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Synthesis and Raman analysis of carbon chains inside double

The Spectrum of Life
Third Edition
Eileen Kennedy
Peter Aubusson
Peter Hickman
abiotic pertaining to non-living things
absorption the transport of digested food particles from
the intestine into the blood
absorption spectrum (of water) the degree to which
water absorbs the different wavelengths of light
abundance the number of individual organisms in an area
activation energy the energy that molecules need in
order to collide and react with each other
active site the part of the enzyme molecule to which the
substrate binds
active transport the movement of substances through a
cell membrane requiring the expenditure of cellular
(biological) energy
acute disease disease with severe symptoms but does not
last long
acquired immunity immunity obtained by an organism
during its lifetime
acquired active immunity immunity found in individuals
who are infected by a disease and then develop
immunity to that disease
active cells cells that act immediately
acute disease disease with severe symptoms but does not
last long
adaptations characteristics that enable organisms to
survive in an environment
adaptive radiation the evolution of a variety of
specialised kinds of organisms from a primitive
relatively unspecialised ancestor
adeno-associated virus (AAV) a harmless virus used to
transfer genes into human DNA in gene therapy
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a compound that occurs
in cells and is involved in processes requiring the
transfer of energy
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide that stores
large amounts of energy in its third phosphate bond;
this energy is used by cells for various purposes such
as transport, synthesis and muscle movement
adhesion the attraction between particles of different types
adipose fat storage tissue in an animal
aerobic using oxygen
agglutination clumping or clotting of the blood
alimentary canal the passageway through the digestive
system from mouth to anus
alleopathy a relationship in which one organism directly
hinders the growth or development of another
allele an alternative form of a gene
allergy an immune response against a harmless antigen
allergen substances that are antigenic to some (allergic)
alveoli the air sacs that collectively form lung tissue
and exchange respiratory gases with surrounding
amino acid the nitrogen-containing, basic building
block molecule of proteins; one of twenty naturally
occurring varieties
ammonotelic releases waste nitrogenous products as
amylase a catabolic enzyme that decomposes complex
sugars (e.g. starch) to glucose
anabolic pertaining to the making (synthesis) of complex
molecules by chemically joining simpler molecules
anaerobic not using oxygen
analogous structures superficially similar structures
that have evolved independently
angiosperm a flowering plant, one of several major
plant groups
anoxic doesn't contain oxygen
antenna a jointed appendage present in arthropods;
used for sensation (touch or feel) or swimming or
anthropoid resembles humans
anthropology the science that is concerned with human
origins in terms of physical and cultural evolution
antibiotic a chemical that kills a bacterium
antibody a protein (an immunoglobulin) formed by
B-cells (B-lymphocytes) of the immune system which
is directed against a specific antigen
antibody-mediated immunity immunity that occurs
when antibodies circulate in the blood plasma and
combine and destroy antigens
anticoagulant a substance that stops human blood from
antidiuretic prevents the loss of too much water in the
antigen an organism or molecule that causes an
immune response
aorta the principal trunk artery of the body; it carries
blood away from the heart to other parts of the body
appendages structures that protrude from an organism
appendix a small projection from the caecum
aquatic (animal or plant) lives in water or a water
arboreal lives in trees
Archaea a superkingdom or domain of procaryotic
archaeology the science concerned with the cultures
of ancient peoples as revealed by their artefacts,
monuments and inscriptions
arid dry environment
arteriole a small (in diameter) artery
artery a blood vessel that transports blood away from
the heart
artificial active immunity an immunity provided by an
injected vaccine
artificial passive immunity an immunity provided by
antibodies from another immune individual
asexual reproduction reproduction without gametes; no
ascomycetes the largest group of fungi which includes
yeasts, moulds and mildews
assimilation the conversion of food molecules into
cellular structures or products
atrium one of the two upper heart chambers
audioreceptor a specialised hair cell of the inner ear
cochlea; it converts mechanical energy into a nerve
cell impulse
autonomic pertaining to that portion of the peripheral
nervous system of vertebrates that is made up
of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves; it is
involuntary, ie it acts automatically
autoradiography the identification of substances that
have been radioactively labelled and the radioactivity
visualized by exposure to photographic film
autosomes non-sex chromosomes
autotroph an organism that can produce its own
nutrients from non-living sources, e.g. from light,
water and carbon dioxide
axon the portion of a neuron that transmits a nerve
impulse over a distance
base substitution mutation mutation where one base
takes the place of another base in a DNA sequence
benign pertaining to an abnormal growth (neoplasm)
that stays in place and is relatively harmless
bilateral symmetry having only one axis that will divide
it into two halves
bile a yellow-green fluid secreted from the gall bladder,
which emulsifies fats and oils, creating a larger
surface area for enzymes to act on
binomial system a system of classifying organisms using
the species and genus names
biochemistry the chemistry of living things and its study
biogeography the geographic distribution of organisms
and its study
biological membranes selectively permeable cell
membranes which allow some substances through
more easily than others
biomagnification the accumulation of substances in a
food chain
biomass total mass of the organisms in an area or the
mass of particular organisms, usually expressed as a
biomass pyramid a pyramid-like diagram showing
the proportion of matter in different parts of the
biosphere that portion of the Earth’s surface, waters and
atmosphere that includes life forms
biotic pertaining to living things
bipedal walking on two feet
bladder the urine storage organ of the animal body
blood a fluid that acts as a transport medium within an
blood filtrate the blood plasma that is pressed through
glomerular walls and collected by kidney capsules
blubber fat layers between the skin and muscles of
aquatic mammals, which act as thermal insulation
body cells somatic cells i.e. all cells other than gametes
Bowman’s capsule the fist-like structure surrounding the
glomerulus contained within the nephron capsule that
filters blood in the kidney
brachiation locomotion using arms and grasping hands
to swing from one object to another
bronchioles smaller branches of the bronchus
bronchus one of the two air passages that branch off
from the trachea (windpipe) conducting air to and
from the lungs
Brownian motion random motion of particles due to the
kinetic energy of the particles
buoyancy the tendency of a material to keep an object
caecum the blind pocket near the joining of the small
and large intestine
cambium a layer of meristem tissue in the roots and
stems of plants that produces growth in diameter
canopy the cover provided by the leaves and branches of
the vegetation in an area
capillary a narrow blood vessel with a thin wall across
which nutrients and wastes are transported between
blood and body cells
capsule the portion of the kidney nephron that collects
capillary plasma filtrate
carbaminohaemoglobin red blood cell protein,
haemoglobin, that is carrying carbon dioxide
carbohydrate molecules a class of energy-storing
molecules composed of the elements C, H and O
carbonic anhydrase an enzyme that accelerates the
formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and
cardiovascular pertaining to the heart and blood
carnivore an organism that eats only animals
carotenoids the yellow or red pigments that protect and
transfer light energy to chlorophyll (the colours of
fruits and dead leaves)
catabolic the breaking down of complex molecules into
simpler ones
cataract the clouding or thickening of the lens of the eye
cell differentiation the process that results in the
development of different specialised cells in an
cell division the process by which cells reproduce for
growth or tissue repair in multicellular and unicellular
organisms. It includes mitosis and cytokinesis
cell-mediated immunity immunity that occurs when
T-cells combine with antigens/pathogens (or cells
infected with a pathogen) leading to the destruction of
antigens and their accompanying pathogens
cell membrane plasma membrane that surrounds and
protects a cell; it controls the transport of substances
in and out of the cell
cell surface molecules chemicals on the surface of a cell
membrane that are used for recognition of foreign
central nervous system the part of the nervous system
that coordinates all neural functions i.e. the brain and
spinal cord
centriole one of two cellular organelles that form the
�poles’ of a cell’s spindle fibres during cell division
centromere a small structure that holds single-stranded
chromosomes (chromatids) together
cerebellum the portion of the animal hindbrain that
coordinates voluntary movements and body balance
