsófia Vargyas for her tireless efforts in preparing the exhibition and this volume. Ágnes Pablényi undertook the organizational and administrative tasks asso- 9 ciated with the exhibition. This project would have been inconceivable without the technical imaging and analysis performed by András Fáy, who also supplied invaluable comments on the Esterházy Madonna. Kálmán Sipos assisted us in assembling the literature on Raphael. We would like to thank all the colleagues in various departments of the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, in particular Dóra Sallay, Miriam Szőcs, Vilmos Tátrai and Axel Vécsey, whose collaboration made the exhibition possible. We also express our heartfelt gratitude to Achim Gnann (Vienna, Albertina), Oliver Hahn (Berlin, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung Arbeitsgruppe ‘Kunstund Kulturgutanalyse’), Dagmar Korbacher (Berlin, Kupferstichkabinet), C laudia La Malfa (Rome, International University Uninettuno), Giorgio Marini (Florence, Uffizi), Catherine Monbeig-Goguel (Paris), Micaela Sambucco Hamoud (Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale), Nicolas Schwed (Paris) as well as Carel van Tuyll van Serooskerken (Paris, Louvre). SEVEN STUDIES 1 1 Raphael The Assumption of the Virgin c. 1503–4 Pen and brown ink, some traces of black chalk, a fragmentary motif in red chalk 158 × 193 mm Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts, 1779 As with most Italian Renaissance artists, our information on the life of Raffaello Santi (1483–1520) derives primarily from Giorgio Vasari’s (1511–1574) Le vite de’ più eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architettori italiani, da Cimabue insino a’ tempi nostri (Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors and Archi tects, hereinafter called Lives).1 Vasari prized Raphael as the exemplary painter, and his biography, interspersed with literary topoi and rhetorical overstatement, was also intended as a parable for young artists. Despite some inaccuracies and apart from several necessary amendments and corrections, his account on Raphael’s career, commissions and patrons has proved to be reliable to the present day.2 Vasari was remarkably well informed about the painter’s activity in Florence and Rome, but had little to say about his formal education and early works. Very few written sources survive from Raphael’s pre-Roman years. Even his date of birth is controversial; all that is certain is that he was born at Easter 1483 in Urbino, the prosperous humanist centre ruled by the Montefeltro family.3 His father, Giovanni Santi (1435/40–1494), an archetypal courtier (cortegiano) serving the Duke Guidobaldo da Montefeltro and his wife Elisabetta Gonzaga, executed paintings for the court as well as churches in Urbino and neighbouring towns during the 1480s and 1490s.4 According to contemporary practice, Raphael was probably trained in the family workshop. In the complete absence of documents concerning his artistic formation, it is only known that Raphael was eleven years old when his father died, and at the age of seventeen he was already described on a contract as an independent master (magister).5 The years in between are shrouded in mystery.6 Vasari writes that, having realized he had nothing more to teach his son, Santi decided to apprentice Raphael to Pietro Perugino (c. 1450–1523), and the talented young pupil learned to imitate his master’s style so brilliantly that it was impossible to distinguish his paintings from those by Perugino.7 This assertion must also derive from a topos of ancient origin recounting a child genius eclipsing his master, which often recurs in the Lives. In Vasari’s words Giovanni Santi was ‘a painter of no great excellence’ whose reputation was gained more from his epic chronicle of 23,000 verses eulogizing Federico da Montefeltro than from his paintings.8 Conversely Peru- 14 gino, the most successful and prolific painter at the turn of the sixteenth century, maintained prosperous workshops both in Perugia and Florence and fulfilled commissions in Rome for the papal court and the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi.9 Thus Vasari had good reason to regard Perugino an ideal master for Raphael, certainly superior to his father, who counted as no more than a cultivated but mediocre painter.10 However, Vasari’s view should be treated with reservation, as not a single contempo rary source names Raphael among Perugi no’s pupils.11 For his first documented work, the Coronation of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino, painted for the church of Sant’Agostino in Città di Castello (now largely destroyed), Raphael contracted jointly with