cerebrospinal fluid the fluid contained within the brain
and spinal tissue spaces; it absorbs shocks, distributes
nutrients and removes wastes
cerebrum the largest, most anterior portion of the
mammalian forebrain; it records information and
controls voluntary movements, sensations and mental
activity (thinking)
chemokines chemicals released as part of the immune
chemoreceptor a specialised cell in the oral and nasal
cavities that stimulates nerve cell impulses in response
to the presence of certain chemical compounds or
chemosynthesis the production of organic molecules
such as sugars using the energy of chemical reactions
in the environment
chemosynthetic bacteria bacteria that obtain energy
from inorganic substances
chlorophyll a green substance in plant chloroplasts that
absorbs light energy in photosynthesis
chloroplast a cell structure (organelle) that contains the
chlorophyll pigments and enzymes that carry out
cholesterol a steroid fat molecule contained in many fats
chromatin the stainable substance making up
chromosomes (DNA and histone proteins)
chromoplast a cellular organelle that contains a coloured
pigment other than chlorophyll
chromosome a long strand of DNA (a DNA double helix)
containing genes
chromosome map a diagram of a chromosome showing
the position of its genes
chromosome mutations changes in the chromosome
number or arrangement of genes on chromosomes
chronic disease long-term course of a disease usually
with less severe symptoms than an acute disease
chyme the semifluid mass of partially digested nutrients
that moves from the stomach to the duodenum of the
small intestine
cilia hair-like structures found on the surface of
some unicellular organisms and in parts of some
multicellular organisms; they stimulate movement of
some kind
ciliary body structure that extends from the cornea and
the sclera and attaches to both the iris and the lens
cladistic classification classification based on lines of
descent i.e. evolutionary relationships
cladodes stems modified to take on the function of a leaf
classification the organisation of organisms into groups
climate a general description of the weather conditions
in a region
clonal selection the selection by a pathogen/antigen of
a specific B-cell or T-cell from small numbers of a
variety of B-cells and T-cells; the B-cell or T-cell is
then cloned and can combine with the antigen and
destroy it
cloning producing identical copies of something
cochlea a spiral shaped, fluid-filled cavity that forms the
inner ear and contains the audioreceptors
co-dominant where two alleles are expressed as separate
unblended phenotypes
codon a set of three bases in RNA (or DNA) that
codes for an amino acid or provides a signal in the
production of polypeptides, e.g. a stop code
coenocytic cell a large cell with many nuclei
coenzyme an organic compound that helps an enzyme
to function
cofactor an inorganic compound or ion that helps an
enzyme to function
cohesion the attraction between particles of the same type
colloid a cloudy mixture containing large insoluble
colony a group of cells that survive together; they
may or may not be joined but maintain a degree of
independence from each other
commensalism close relationship between two species of
organisms in which one benefits and the other is not
community the set of interacting organisms of different
species within an area
comparative anatomy the similarity and differences
in anatomy (organs, bone structure etc.) of different
organisms, and its study
competition a relationship in which two organisms
compete for a limited resource
complementary bases bases that can pair with each
other – adenine and thymine (or uracil) and cytosine
with guanine
complement systems a system of proteins that destroys
a pathogen in response to the antibody–antigen
complex being formed
complete protein a food protein that contains most or
all of the amino acids required by the body
concentration gradient (sometimes called the diffusion
gradient) the difference in concentration of a
substance in two areas that may be separated by a
barrier such as a membrane
cone cell one of the two photoreceptors that make up the
retina of the eye and provide normal day and colour
conjunctiva thin layer of epithelial cells that cover the
cornea and sclera of the eyeball and keep the outer
surface of the eye moist
connective tissue tissue that connects organs to each other
consumer see heterotroph
continental drift theory that the continents have been
joined, separate, move and collide
contractile vacuole an organelle in some protozoans that
actively pumps water out of the cell
convergent evolution organisms of different ancestry
evolving similar characteristics
coordination operation of different parts of an organism
in a harmonious manner
copulation the insertion of the penis into the vagina
core temperature the temperature of the body’s core
cornea the transparent, outer protective coating of the eye
cortex the outer layer of an organ; an outer tissue layer
of a plant stem or root
cotyledons seed leaves that provide food for the plant
cristae internal membranes of mitochondria
cross-fertilisation fertilisation between gametes from
different individuals
crossing over the breaking and crossing over of genetic
material between homologous chromosomes
crystallins folded proteins that make up the lens fibres
of the eye
cusps projections on the surface of molars and premolars
used to grind and crush food
cuticle a waxy coating on the outside of leaves
cutin a waxy compound forming a transparent layer on
the outer surface (cuticle) of leaves and insects
cyanobacteria a group of photosynthetic procaryotes
that carry out photosynthesis similar to that of green
plants; they are classified within the domain Bacteria
cytokine a chemical produced by lymphatic cells that
acts as a signal to other lymphatic cells. An example
is interleukin.
cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm following division
of the nucleus
cytoplasm a general term for all the contents of a cell
outside the nucleus and within the cell membrane
cytosine one of the five base molecules composing
nucleic acids
cytoskeleton a system of microtubular structures that
extend throughout the cell
deamination the decomposition of amino acids by
removal of amino groups (which are then synthesised
into urea)
deciduous a plant (tree) that sheds its leaves in winter
decomposer bacteria or fungi which bring about the
decay of organic material
defecation the process of removing solid wastes from the
body through the anus
deletion (chromosome mutation) when genes are lost
from the chromosome
denaturation the process of unravelling an enzyme’s
structure so that the active site can no longer function
dendrite that end portion of a neuron that receives a
chemical stimulus and initiates a neuronal impulse
density (of organisms) the number of organisms per unit
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the nucleic acid molecule
that stores the hereditary information of the organism
and is indirectly responsible for cellular structure and
dialysis the filtration of waste products out of the blood,
e.g. in an artificial kidney
diapause dormant state of lowered metabolic rate
diaphragm the dome-shaped muscular partition that
separates the lung cavity from the abdominal cavity
and helps move air into and out of the lungs
diastolic pressure blood pressure reading obtained when
the ventricles of the heart relax
dichotomous key a type of flow diagram that
continuously branches into two and is used to identify
dicotyledon a plant having two nutrient seed-leaves
(cotyledons) in the seed
differentiation the change of an unspecialised cell into a
specialised cell
diffusion movement of material from an area where it
is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated
without using cellular (biological) energy
diffusion gradient the difference in concentration of a
substance between two sites
digestion the breaking down, both chemically and
physically, of food particles so that they can be
dihybrid cross a genetic cross in which two
characteristics are considered
diploid chromosomes occur in pairs i.e. two sets of
disaccharide a sugar molecule made up of two simpler
monosaccharide sugars
disease any condition that impairs the proper physical,
mental and/or social well-being of an organism
distribution the region inhabited by an organism i.e. the
area/s where a species of organism is found
diuresis the loss of water in the urine
divergent evolution the evolution of a variety of
different kinds of organism from a common ancestor
diversity great variation
DNA see deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA fingerprinting DNA technology which detects
blood, tissue or semen DNA of an individual and
identifies the individual usually as part of a criminal
or paternity case
DNA ligase an enzyme that can join pieces of DNA
DNA polymerase an enzyme that catalyses the synthesis
of DNA
DNA replication conversion of single-stranded
chromosomes to double-stranded chromosomes in a
living cell at interphase between one mitosis and the
next i.e. duplication of a DNA double helix into two
double helices
DNA sequencing the mapping of the nucleotide sequence
of DNA
Domain the first level of classification also called the
superkingdom level
dormancy a state during which cellular metabolism,
hence organism activity, is minimal
dormant in a resting state
dorsal pertaining to an organ or tissue that is located
towards an animal’s back (as opposed to its front
or belly)
dorsal root a major sensory nerve cord that enters the spine
double helix two polynucleotide chains twisted together
into a spiral (or helix)
duodenum the first part of the small intestine
duplication (chromosome mutation) when extra copies
of genes are added to a chromosome
ecology the study of the relationships between organisms
and their non-living surroundings
ecosystem a self-sustaining set of organisms and their
non-living environment
ectotherm an animal that controls its body temperature
externally; its body temperature approximates the
external environment
ectoparasites parasites that live on the surface of a host’s
effector something that causes an effect
electrophoresis a technique in which fragments of
biological molecules are placed on a gel and an
electric field applied; the fragments move along the
gel under the influence of the electric field
embryo a developing organism
embryology the study of embryonic development
enantiostasis the maintenance of metabolic and
physiological functions in response to variations in
the environment
endocrine pertaining to the body glands that secrete
their hormone products directly into the bloodstream
endodermis an inner layer of cells
endoparasites parasites that live inside a host’s body
endoplasmic reticulum an extensive network of
membranes within the cell that may have ribosomes
attached (rough) or have no ribosomes (smooth)
endoskeleton a hard covering on the inside of the body
endosymbiosis the engulfing of smaller cells by larger
cells and their survival in a symbiotic relationship
endotherm an animal that controls its body temperature
internally; its body temperature remains relatively
constant whatever the external temperature
endothermic pertaining to chemical reactions that are
accompanied by an absorption of heat
energy pyramid a pyramid-like diagram showing
the proportion of energy in different parts of the
environment the living and non-living surroundings of
enzyme a highly specialised cellular protein that reduces
the amount of energy required to initiate a chemical
reaction and therefore speeds up the reaction while
remaining unchanged itself
epidemiology the study of the incidence of disease and
the factors that influence its incidence
epidermal layer see epidermis
epidermis the outermost cell layer
epigenetics the process by which genes are expressed in
cells and the inheritance of the results of these processes
i.e. the inheritance of characteristics by processes not
involving changes in the DNA base sequence
epiglottis a valve-like, cartilagenous structure that
closes the opening to the air passage (trachea) when
epithelium any tissue that covers a surface (outermost
epitope a selected part of an antigen to which the
antibody binds
erythrocyte a red blood cell or corpuscle
ester linkage fatty acids bonded to glycerol (by an ester
bond) forming a lipid; characteristic of Bacteria and
ether linkage hydrocarbon molecules bonded to glycerol
(by an ether bond — two hydrocarbon groups with
an oxygen bonded between them) forming a lipid;
characteristic of Archaea
eucaryote an organism with a nucleus and membranebound organelles in its cells
Eustachian tube a canal that extends from the middle
ear to the pharynx region of the throat and helps to
maintain an equal air pressure on both sides of the
eutrophication the depletion of oxygen in water bodies
due to the excessive growth of cyanobacteria and
their decomposition (that uses oxygen)
evolution the gradual changes that have transformed
the earliest forms of life into the diversity of life
found today
evolutionary theory theory that states that all
organisms have evolved from pre-existing organisms
by gradual changes over a long period of time
excretion removal of wastes from an organism
exon a coding part of DNA
exoskeleton a hard covering on the outside of the body
exothermic pertaining to any chemical change that is
accompanied by a release of heat
exotic not native
expression (of a gene) the conversion of the
information on a gene to a protein product resulting
in a cell characteristic
external fertilisation fertilisation outside the body
extracellular fluid the fluid in the spaces between the cells
faeces solid waste that is discharged from the large
intestine through the anus
feedback the provision of information about changes to
a set value that must be maintained for homeostasis
to exist or the provision of information so that the set
value is restored
feral domestic animals that have escaped and gone wild
fermentation respiration without using oxygen
fertilisation the union or joining of a male and female
fibre the undigested cellulose from plant food
fibre cells thick-walled cells that provide support in plant
vascular bundles
fibrinogen the protein in blood that forms a clot
first-order consumer an animal that eats plants
fission splitting up
flaccid a semi-collapsed condition due to the loss of water
flagellum a long, whip-like appendage that provides
locomotion for some unicellular and colonial organisms
fluid mosaic model the currently accepted model of cell
membrane structure
flukes tail flippers of aquatic mammals
focal point point at which an object is focused
focal length the distance between the focal point and the
centre of the lens (e.g. in the eye)
food chain a flow chart showing a single sequence of
the feeding relationships of organisms and the flow of
matter and energy through this sequence
food web a flow chart showing the feeding relationships
of organisms and the flow of matter and energy
through a community
foramen magnum a large hole in the base of the skull
enabling the passage of nerves from the brain to the
spinal cord
fossil fuels naturally occurring carbon-based fuels,
formed from the fossils of plants and animals, e.g.
coal, oil, natural gas
fossil record the complete record of the earth’s geological
history and the evolution of living organisms during
that time based on fossil fuels
fossilisation preservation of parts – or vary rarely whole
– organisms
fossils the preserved remains, traces or imprints of dead
fovea a small pit in the eye retina; it contains massed
cone cells that provide sharp vision
frame-shift mutation where the number of bases added
to or deleted from DNA is not divisible by three
fucoxanthin a brown pigment in plants
fusion joining together
gametes haploid cells that can undergo fertilisation
gametocytes cells that are the precursors of gametes
(sex cells)
ganglia units of nerve grey matter (massed cell bodies)
found outside the spinal cord and brain
gas exchange organisms gaining gases from and losing
gases to the environment
gene a section of DNA on a chromosome that contains
information for the synthesis of a polypeptide
gene cascades turning genes on in sequence where the
proteins produced by genes regulates the expression
of the next gene in the sequence
gene cloning the transfer of genes into bacteria that
reproduce copies of these genes
gene homologues genes with similar DNA base
sequences present in many eucaryotes that carry out
similar functions in different organisms
gene mutations changes in the DNA base sequence of a
gene therapy the treatment of a disease by replacing a
harmful gene with a healthy gene
genetic engineering the alteration of the chromosome by
removing and/or adding genes (�gene splicing’)
genetic immunity immunity with which an individual is
genetics the study of heredity
genome the entire set of genes in a species
genotype the genes present that control a characteristic
genus a group of species that have a number of
characteristics (of the genus) in common
germ-line cells a type of somatic cell (body cell) that will
be converted to a gamete (sex cell)
germination the bursting of embryonic plant shoot
and root through the seed coat and its growth into a
globins a group of oxygen-carrying proteins, e.g.
globulin a group of soluble, blood plasma proteins
consisting of enzymes and circulating antibodies
glomerular filtrate the fluid that has been filtered out of
the blood into the kidney tubule
glomerulus the knotted blood capillary contained within
the nephron capsule that filters blood
glottis narrow opening in the trachea
glycogen a polysaccharide found in liver and muscle
tissue that temporarily stores glucose
glycolipid a lipid with carbohydrate attached
glycolysis the partial enzymatic breakdown of food
molecules without the presence of oxygen, resulting
in the production of a small amount of chemical
energy (ATP)
glycoprotein a protein with carbohydrate attached
golgi body a semicircular membrane system with vesicles
attached at the ends; it processes, stores and secretes
substances (usually proteins)
gonads male and female sex organs e.g. ovaries and testes
grana chlorophyll-containing stacks of thylakoids
(discs) in chloroplasts where the light phase of
photosynthesis takes place
grasslands an ecosystem consisting mainly of grass
greenhouse effect the trapping of heat radiated from the
earth by gases in the atmosphere (e.g. carbon dioxide,
methane etc.,) and its re-radiation back to earth (as in
a greenhouse)
guanine one of five nucleic acid bases
guard cells the two cells surrounding leaf surface
openings (stomata) that open and close this opening
haem a carbon ring structure with an iron atom in the
centre that binds to oxygen
haemagglutinin (HA) a glycoprotein which can adhere
to red blood cells, causing them to agglutinate
haemoglobin the iron-containing, reddish protein of red
blood cells that attracts and carries oxygen
haemorrhage bleeding
hair cells cells in the cochlea of the ear that send
neurotransmitters to the auditory nerves
halophiles a group of Archaebacteria that live in salty
haploid when chromosomes occur singly, one set of
chromosomes (in sex cells)
health defined by the World Health Organization as a
�state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of infirmity’.