Evangelista di Pian di Meleto (c. 1460–1549).12 Evangelista not only stood surety for the completion of the altarpiece, but presumably was also to manage the Santi workshop until Raphael officially became an adult.13 Raphael’s close connection with his father’s former assistant indicates that he stayed in the family workshop after his father’s death in 1494. Giovanni Santi and his colleagues appear to have played a notably more decisive role in his formation than Vasari suggested. Still, Raphael’s modern biographers disagree whether the painter remained in the Santi workshop after his father’s death, joined Perugino’s in Perugia or Florence, or perhaps spent some time in all three places.14 Apart from Vasari’s report, the assumption of a direct master-pupil relationship between Perugino and Raphael originates primarily from the young painter’s Peruginesque works. Yet the elder artist’s influence is scarcely apparent in Raphael’s earliest paintings. He possibly grew acquainted with Perugino’s art in his 15 father’s lifetime, as Santi and Perugino were both involved in executing altarpieces for the church of Santa Maria Nuova in Fano between 1488 and 1494.15 Raphael’s first signed work, the Mond Cru cifixion of 1503 for the Gavari Chapel of the San Domenico Church in Città di Castello (London, National Gallery) and his Betrothal of the Virgin of 1504, painted for Filippo Albizzini (Milan, Pinacoteca Brera) not only evidence Perugino’s impact16 but also suggest that Raphael may have had access to drawings from the painter’s workshop in Perugia.17 Nevertheless, there is no reason to assume that Raphael formally joined Perugino’s studio either before his father’s death or shortly 2 Raphael The Coronation of the Virgin c. 1503–4 Oil on canvas, transferred from panel 267 × 163 cm Rome, Pinacoteca Vaticana, 334 3 Raphael The Assumption of the Virgin c. 1503–4 Pen and brown ink 166 × 203 mm Paris, Musée du Louvre, 3970 after, a supposition doubtful also for the lack of relevant sources. Perugino’s influence is most manifest in Raphael’s works dating from 1502–3, suggesting he came into contact with the master or his workshop later, when he was already an independent painter.18 It must have been the conservative milieu of Urbino that stimulated Raphael to master the manner of his older colleague.19 In fact, the paths of the two painters barely crossed. In addition to Raphael’s first independent work, the Coronation of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino, two more altarpieces and a double-sided processional banner (Città di Castello, Pinacoteca Comunale) are linked with his name in Città di Castello.20 This small, 16 prosperous town midway between Urbino and Perugia fell out of Perugino’s orbit. Its artistic scene was dominated by Luca Signorelli (c. 1450–1523), who painted no less than five altarpieces for the local aristocracy.21 Signorelli’s departure in 1498 greatly increased Raphael’s opportunities in the town between 1500 and 1504. While Raphael was occupied in Perugia from 1503 to 1505 and acquired five altarpiece commissions, Perugino was entrusted with none in his hometown; in this period his Perugian workshop was completing earlier tasks.22 Prompted possibly by the political tension, Perugino moved to Florence and was engaged there from October 1502 to June 1507. His absence from Perugia opened up new prospects for the young Raphael. The Coronation of the Virgin was Raphael’s first Perugian altarpiece as well as his first large-scale, prestigious project, which established his reputation as Perugino’s rival [fig. 2]. The painting was commissioned by the illustrious Alessandra degli Oddi for the family’s burial chapel in the church of San Francesco al Prato.23 The Oddi family played a prominent role in Perugia but their rivalry with the Baglione family, at times provoking violent incidents, often forced them to leave the town.24 In 1498 the Oddi family had been declared rebels and banished; they were only allowed to return for several months in 1503 under the protection of Cesare Borgia. Their temporary reprieve provided them with an opportunity to erect an altarpiece in memory of the family members killed in the previous decades.25 Raphael was fully aware that the success of the prestigious commission was crucial to convince potential patrons of his talent. He 4 Photo reconstruction from figs. 1 and 3 5 Fig. 1 in ultraviolet-induced luminescence prepared the altarpiece with laborious precision: judging from the number of surviving sheets, none of his early works was developed through so many preliminary drawings as The Coronation of the Virgin.26 The meticulously executed pen drawing in Budapest, with its simple