heavy metals metals with a high atomic mass
herbaceous herb-like, with non-woody, green stems
herbivore an animal that eats only plants
heredity the transfer of characteristics from one
generation to the next
hermaphrodite an organism that produces both male and
female gametes
heterocysts specialised cells which have thick cell walls
to exclude oxygen
heterotroph any organism that consumes other
organisms in order to satisfy its nutrient requirements
heterozygous different alleles for the same characteristic
hierarchy a system organised into different levels; the
system of ranking in a graded order from species to
histamine a chemical involved in hyperactivity of the
immune system (allergies) or inflammation responses
histone small protein that binds to DNA forming
homeostasis the constant internal composition of a cell
or an organism and the mechanisms that maintain it
hominid a member of the family of humans (Hominidae);
homologous pairs corresponding pairs
homologous structures structures with common
evolutionary origins but different functions and
dissimilar superficial structures. They show similarity
in their structures
homozygous the presence of two identical alleles for a gene
hormone a chemical produced by an endocrine gland; it
travels in the blood to a target organ where it has an
horticulture the cultivation of garden plants
host an organism on which a parasite lives
humus dead and decaying organic material in and on soil
hybrid an individual carrying heterozygous genes
hydrolysis a type of chemical reaction in which
a molecule is lysed (broken down) into smaller
molecules by the breaking of bonds and a molecule of
water is added for each bond broken
hypertension higher than normal blood pressure
hypertonic having a higher concentration of solutes
than another system
hyphae thread-like, tubular filaments that make up the
nutrient absorbing mycelium of most fungi
hypothalamus an area of the brain that acts as a control
centre for maintaining homeostasis
hypothesis a possible explanation based on a minimum
amount of evidence
hypotonic having a lower concentration of solutes than
another system
ileum the coiled long section of the small intestine
imago the adult stage of metamorphosis in an insect
immunisation the production of immunity
immunity the ability to resist disease
immunochemical pertaining to the internal defence
system (white blood cells—antibodies) of the body
immunoglobulins antibodies made by B-cells
immunological memory the ability of the immune
system to �remember’ an antigen and to respond to it
faster and more massively than the first time; this is
due to the retention of memory B-cells and T-cells in
the immune system
immunological tolerance the ability of some organisms
to tolerate cells other than their own provided that
they are introduced to the organism during the early
stages of the organism’s development
incubation period the time between the entry of a
pathogen into the body and the appearance of
induced fit model a model of enzyme-substrate
interaction in which the substrate induces (stimulates)
a change in the shape of the enzyme’s active site so
that it fits the substrate
infarction death of muscle tissue due to an absence of
infectious can be passed from one individual to another
ingestion taking in
inhibition a type of competition in which one organism
directly hinders the growth of another
insulation a protective layer that reduces heat loss
interferons a group of proteins produced by cells
invaded by viruses
internal fertilisation fertilisation inside the body
interneuron a nerve cell in the spine and brain that
relays nerve impulses between neurons
intron a non-coding part of DNA
inversion (chromosome mutation) the order of some
genes on the chromosome is reversed
iris the external, coloured part of the eye; it regulates the
amount of light passing through the retina
isolation the separation of members of a population so
that they do not interbreed
isotonic having the same concentration of solutes as
another system
joule the basic measurement unit of work or energy
jumping genes see transposons
key a table or flow diagram showing characteristics and
the organisms that have them
kidney tubule tubule in which fluid that has been
filtered from the blood flows.
Krebs cycle the enzyme-regulated cycle in cell
respiration that completes the catabolic breakdown
of food molecules producing a maximum amount of
chemical energy (ATP) and carbon dioxide
lacteals lymph vessels that transport absorbed lipids and
release them into the blood
lenticels gaps in the bark filled with parenchyma cells
that allow gas exchange in stems
leucocyte a white blood cell
leucoplast a colourless (non-pigmented) storage
organelle found in some cells, e.g. starch leucoplasts
in plant cells
lignin a chemical, cement-like compound that, together
with cellulose, is found in the walls of xylem.
It provides support for the plant and is a major
component of the wood of woody plants
lignotuber thickened roots that sprout after fire
limb buds groups of cells in the embryo that begin the
formation of limbs
limiting factor a resource that determines the maximum
abundance in an area
linked genes genes on the same chromosome
lipid a class of cellular organic molecules, fats, oils, waxes
lipid bilayer two lipid layers, one on top of the other
lock and key model a model of enzyme-substrate
interaction in which the substrate and enzyme fit
together like a lock and key
locomotion movement from place to place
locus the position of a gene on a chromosome
lumen space within the walls of a blood vessel
lymph a watery fluid that has similarities in composition
to blood plasma; it travels in lymph vessels
lymph node a specialised area of the lymphatic system
where lymphocytes are matured and stored
lymphatic system network of lymph vessels and nodes
lymphocyte a leucocyte that produces a specific immune
response, either a B-lymphocyte or a T-lymphocyte
lysis breakdown
lysosome a small organelle that contains lysozymes
(enzymes that break down proteins and other molecules)
lysozyme enzymes that break down proteins and other
macromolecule a very large, complex molecule, e.g. a
nucleic acid, protein or lipid molecule
macronutrient any mineral ion or compound required by
plants in relatively large amounts
macrophage a type of phagocyte that can also present
antigens to B-cells and T-cells
macroscopic parasites pathogens that are visible to the
naked eye
major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) recognition
or marker molecules on the surface of cells
malignant any abnormal tissue growth that spreads and
has the potential to cause death
malnutrition a general state of poor health caused by a
diet lacking in one or more required nutrients
Malpighian tubules excretory organ of insects
mammal a vertebrate that has mammary glands
mandible an appendage in arthropods for biting and
crushing food; it is also used to describe the lower jaw
in vertebrates
marsupial a mammal containing a pouch for developing
mast cell a specialised cell of connective tissue that
secretes histamine and hepanin
mechanoreceptor a specialised sensory cell that is
responsive to pressure, sound and movement in
medulla the soft centre of an organ or body structure
medulla oblongata the hindmost portion of the brain that
is continuous with the spinal cord
megafauna mostly extinct fauna larger than but similar
to present-day organisms
meiosis cell division during which the chromosome
number is halved; gametes are formed
membrane thin barrier between the cell and its external
memory cells cells that remain in the system but are not
immediately active
meninges the three membranes that surround and protect
the brain
meristem the plant tissue in stem tips, buds and root tips
that produces plant growth by mitosis
mesophyll cells (palisade and spongy) the photosynthetic cells in a leaf
mesophyte a plant that is adapted to an adequate water
messenger RNA an RNA molecule formed by
transcription from a DNA molecule. It then directs
polypeptide synthesis by translation
metabolic pathway a series of reactions in which the
product of one reaction is the substrate (reactant) for
the next; the purpose of a metabolic pathway is to
make an endproduct that is useful in the cell
metabolic rate rate of metabolism
metabolic reactions/metabolism all the chemical
reactions that take place in an organism
metabolism all the chemical reactions that take place in
an organism
methanogens a group of Archaebacteria that produce
microbe (microorganism) an organism too small to be
seen with the naked eye
microflora microbes that have a symbiotic relationship
with humans
micromolecule a very small molecule, e.g. glucose,
amino acid
micronutrient any mineral ion or compound required by
plants in relatively small or �trace’ amounts
microorganism an organism that is microscopic in size
microsphere a small sphere containing biological
compounds that have been surrounded by a lipid
microvilli tiny projections on the surface of the villi
mid-ocean ridge a ridge of slowly erupting volcanoes in
the ocean crust along diverging plate margins
mineral an inorganic ion (charged particle)
mitochondria cellular organelles that produce ATP
energy (via cellular respiration)
mitosis the division of the nucleus of cells
Monera in a former classification system, the kingdom
to which the procaryotes belong
monocotyledon a plant having one nutrient seed-leaf
(cotyledon) in its seeds
monohybrid cross type of genetic cross where only
one characteristic (one pair of alleles) is considered
and the identical heterozygous individuals (for the
characteristic) are crossed
monomer a small molecule bonded to other identical
molecules to form a polymer
monosaccharide a simple sugar molecule, e.g. glucose,
fructose, ribose
monotreme a mammal that lays eggs
morphology the study of the structure, shape, general
appearance or form of organisms as distinct from
anatomy, which involves dissection to discover
motile self moving
motor neuron a nerve cell that transmits an impulse
away from the central nervous system to an effector
(muscle or gland)
m-RNA see messenger RNA
mucus a slippery protein used for lubrication and tissue
protection throughout the body
multicellular composed of many cells
mutagen an environmental factor that can increase the
natural rate of mutation such as chemicals, X-rays
and ultraviolet light
mutant organism which contains a mutation and is
different from wild type
mutation a change in a gene; chromosome arrangement
or chromosome number
mutualism the close relationship between organisms of
different species in which both benefit
mycelium a mass of thread-like, nutrient-absorbing,
tubular filaments that make up the main body of a
myelin a specialised fat that coats nerve cell axons and
insulates them from one another in nerves
myocardial infarction heart attack
myocardium muscle area of the heart that surrounds the
atria and ventricles
myoglobin protein that provides oxygen to muscle cells
in insects and is also present in vertebrate muscle
nastic movement stem, leaf or flower movements due to
changes in cellular turgor pressures
natural selection the process of interaction between
organisms and their environment that results in
different success in survival and reproduction
natural immunity immunity where there is no human or
outside intervention (such as injections)
natural passive immunity occurs when there is no
human intervention and antibodies are supplied
from another individual e.g. when antibodies from a
mother cross to an unborn child.