clarity of outlines and minute modelling [fig. 1], together with its counterpart in the Louvre, Paris [fig. 3], is usually regarded a modello.27 Modelli were drawn to document the final phase of the preparatory work, however, the Budapest and Paris sheets doubtlessly originate from an earlier stage. This is mainly indicated by the change of subject: while the Budapest sheet develops the Assumption of 18 6 Infrared reflectograph of fig. 1 (detail) the Virgin, Raphael painted the Coronation of the Virgin in the end, and most of his preliminary drawings were made for the latter theme. During the preparatory process, Raphael followed the Central Italian practice described later by Vasari as the ideal method.28 The painter would first draw rapid sketches (schizzi or primi pensieri) of his initial idea (invenzio), after which he elaborated the figures, poses and draperies in detailed studies (studii), and recorded the final solutions in a single comprehensive study for the complete composition, which we designate today as modello.29 Created primarily to be presented to the patron for approval and providing an opportunity to request modifications before the painting’s execution, modelli also served for the artist to review his concept. Drawings attached to contracts were intended for a similar purpose.30 These so-called contract drawings documented the composition in the most minute detail, formalizing the discussion between the artist and patron as a visual record of the agreed composition. Contract drawings were usually executed in pen with scrupulous care, enhancing their painterly effect with white heightening or by colouring the paper. When pinned to contracts, they were folded to a small size. Accordingly, unless indicated by their inscription, their original function is 19 revealed principally by their physical condition. Such traces of folding are perceivable in Raphael’s Budapest and Paris sheets. The distinct vertical crease along the central axis of both papers is manifest proof that the two drawings initially formed a single sheet [fig. 4].31 The horizontal crease along the top edge of the Paris drawing suggests that the paper was folded in four before the two parts were separated. Apparently, the complete sheet containing both halves of the composition had been appended to the lost contract for the Oddi Coronation. The paper was possibly bisected by a later collector, or an art dealer intending to sell the two parts separately; this assumption is also supported by the different provenance of the two drawings. 7 Raphael Angel Playing a Rebec c. 1503–4 Silverpoint, heightened with white, on grey ground, 191 × 127 mm Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 511a 8 Raphael Angel Playing a Tambourine c. 1503–4 Silverpoint, heightened with white, on grey ground, 189 × 126 mm Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 511b The Budapest and Paris sheets are the only documents to suggest that Raphael was originally commissioned to paint the Assumption of the Virgin. This is the first known instance in his career when he changed the theme of a work during its preparation. Probably dissatisfied with the static and frontal view of the Assumption, Raphael might have convinced his patrons of the more dynamic theme of the Coronation. However, the unusual icon ography unifying the Virgin’s Assumption with her Coronation certainly necessitated the approval of the Church as well.32 The Coronation of the Virgin was a favoured subject of the observant Franciscans overseeing the chapel. It may have been the intention of the Umbrian friars, who highly venerated the Virgin, that in 21 9 Raphael Virgin and Child with Saints Sebastian and Roch c. 1501–3 Pen and brown ink, over stylus 288 × 266 mm Paris, Musée du Louvre, RF 1395 contrast with the conventional arrangement showing the Virgin on a lower-lying cloud [fig. 10], Raphael elevated her figure beside that of Christ. Similarly to most of Raphael’s early drawings, the authorship of the Budapest and Paris sheets has long been questioned. The unfavourable estimation was primarily due to their poor condition: their surface is extremely worn, the ink has faded, and the fine details of the drawings, as well as most of the contours, have therefore almost disappeared. In ultraviolet-induced luminescence the abraded pen lines are clearly apparent, revealing the delicate and lively character of the Budapest drawing, which precludes the previous supposition that it was a copy after Raphael’s original work [fig. 5]. The artist drew directly in pen, sketching only the Virgin’s contours in light charcoal or black chalk, and applied compasses for the mandorla [fig. 6].33 Not only are all