negative feedback a response to a change that is in
opposition to (negative to) the change
neoplasm an abnormal tissue growth
nephron the functional unit of the kidney cortex that
separates blood nutrients from wastes
neutrophil a phagocyte found in the blood of vertebrates
niche the place occupied by an organism in an ecosystem
nitrogen fixation the conversion of nitrogen in the air
into fixed forms such as ammonium ions and nitrate
nitrogenases the enzymes that catalyse the reactions of
nitrogen fixation
nitrogen-fixing bacteria bacteria that convert
atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates
nocturnal active at night
non-disjunction the failure of an homologous pair of
chromosomes to separate during meiosis
non-infectious cannot be passed from one individual to
normal distribution bell-shaped curve in which most
values fall near a central point
nucleic acid a cellular macromolecule that is a polymer
of nucleotides (DNA or RNA), DNA contains the
genetic information for an organism and RNA is
the molecule involved in the transfer of this genetic
information for the synthesis of proteins
nucleic acid hybridisation a process for determining
the similarity of two DNA or RNA molecules by the
amount of base-pairing between single strands of
each molecule
nucleolus a small, rounded body within the cell nucleus;
it is the site for the synthesis of RNA
nucleotide a basic unit of a nucleic acid molecule,
consisting of a phosphate group, simple sugar and
one of five bases
nucleus a relatively large, membrane-bound structure in
the cell that contains most of the cell’s nucleic acids
nucleosomes a structure in which DNA is wound round
a protein core made of histone proteins
occlusion the blocking of a vessel or duct
oesophagus the muscular tube that moves food from the
mouth to the stomach
oestrus cycle a reproductive cycle in eutherian
(placental) mammals with a period during which the
female will accept mating with males; this period is
called oestrus
omnivore an animal that eats both plants and animals
ontogeny embryonic development
operculum protective covering over gills
optimum temperature the temperature at which an
enzyme is most active
organ a body structure composed of different tissues
that collectively serve other body tissues and organs
in a specific way, e.g. heart, liver, kidneys
organelle a specialised microstructure or area within a
cell, e.g. mitochondrion, chloroplast
organic molecules molecules containing carbon present
in living organisms (with the exception of carbon
dioxide and carbonates)
osmoconformer organisms in which the internal
concentration of fluids is the same as that of the
surrounding environment
osmoregulation the regulation of water and salt
concentration in body cells to maintain homeostasis
osmoregulator organisms that actively maintain an
internal fluid concentration different from that of the
osmotic balance the tendency for cells to maintain
solute concentrations on either side of the cell
membrane at a value that prevents excessive water
from entering the cell
osmosis the diffusion of water through a selectively
permeable membrane
ossicles the three tiny bones of the middle ear that
transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the oval
window of the cochlea
overnutrition a condition of poor health resulting from
an excessive intake of food or a particular kind of food
oxic containing oxygen
oxyhaemoglobin haemoglobin saturated with oxygen
palaeontology the scientific study of fossils and all
aspects of extinct life
paleoanthropology the science concerned with primitive
pre-human and human ancestral types
palisade the chloroplast-containing layer of leaf cells
just under the upper epidermis
pancreas a small organ near the stomach and duodenum
which secretes three categories of enzymes in
pancreatic juice during digestion; it also produces and
secretes the hormone insulin into the bloodstream
parasite an organism that lives in or on the body of
another organism and derives nourishment, shelter,
protection or means of reproduction from its host. It
may or may not be pathogenic
parasitism relationship in which one organism lives in or
on another organism and feeds from it.
parasympathetic pertaining to that part of the peripheral
(autonomic) nervous system that works in opposition
to the sympathetic system by inhibiting organ action
parthenogenesis growth of an organism from an
unfertilised egg
passive transport the movement of a substance that does
not require the expenditure of cellular energy, e.g.
osmosis and transpiration
pathogen a parasite, organ or virus that causes disease in
the host
pentadactyl limb the forelimb of vertebrates
peptide bond the chemical bond that joins the acid group
of one amino acid to the amino group of another
perfluorocarbons compounds used as blood substitutes
perforin a protein (enzyme) released by T-cells when
they attach to a infected cell that makes holes in the
target cell’s membrane
pericycle a cylinder of parenchyma surrounding root
vascular tissues, capable of producing secondary roots
peristalsis wavelike muscular contractions
pesticides chemicals used to control pests
pH a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance;
it relates to the relative concentration of hydrogen
ions in a solution
phagocyte a cell that engulfs foreign particles or cells
pharynx the back portion of the oral cavity that leads to
the oesophagus
phenotype the physical appearance of an organism
phloem a living tissue that transports plant nutrients
(e.g. sucrose); composed of sieve tubes and their
companion cells
phospholipid a fat molecule that contains phosphate
groups (PO4), e.g. cell membrane lipid
photoperiodism the behavioural response of an organism
to the length of uninterrupted darkness or light
photophosphorylation part of the �light phase’ of
photosynthesis; uses light energy to convert ADP into ATP
photoreceptor a specialised energy sensory cell that
responds to light, e.g. rod and cone cells of the retina
photosynthesis the chemical process by which
chlorophyll-containing plant cells use light to make
organic compounds from inorganic ones. The solar
energy is then trapped as chemical energy in the
organic compounds e.g. sugars
phycoerythrin a red pigment in plants
phyllode a leaf stalk that flattens to reduce water loss
phylogeny the evolutionary history of a species
physiology the study of body organ and tissue
phytoplankton microscopic aquatic plants
pigment a coloured substance
pituitary a pea-sized endocrine gland attached to the
base of the brain; it secretes a variety of hormones
that generally regulate body metabolism
placenta a tissue for the nourishment of the embryo or
placental a mammal that forms a placenta during
plasma the liquid portion of the blood; it transports
soluble nutrients, wastes and proteins
plasma cells B-cells that act immediately when an
antigen is present
plasmolysis the shrinking of the cell membrane as it
pulls away from the cell wall due to the loss of water
into the external (hypertonic) environment
plate tectonics theory that the Earth’s crust is made of
plates that float and drift
pneumatophore roots that protrude into the air, providing
a surface for gas exchange e.g. in mangroves
polar having one positive end and one negative end
pollination transfer of pollen to the stigma of flowers
polygenic controlled by more than one gene (pair of alleles)
polymer a large molecule composed of a number of
small molecules (called monomers) bonded together
polymerase chain reaction technique where many pure
copies of a piece of DNA are made
polymorphism different types of organisms of the same
species with distinctive characteristics , e.g. race or
the differences male and female birds where the male
is often larger and more colourful than the female.
polynucleotide a polymer composed of nucleotide
polyploidy multiple whole sets of chromosomes per cell
polysaccharide a complex carbohydrate, e.g. starch; a
polymer of monosaccharides (simple sugars)
polysome a series of ribosomes that move along the
mRNA so that the genetic code is translated into a
polypeptide – a polypeptide at each ribosome
pons a band of nerve fibres connecting the lobes of the
midbrain, medulla and cerebrum
positive feedback a response to a change that re-enforces
the change
predator-prey relationship see predation
predation a relationship on which one organism eats
another. Also called �predator-prey relationship’
predator an organism which preys on other organisms
prehensile a limb or hand that is adapted for grasping or
wrapping around something
prehominid an animal possessing a few human-like
physical characteristics that may have directly or
indirectly contributed to the evolution of humans
prey the animal which is killed and eaten by another
primate an animal with forward facing eyes, limbs with
five digits (fingers and toes), an opposable thumb,
grasping forelimbs and a relatively large brain. It has
nails instead of claws and four types of teeth
primer a piece of a molecule that acts as a starting point
for the synthesis for more of the molecule
principle of superposition principle that states that as
rocks formed, older rocks were buried by newer rocks
prion an infective protein that causes the degeneration
of brain tissue
procaryote an organism with no nucleus nor membranebound organelles in its cells
producer see autotroph
prostaglandins group of chemicals released by
damaged tissues and by some leucocytes during an
inflammatory response
protease an enzyme that breaks down (digests) protein
proteasomes a structure in the cytoplasm of cells that
degrades or breaks down unwanted proteins
protein a polymer of amino acids that may be folded
into a specific shape
proteoid roots fine roots, an adaptation to nutrient poor
Protists the kingdom containing the mainly unicellular
eucaryotic organisms and organisms that are difficult
to classify
protoplasm the cytoplasm and the nucleus of a cell
pseudopods �false feet’
pulmonary circulation blood circulation from the heart,
passing through the lungs and returning to the heart
punctuated equilibrium the theory that evolution has
proceeded in rapid bursts followed by periods of little
pure bred see homozygous
pyrogens chemicals that set the body’s temperature at a
higher level to cause fever
quadrats measured sample areas used for data collection
in field studies
quarantine a period of isolation to allow time for the
infectious stages of a disease to pass and/or treatment
to be completed
radiometric dating the dating of rocks and/or organisms
using radio active isotopes
rainforest a distinctive ecosystem of tall flowering trees,
palms, ferns and a dense canopy (70–100% cover)
random segregation (independent assortment)
independent separation of chromosome pairs with
respect to other chromosome pairs in meiosis
reabsorption the absorption of substances (that have
been lost by filtration) back into the blood from the
kidney tubule
receptors molecules or cells that detect a stimulus
recessive an allele that is only expressed in the absence
of the dominant allele
recombinant DNA DNA that has DNA from another
species spliced into it
refraction the bending of light
renal relating to or affecting the kidneys
renal system kidney system
reproduction production of a new organism and the
passing on of characteristics form one generation to
the next
reproductive cells see gametes
residual magnetism the magnetic orientation of rocks
retained since their formation
resolution (resolving power) the ability of a lens to
separate two close objects so that they can be seen
as separate objects and not as a blurred image or the
minimum distance apart that two objects can be and
still be seen as separate objects.