these features inconsistent with a copy, but it is highly unlikely that anyone would repeat a discarded idea of a young painter for his first significant commission. Moreover, the presumed function of the sheet also confutes this: having been attached to the contract, it would not have been accessible in the painter’s workshop. Because only a small group of pen drawings has come down to us from the painter’s Umbrian period, it is difficult to find examples comparable with the Budapest and Paris sheets. The drawings for the Oddi Coronation, various in technique, represent all phases of the preparatory process.34 Although Raphael’s two silverpoint studies of apprentices (garzoni) made for the angels playing music correspond almost exactly to the left hand angels of the Budapest sheet, their different technique prevents their stylistic comparison [figs. 7 and 8].35 Due to their sketchy character, the two pen drawings for the altarpiece are also unsuitable to be directly paralleled with the Budapest sheet.36 Raphael’s similarly detailed early modelli may be found among the drawings for the Entombment painted for the burial chapel of the Baglione family in the church of San Francesco al Prato in Perugia (Rome, Galleria Borghese).37 Although the Baglione Entombment was executed only three years later than the Oddi Coronation, its preparatory studies reflecting Michelangelo’s (1475–1564) drawing manner greatly differ from the conservative Peruginesque character of the Budapest and Paris sheets. Closest in style to the Budapest drawing is Raphael’s study from around 1501–3 for the Virgin and Child, Saints Sebastian and Roch, preserved in the Louvre, Paris [fig. 9].38 While more animated in character, its definite, slightly angular contours, broken hatching lines and controlled pen strokes also evoke Raphael’s early silverpoint drawings. The purpose of the Paris sheet is unknown, but the inclusion of the figures of Saints Sebastian and Roch suggests its connection with the plague of 1499 and implies it may be a preliminary study for a proposed altarpiece in Città di Castello. However, the Paris drawing certainly preceded the processional banner painted to commemorate the end of the plague and was executed closer in time to the Solly Madonna (Berlin, Gemäldegalerie) and its preparatory studies from around 1501–2.39 Although the composition of the Paris drawing was influenced by Perugino’s Decemviri Altarpiece (Rome, Pinacoteca Vaticana) from the mid-1490s,40 and despite the Oddi Coro nation being Raphael’s most Peruginesque 22 work,41 both the Budapest and Paris drawings were tentatively linked with Bernardino Pinto ricchio (c. 1452–1513).42 Along with Perugino, his Umbrian compatriot counted as the most successful painter of the region. During the 1480s and 1490s Pintoricchio fulfilled prestigious commissions in Rome, including frescoes in the Sistine Chapel and the Borgia Apartments of the Vatican Palace. In 1495 he returned to his native town, and in close connection with the local aristocracy he was active mainly in Perugia and its environs. In June 1502 Pintoricchio was contracted for the decoration of the Piccolomini Library attached to the cathedral in Siena, and the young Raphael assisted him in designing the frescoes during the winter of 1502–3. Five of Raphael’s related drawings survive, but his contribution appears to have been limited to the preparation of the frescoes, while in their execution he did not participate.43 Concurrently with the frescoes of the Piccolomini Library, in late 1502 Pintoricchio was entrusted to paint the altarpiece for the observant Franciscans of Santa Maria della Pietà at Fratta (today Umbertide) [fig. 10]. Two of Raphael’s drawings in the Louvre, Paris, representing kneeling bishops suggest that he probably cooperated in the creation of the predella of the altarpiece.44 Although the Fratta contract stipulates the painting of the Assumption of the Virgin, similarly to Raphael’s Oddi Coronation, a Coronation of the Virgin was completed in the end. This raises the possibility that Raphael may have begun work on the Oddi Coronation in collaboration with Pintoricchio, and the preparation of the two altarpieces progressed simultaneously.45 The alteration of the Oddi Coronation documented by the Budapest and Paris drawings might 23 10 Pintoricchio The Coronation of the Virgin c. 1502–3 Oil on panel, 233 × 165 cm Rome, Pinacoteca Vaticana, 40318 have inspired Pintoricchio to introduce the same change of subject for his Fratta altarpiece. Unlike the Oddi Coronation, the circumstances of the preparation of the Fratta altarpiece are documented in detail: Pintoricchio and his workshop designed and finished the