resource anything used by an organism
resource partitioning the use of scarce resources by a
number of species that require them - by using them at
different times, in different places or in different ways
respiration the breakdown of glucose, or some other
fuel molecule, using oxygen to produce energy in the
form of ATP
respiratory surfaces surfaces at which gas exchange
occurs such as alveoli, gills
restriction enzyme (endonuclease) an enzyme that cuts
DNA at specific sites
restriction endonucleases enzymes that can restrict the
growth of another organism by cutting its DNA
retina inner layer of the eye which contains the
photoreceptors, a pigment layer and nerves and blood
retranslocation the transport of carbohydrate from
storage sites to other parts of the plant
retrovirus a virus with genetic information as RNA. It
codes for an enzyme, reverse transcriptase, which
transcribes the RNA into DNA
Rh factor an antigen that may (or may not) be present
on the membrane of human blood cells (and that of
some related species)
ribonucleic acid (RNA) a single stranded nucleic acid
concerned with the synthesis of proteins
ribosomes the organelles found throughout the cell
which function as sites for protein synthesis
RNA see ribonucleic acid
RNA polymerase an enzyme that catalyses the synthesis
of RNA
rod cells photoreceptors present in composing the retina
of the eye, which provide vision under dim light
conditions (night vision)
root pressure the hydrostatic pressure of water that
forces water across the plant root
rough endoplasmic reticulum see endoplasmic reticulum
ruminants animals that digest their food in a three- or
four-chambered stomach, which is specialised for a
herbivore's diet
saprophyte an organism (bacterium, fungus) that takes
its nutrition from dead organisms
scanning electron microscope an electron microsope
in which electrons are bounced off a specimen to
produce a three-dimensional image
sclereid cells supporting plant tissue consisting of cells
with thick, lignified walls
sclerophyll vegetation with tough leaves and thick
cuticle reducing water loss
scrub dense low-lying vegetation 2-5 metres tall as
distinct from heath in which the plants are less than 2
metres tall
seafloor spreading the extension of the sea floor outwards
caused by volcanic activity at sea floor vents.
sebaceous gland oil-secreting gland in the skin
secondary tissue secondary xylem and phloem produced
by the cambium in woody plants causing an increase
in root and stem diameter
second-order consumer an animal that eats first-order
secretion the release of substances from one area to
another in plants or animals
sedimentary rock rock produced in layers as sediment
falls. Fossils are mainly found in sedimentary rock
seed a plant embryo and its food supply
seedling a young plant grown from seed
segmented containing sections
selective breeding the choosing of pairs to mate in order
to produce offspring with particular characteristics
selectively permeable barriers allowing some substances
through and not others (usually applied to a
self-fertilisation fertilisation between gametes from the
same individual
sensory neuron a nerve cell that relays chemoelectrical
information from a sensory receptor to the central
nervous system
serum blood plasma without fibrinogen
sexual with male and female gametes
sex cells see gametes
sex linkage where some genes for non-sexual
characteristics are linked to genes for sexual
characteristics by being on the same chromosome (one
of the sex chromosomes usually the X chromosome)
shrubland an ecosystem consisting mainly of shrubs
(about 2–10 m tall) that is more open (less dense)
than scrub
sieve tube a column of living phloem cells that transport
sugar-rich nutrients (sap)
single-stranded polynucleotide a polymer of nucleotides
that is a single-strand and not a double helix
smooth endoplasmic reticulum see endoplasmic reticulum
soil erosion the movement of soil from one place to
Southern blotting a technique used to identify a
sequence of DNA by transferring bands (DNA
fragments) from a gel to a membrane then visualising
the bands
somatic cells diploid cells
species a group of interbreeding organisms that share
the same gene pool
sphincter a circular band of muscle that regulates the
passage of food or solid wastes from one area of the
digestive tract to another, or to the outside of the body
sphygmomanometer instrument used to measure blood
spindle a structure composed of fibres that develops
during mitosis and is responsible for the separation
and migration of chromosomes
spiracle openings to respiratory tubes in insects
spleen an elongated organ near the stomach; it produces
white blood cells, stores red blood cells and destroys
old blood cells
spongy mesophyll layer of cells in a leaf, with large air
spaces between cells
spontaneous generation the theory that living matter
spontaneously arises from non-living matter
spore a cell that can produce a new organism without
fertilisation; also used to describe the dormant stage
of bacteria
sporoza a type of protozoan that has no motion and
reproduces by spores but also by gametes
steroid a group of cyclic carbon compounds that are fatsoluble and not water soluble and therefore classed as
stimulus something that causes a response
stomates or stomata the pores on the surface of a leaf
surrounded by two guard cells (singular—stoma)
stratigraphic correlation a comparison of rock strata
that contain similar indicator fossils. Strata or layers
that contain similar fossils are considered to be the
same age.
stroma the matrix surrounding the grana in a chloroplast
stromatolites colonies of cyanobacteria that have been
trapped in calcium carbonate deposits and, in this
way, have been fossilised
structural characteristics characteristics based on body
structures (or morphology)
subduction zones sites where plates collide, with one
plate being destroyed as it moves beneath the other
substitution mutation see base substitution
substrate the substance on which an enzyme acts
succession the natural process in which communities
replace previously existing communities
succulents fleshy plants that store water in their stems
or leaves
sugar sink site where sugar is required in a plant
sugar source site where sugar is made in abundance in
a plant
surface area the total area of the surface of an object
sweat glands glands that release water; which are part of
the cooling system in mammals
symbiosis a close long-term association between
organisms of different species
sympathetic the part of the autonomic nervous system
that stimulates organ or tissue activity and is opposed
by the parasympathetic nerves
symptoms the outward signs of the presence of a disease
synapse a microscopic gap between two nerve cells,
across which the nerve impulse is transmitted by a
chemical transmitter substance
synthesised made
systemic circulation blood circulation that begins with
the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart,
passing through body arteries, capillaries and veins, to
the right atrium of the heart
systolic pressure blood pressure reading obtained when
the ventricles of the heart contract
taxonomy the science of the classification of living
template a molecule that acts as a model for the
synthesis of another molecule
terrestrial (animal or plant) living on land or a land
territorial behaviour behaviour in which an animal
establishes and defends an area
tetraploid a cell with four sets of chromosomes
thalamus the �gatekeeper’ of the brain i.e. the relay
centre through which nerve impulses pass to the
cerebral cortex
theory a highly probable explanation of something
based on a large amount of evidence
thermoacidophiles a group of Archaea bacteria that
live in hot springs and very high temperature
thermoreceptor sensory receptors that respond to
temperature changes
thrombosis clotting
thylakoids stacks of disk-shaped structures that contain
chlorophyll found inside a chloroplast
thymine one of five bases composing nucleic acid