painting between 17 December, 1502 and 27 June, 1503.46 The connection between Raphael and Pintoricchio was closest between late 1502 and early 1503, at the time of preparing the Siena frescoes and the execution of the Fratta altarpiece. This coincides with the hypothetical commencement of 1503 for the Oddi Coro nation, a supposition based on the date when the Oddi family returned to Perugia, and on the style of the altarpiece. Raphael probably owed the commission to Pintoricchio, who was closely connected with the Oddi family. The possibility also arises that the task was originally given to Pintoricchio, but his increasing commitments in Siena prompted him to forward it to his younger colleague.47 Although the exact date of Raphael’s arrival in Perugia is uncertain, he is first mentioned in the sources in January and May 1503, and it is documented that in 1504 he remained in the town for a longer time.48 His growing success coincided with the decline of Perugino’s supremacy, and Pintoricchio, thus gaining the opportunity to strengthen his position, may have in turn promoted the young Raphael to obtain commissions in the town. As was characteristic of him throughout his career, Raphael rapidly established connections with local artists and potential patrons in Perugia. In the meantime, he mastered Perugino’s and Pintoricchio’s manner, paving his way to replace his older colleagues. 24 1 References are given from the critical edition by Gaetano Milanesi, Florence 1878–85. 2 Rubin 1995, pp. 357–401. 3 Vasari states that Raphael was born on Good Friday 1483 and died on the same day that he was born, Good Friday in 1520; Vasari (ed. Milanesi), vol. 4, pp. 316 and 386. The confusion around Raphael’s date of birth originates from the fact that in 1483 Good Friday fell on 28 March, while in 1520 it fell on 6 April, see Shearman 2003, pp. 45–50. 4 For Giovanni Santi, see Varese 1994 and 1999; for the Santi family, see Falcioni 2009. 5 Shearman 2003, pp. 71–73. 6 For Raphael’s formative years, see Chapman, Henry, and Plazzotta 2004, pp. 15–65. 7 Vasari (ed. Milanesi), vol. 4, p. 317. 8 Giovanni Santi, La vita e le geste di Federico di Montefeltro duca d'Urbino (Codice Vat. Ottob. lat. 1305), ed. Luigi Michelini Tocci, Vatican 1985. 9 For Perugino, see Scarpellini 1984. 10 Rubin 1995, p. 382. 11 Coonin 1999; for the documents, see Canuti 1931. 12 Shearman 2003, pp. 71–73. 13 Giovanni Santi’s wills of 1494 lack provisions concerning his workshop (Shearman 2003, pp. 53–60). As his universal beneficiary, Raphael possibly inherited the studio as well (Henry 1999; Butler 2004; Cleri 2009, p. 74). It is notable, how ever, that among his elaborate provisions Santi did not even mention his shop, which suggests that the courtly painter was probably not himself the owner of the studio where he operated. 14 For the subject in summary and for the different views, see Hiller von Gaertringen 1999, p. 41; Butler 2009; Valazzi 2009. 15 Rubin 1995, pp. 382–84; for the contact between Giovanni Santi and Perugino, see Varese 2004. 16 For the altarpieces, see Meyer zur Capellen 2001, nos. 7 and 9; for the relation between Perugino’s and Raphael’s mentioned altarpieces, see Hiller von Gaertringen 1999, pp. 46–54, 56–60 and Henry 2002. 17 Canuti 1931, vol. 2, pp. 302–3. 18 Between 1502 and 1503 Raphael prepared designs for Pintoricchio’s frescoes in Siena (Shearman 2003, pp. 75–79; Joannides 1983, nos. 56–58. Henry 2004, esp. pp. 51–52; La Malfa 2008), while he was also collaborating with the Perugian painter Domenico Alfani (Shearman 2003, pp. 111–12 and 157) and the Roman goldsmith Cesarino Rossetti (ibid., pp. 143–46). His association with Perugino had been assumed with more or less reservation only with a view to the predella of the Sacra Conver sazione altarpiece in Santa Maria Nuova, Fano, executed in 1497, see Scarpellini 1984, no. 73; for the preparatory drawings, see Joannides 1983, nos. 1 and 2; Ferino-Pagden 1982, nos. 47 and 48; Ferino-Pagden 1983; for Raphael’s participation in the painting of the predella, see Longhi 1955, p. 14; Gregori 1987; Perugia 2004, pp. 314–15, 362–64. 19 The conservative milieu is well illustrated by the contract for the Coronation of the Virgin to be painted by Raphael and Berto di Giovanni, signed in 1505, in which the Franciscan nuns of Santa Maria di Monteluce requested the artists to follow the altarpiece of the same subject painted by Domenico Ghirlandaio and his workshop between 1484 and 1486 for the church of San Girolamo at Narni (Narni, Palazzo Comunale), see Shearman 2003, pp. 86–92. 20 For Raphael’s works in Città di Castello, see Henry 2002; for a further supposed commission, see Henry 2004, p. 121, note 2. 21 For Signorelli’s years in Città di Castello, see Henry 2012, pp. 121–51. 22 O'Malley 2007, p. 691. 23 For the altarpiece, see Meyer zur Capellen 2001, no. 8 and Cooper 2001. For the identification of the patron, see Luchs 1983, Cooper 2004 and Sartore 2008. 24 Matarazzo 1905, esp. p. 240. 25 Although the altarpiece is generally dated around 1503–4 (Chapman, Henry, and Plazzotta 2004), it had previously been dated variously between 1498 and 1504. Following Vasari, who mentioned the Coronation of the Virgin before those made in Città di Castello (Vasari [ed. Milanesi], vol. 4, p. 317), some scholars assumed it was executed early in Raphael’s career, around 1500 (Wittkower 1963, pp. 150–68 and Becherucci 1968, pp. 15–26). Others assumed it had been painted over a longer period of time, in two instalments: the upper half in late 1501 and early 1502, and the lower part and the predella in early 1504 or somewhat later (De Vecchi 1986, pp. 73–84 and Mancinelli 1986, pp. 127–38). 25 Recently discovered documents raise the possibility that the altarpiece was completed only in 1505 (Sartore 2008). This late dating is plausible because the contract for the Monteluce altarpiece, which marks the terminus ante quem for the execution of the Oddi Coronation, was in fact signed in 1505 instead of the previously supposed date of 1503, see Shearman 2003, pp. 86–92. 26 Joannides 1983, nos. 38–55. 27 Loránd Zentai suggested that the Budapest sheet may be related with the Coronation of the Virgin designed by Raphael for the Franciscan nuns of Monteluce (Rome, Pinacoteca Vaticana), and regarded it as a copy after the painter’s initial, lost modello for its composition, see Zentai 1979; for the altarpiece, see most recently Sartore 2011. 28 Vasari (ed. Milanesi), vol. 1, pp. 174–77, see also Tolnay 1943, pp. 19–27. 29 For Raphael’s working method, see Ames-Lewis 1986; Joannides 1983, p. 12; Cox-Rearick 1999, pp. 13–27, esp. 19–21. The modern term modello originates from much later than Raphael’s period and usually refers to three-dimensional sculptural or architectural models in the Renaissance, see Glasser 1965, pp. 116–18; Thomas 1995, p. 109. 30 O'Malley 2005, pp. 197–220. 31 During the detachment of the Budapest drawing from its secondary support, a fragmentary watermark appeared at its lower edge. If the Budapest and Paris drawings originally constituted a single sheet, the missing half of the watermark should be found at the upper edge of the drawing in Paris. However, the old mounting of the Paris sheet prevented us from checking if the fragmentary watermark exists. 32 For the altarpiece’s iconography of Sienese origin, see Krems 1996. 33 The image taken in raking light reveals only pen and ink lines, and no traces of metalpoint can be detected (cf. Joannides 1983, no. 38; Zentai 1998, no. 5). Since the ultraviolet-induced luminescence does not prove that the paper had been prepared, the faint black lines visible in the infrared reflectograph must have been drawn in dry black carbon-based drawing media, charcoal or black chalk, cf. Ambers, Higgitt, and Saunders 2010, pp. 39–56. 34 Joannides 1983, nos. 38–55. 35 Ibid., nos. 40 and 41. 36 Ibid., nos. 52 and 54. 37 For the altarpiece, see Meyer zur Capellen 2001, no. 31; for the preliminary drawings, see Joannides 1983, nos. 124–137. The detailed compositional study in the Louvre, Paris, derives from the initial phase of the altarpiece’s preparation, and similarly to the Budapest sheet it was probably executed as a presentation drawing for the patron, see ibid., no. 125; Cordellier and Py 1992a, no. 57. 38 Joannides 1983, no. 20r; for a detailed description of the drawing, see Cordellier and Py 1992a, no. 22; Meyer zur Capellen 2001, pp. 20–22. 39 For the paintings, see Meyer zur Capellen 2001, nos. 2 and 4; for Raphael’s early pen drawings executed in a similar manner, see Joannides 1983, nos. 19 and 22r; more recently Joachim Jacoby in Frankfurt am Main 2012–13, nos. 1 and 2. 40 For the altarpiece, see Scarpellini 1984, no. 65. 41 Hiller von Gaertringen 1999, pp. 60–67. 42 Cordellier and Py 1992a, p. 29. 43 Oberhuber 1986a. 44 Joannides 1983, nos. 60r and 61r; Raphael’s authorship is questioned by La Malfa 2008, pp. 262–63. 45 For the relation between the two altarpieces, see Oberhuber 1978 and Henry 2008. 46 Silvestrelli 2005. 47 It was possibly Perugino, also executing commissions for the Franciscan friars of Perugia, who recommended Raphael to the Oddi family, but the Umbrian branch of the Oddi may also have ensured that the yet unknown Raphael acquired commissions in the town, see Shearman 2003, pp. 57–60. 48 Shearman 2003, pp. 79–82 and 1642.
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