tissue a group of cells with the same structure and
tissue culture growth of groups of similar cells extracted
from organisms in an artificial medium
torpor dormant state of lowered metabolic rate
toxin a harmful chemical produced by some microbes
trachea the principal tubular passageway (windpipe) that
conducts air between the oral-nasal cavity and the lungs
tracheae (in insects) network of tubes transporting
gases; it's how air enters their bodies
tracheid long, tapered xylem cells with pitted walls that
transport and distribute water and mineral ions; found
mostly in conifers
transcription the transfer of the genetic code on DNA to
the genetic code on m-RNA
transcriptor factors substances that turn on genes in
sequence during limb development
transect straight line cross-section of an area
transgenic species species that have had genes
artificially inserted from other species
transition fossils fossils that appear to have the
characteristics of two different groups of organisms
translation the conversion of the information in the
genetic code into the sequence of amino acids in a
translocation the movement of sugars and small
amounts of other nutrients through the phloem
vessels in a plant
translocation (chromosome mutation) the genes from
one chromosome are added to another chromosome
transmission microscope an electron microscope which
transmits electrons through a specimen to produce a
two-dimensional image
transpiration the loss of water from the leaves of plants
transpiration pull the pull or tension on water in the
xylem vessels due to water being lost by transpiration
from the leaves
transpiration stream the movement of water up through
the xylem vessels of a plant
transposons sections of DNA that move to other parts of
the same chromosome or other chromosomes
trilobite an extinct organism with the characteristics of
an arthropod
triplet code groups of three bases (codons) that code for
an amino acid
triploid three complete sets of chromosomes per cell
trisomy three homologous chromosomes rather than the
normal two
trophic level the level occupied by a consumer in a food
chain; also known as a feeding level
tropism a directional growth in response to an external
turgor pressure the pressure directed against the cell
wall after the cell has swollen due to osmosis
undernutrition a condition of poor health resulting from
an insufficient intake of nutrients
unicellular consisting of a single cell
uracil a nucleic acid base that substitutes for thymine in
RNA molecules
urea a type of nitrogen waste
ureter one of two tubes that conduct urine from the
kidney pelvis to the bladder
urethra a small canal that drains the bladder, eliminating
urine to the outside of the body
uric acid a nitrogenous waste product
urinary system system involved in the elimination of urine
urine the urea-rich fluid (or semi-solid in reptiles and
birds) excreted by the kidneys and temporarily stored
in the bladder
urogenital surfaces linings of the excretory and
reproductive systems
vaccination the administration of a vaccine to produce
vaccine a serum or plasma sample containing weakened
or dead pathogens
vacuole a cellular, membrane-bound cavity containing
fluid or a nutrient solid or waste
variation differences in a population of organisms
varicose veins swollen veins, usually in the legs, that
often protrude
vascular any tubular tissue that transports a liquid
around the body
vascular bundle structures containing xylem, phloem
and supportive cells; bundles transport water, mineral
ions and sucrose
vector an organism that transfers a disease to another
vein a blood vessel that transports blood towards the heart
vena cava one of the two major veins that deliver blood
to the right atrium of the heart
ventricle one of the two lower heart chambers
venule a small vein
vernalisation the cold treatment required by some plants
or their seeds before they can produce new growth or
flower in the correct season
vessel cells thick-walled, tubular xylem cells or vessels
villi tiny, finger-like structures that extend from the
inner lining of the small intestine and absorb digested
virion a single virus particle
viroid an RNA molecule that can invade plant cells and
cause disease
virus a microscopic particle composed of a central core of
either DNA or RNA surrounded by an outer protein coat.
viscosity the tendency of a material to resist movement
through it
waste useless products remaining after the use of resources
waste heat heat energy that is put to no use
water potential the tendency of a system to donate
water; it is a measure of the degree of/amount of
water held in a system
wild type phenotype or genotype most commonly found
in the natural population of any given organism
woodland a distinctive ecosystem with a sparse canopy
of trees (10–30% cover)
xerophyte a plant that is adapted to low water conditions
xylem the water and mineral conducting hollow tubes
extending from roots to leaves
zooplankton microscopic aquatic animals
zygote a cell formed by the fusion of a male and female
Abbe, Ernst 70
Defined 11
Factors in the environment 18–19
Terrestrial and aquatic
environments 21–4
Abomasum 99
Absorbance spectrum of water 25–6
Animal 55–6
Capture-marking-recapture technique
Defined 13
Estimating 15–16
Factors determining 18–20
Of organisms 13–16, 18–20
Plants in ecosystems 53–4
Accommodation of the eye lens 587
Acidity 453
Activators (protein) 562
Cells 81, 462
Transport 82, 331
Acute 435
Animal 7, 26–7
In arid environments 340–3
Behavioural 6
Defined 9
Organisms in your environment 6–9
Physiological 6
Plants 8, 343
Adaptive immune response (See specific
immune response)
Adaptive radiation 374
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) 75, 93
Aerobic metabolism 178–82
African sleeping sickness 435
Agglutination 464, 514
Agricultural ecosystems 43
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome) 433
Air, and disease transmission 425
Air pollution 44
Aldosterone 333, 336
Green, red and brown 26
Single celled 71
Alimentary canal 97, 453
Alleles 382
Allelopathy 33
Allergens 438
Allergy 438
Amino acids 86, 161, 394
Ammonia 126–7
Amoebic dysentery 435
Anaerobic metabolism 176–8
Anantiostasis 337–9
Angina pectoris 485
Abundance 55–6
Adaptation 7, 26–7
Australian 218–22
Cells 83, 131–3
Defined 194–5
Distribution 55–6
Gas exchange 101–7
Heat loss and gain 300–1
Infectious diseases in 430–9
Light receptors in 593–4
Nutrition 96–100
Quarantine 446
Transport 113–15
Anorexia nervosa 480–1
Anoxic environment 176–8
Anterior cavity 584
Antibiotics 490–1
Antibodies 438, 460
Antibody-mediated immunity 460
Anticoagulant 441
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 333–5
Antigens 436, 455
Aphids 439
Ecosystems 45
Environments 21–4, 25–7
Organisms and waste products 126–7
Aqueous humour 584
Archaea 180, 187–9
Archaea domain 186
Archaeopteryx 362
Arid ecosystems 227–8
Arteries 309–10
Arterioles 309
Artificial blood 314–15
Artificial insemination 401–2
Artificial pollination 402
Ascomycetes 439
Asexual reproduction 247–8, 263, 557–60
Assimilation 85
Asthma 437
Atherosclerosis 484
ATP (See Adenosine triphosphate (ATP))
Auditory association area 612
Auditory nerve 602
Auricle 601
Australia’s origins 212–17
Autoradiography 533
Autotrophs 85, 171
Axons 607
B-lymphocytes 459, 463–4
Bacon, Francis 160
Cause of disease 432–5, 439
Chemosynthetic 85
Deep sea 191
Environments 189
Evolution 178
Nitrogen-fixing 179, 189, 191
Resistance to antibiotics 371–2
Balance and the ear 604–5
Banksias 8, 232–3
Base substitution mutation 551
Basophils 456
Bateson and Punnet 526–7
Beadle and Tatum 394
Bernard, Claude 294
Binge eating 481
Biochemical similarities of living things
Biodiversity 245–6
Biological levels of organisation 64–5
Bioluminescence 26
Biomagnification 44–6
Biomass pyramids 40
Biotic 11
Circulatory system 113–15, 116–17
Excretion in 127–8
Black rot 439
Artificial 314–15
Cells 309, 349–51
Gas analyser 318
Groups 514–13
Haemorrhage 485
Movement in circulatory system
113–15, 119
Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels
Pressure 484–5
Products 310–11
Regulation of salt and water 333–6
Rh factor 514
Transport of substances 307–11
Type 474
Vessels 309–10
Blubber 301
Bone marrow 460
Borers 439
Boveri, Theodor 385–6
Bowman’s capsule 330
Breathing 105–7
Breeding 255–6
Brown, Robert 64, 81
Brownian motion 64, 81
Bubonic plague 468
Bulimia 481
Buoyancy 21
Burnett, Sir Macfarlane 465
Butterflies 439
Cairns-Smith, Alexander 176
Cambium 133
Candidiasis 436, 437
Cannon, Walter 294
Capillaries 118, 309–10, 321
technique 15–16
Carbohydrate molecules 82–3, 87
Carbon, chemistry of 85
Carbon dioxide 22, 307
Carbon-oxygen cycle 30
Cardiac arrest 485
Carnivores 29, 39, 96–7
Cataracts 588–90
Cell differentiation 72–3
Cell-mediated immunity 460
Cell organelles 74–5
Cell surface molecules 473
Cell theory 64–6, 69–70
Active 81, 462
Animal 83, 131–3
Autotrophic 171
Body 519–20, 606
Cycle 131
Diploid 249, 519–20, 550
Division 129, 131–4, 395
Eucaryotic 78, 171–3
Gametes 248, 250
Germ-line 520
Growth 129
Haploid 249, 519–20, 550
Heterotrophic 171
Membranes 75, 77–8, 79–83
Memory 465
Movement of substances in and
out 79–83
Nucleus 74
Nutrition 91
Passive 81
Photoreceptor 593–4
Plant 83, 94, 108
Plasma 462
Procaryotic 78, 171–3
Reproductive 380, 519–20
Somatic 248, 552
Surface area to volume ratio 89–91
Wall 78
Waste products of 91
Cellular respiration 22
Centromere 520
Cerebral artery disease 485
Chemical compounds
In cells and their function 85
Tests for 142–3
On earth before cells 157
From outer space 157
Chemokines 458
Chemoreceptor cells 578
Bacteria 85
Origin of life 157
Chickenpox 433
Chlorophyll 26, 29, 75
Chloroplasts 75, 94
Cholera 434, 435
Cholesterol 484
Choroid 583
Chromoplasts 75
Chromosomes 74, 248, 385–6
And Down syndrome 480
Homologous 382
Mapping 525–29
Mutations 549–50
Structure 520, 521
X and Y 389
Chronic 435
Chylomicron 309–10
Cilia 453
Ciliary body 584
Circulatory systems
And blood movement 113–15, 119
Compared 116–19
Invertebrates 115
Vertebrates 113–15, 116–19
Cladistic classification 201
Cladodes 343
Classification hierarchy
Domain system 185–6, 195, 197–8
Kingdom systems 194–5, 196–7
Superkingdom system (See Domain
Classification keys 195, 196–7
Classification of organisms 192–8,
205–6 (See also Classification
hierarchy; Classification keys)
Binomial system 193–4
And DNA 202
And electron microscopes 202
Extinct organisms 200–2
Morphology 193, 201
Climate 18
Clonal selection theory 464–6
Cloning 403–4, 532, 557–60
Co-dominance and sex linkage 388–91
Cochlea 602
Codon 393, 503, 551
Coenocytic cell 174
Coenzymes 285
Cogswell, Carol 64
Colloid 325
Colonies of cells 174
Colour and communication 595–6
Colour blindness 389, 594–5
Commensalism 33
And hearing 618–22
And vision 615–17
Defined 12
And ecosystems 12
And evolution 360
And natural selection 232, 369–76
Between organisms 34–5
Complement system of proteins 458–9,
Complementary bases 393
Compound eye 596
Concentration gradient 81
Congestive heart failure 485
Conjunctiva 583
Consumers 38
Continental drift 160, 213–17
Convergent evolution 374–5
Copulation 251
Core temperature 300
Cornea 583, 584
Coronary arteries 485
Cortex, of the kidney 127
Crick, Francis 393, 413
Cristae 75
Crocodiles 118
Crystallins 588–90
Cultural beliefs 183–4
Cusps 97
Cuticle 93, 108
Cyanobacteria 71, 171, 189, 191
Cytokinesis 129, 174
Cytoplasm 74, 76
Cytoskeleton 78
Darwin, Charles 167, 366, 369–70, 376
DDT 44–5
Deamination 126
Decomposers 30, 38, 42
Deep-sea bacteria 191
Dendrites 606
Density 15
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 73–74, 76,
87, 129, 171, 248, 392–6, 505–06
Control of polypeptide synthesis 395
And evolution 396
Extraction 566–7
Fingerprinting 532–5
Function in the cell 393
Hybridisation 398–400, 533
Modelling 566
And mutations 395
Recombinant DNA technology 530–6,
Repair 552–3
Replication 395
Sequencing 398–400
Structure 392–3
Depth perception 597
Desert environments 43
Diapause 302
Diastolic pressure 485
Dichotomous key 204
Differentiation, cell 72–3
Diffusion 138–40
And cells 81–2
Gases 22
Gradient 102
Digestive systems
Carnivore 96–7, 99
Herbivore 96, 97–8, 99
Human 97–8
Nectar feeder 99–100
Role of mammalian teeth 97
Dihybrid crosses 383, 520, 522–5
Diphtheria 434, 470
Diploid cells 249, 519–20, 550
Disease (See also Infectious disease;
Non-infectious disease; Prevention and
control of disease)
Aspects 424–5
Caused by bacteria 432–5, 439
Caused by fungi 436, 439
Caused by macroparasites 438, 439
Caused by microflora imbalance 438
Caused by parasites in plants 439
Caused by prions 430–1
Caused by protozoans 435–6
Caused by viroids 439
Caused by viruses 431–2, 439
Control 425
Defined 422
Environmental factors 422
And heredity 422
Infectious 424, 427–9
Non-infectious 424, 479–86
Nutritional 424
Plant 439
Transmission 425
Types 424–6
Distal tube 330
And abundance measuring 14–15
Defined 13
Factors determining 18–20
Of organisms 13–16, 18–20
Of plants 52–3
Diuresis 334
Divergent evolution 374
DNA (See Deoxyribonucleic acid)
Domain system 185–6, 195, 197–8
Dominance 383, 391
Double helix 393
Down, J. Langdon 480
Down syndrome 480
Dutch elm disease 439
Dutrochet, Henri 64
Dystrophin 552
Ear, structure and function 601–5
Eardrum 601
Early history 154, 160
Geological history 165
Structure 159
Defined 11
And environment 11
Ecosystems (See also Agricultural
ecosystems; Aquatic, ecosystems;
Natural ecosystems; Urban ecosystem)
Abiotic factors 11, 18–19
And abundance 13, 53–5
Biotic factors 11
And communities 11–12
Cycling of matter 29–31
Defined 11
Distribution of major Australian 224–8
Disturbed 42–6
Energy transfer through 28
Flow of energy and matter 28–31
Human impact upon 42–6, 48–52
Measuring physical characteristics 48–
Rainforest 226
Sclerophyll forest 226–7
Sea floor 190
Semi-arid and arid 227
Sustainability 46
Undisturbed 42–6
Woodland 227
Ectoparasites 424
Ectotherms 301–4
Eigen, Manfred 176
Electromagnetic spectrum 580–2
Electron microscope 69–70, 161
Electrophoresis gel 541
Embedded proteins 82
Embryology 364–5
Embryonic development 561–5
Endoparasites 424
Endoplasmic reticulum 75–6, 79
Endosymbiosis 172–3
Endotherms 301–4
Flow in an ecosystem 28–31
Pyramids 40
Transfer and loss 28
Transfer through ecosystems 28
Use by organisms 28
Use in ecosystems 43
Enterobiasis 437
Environment 189 (See also Aquatic,
environment; Freshwater environment;
Marine environment)
And adaptation 9
Anoxic 176–8
And ecology 11
Of living things, diverse 175
Oxic 178–82
Active site 284
Chemical nature 284
Coenzymes 285
Cofactors 285
Defined 283–4
Denaturation 287
Essential role in metabolism 289
Factors that affect activity 286–9,
Induced fit model 285
Lock and key model 285
And metabolic pathways 289
PH 287, 347–8
Restriction 532, 533
Specificity 284
Substrate 284
Substrate concentration 288–9
Eosinophils 456
Epidemiology 475–479
Epidermis 93, 108–9
Epitope 464
Equine influenza 447–8
Ergot 439
Estuarine environment 337–8
Eucalypts 193, 230–1, 232–3
Eucaryotic cells 78, 171–3, 174
Eustachian tube 602
Evaporation (transpiration)-tensioncohesion 321
Adaptive radiation 374
Analogous structures 375
Of Australian plants 229–33
Of bacteria 178
And the changing chemical
environment 358–9
And the changing physical
environment 359–60
Chemical 170–1
And classification 201
And competition 34–5, 360
Convergent 374–5
Divergent 374
Evidence for 361–7
Isolation 232
Major events 363
Natural selection 232, 369–76
Of organic molecules 155–8
Punctuated equilibrium 375
Variation 232
Evolutionary change 358–360
Evolutionary relationships and new
technologies 398–400
Excretory systems 126–8, 324–7
Ammonia 126–7
Birds 127–8
Deamination 126
Fish 126–7, 329
Insects 128
Kidneys 127
Mammals 127, 329
Urea 126–7
Uric acid 126
Exons 510
Extracellular fluid 80
Extremophiles 187
Eye (See also Vision)
Focal length 587
Human 583–5
And refraction 586–591
Eye cup 596
Facioliasis 437, 438
Faeces 325
Family pedigree 389
Farrer, William 403
Fatty acids 86
Fauna (See also Megafauna)
Australian 218–22
Feedback and the nervous system 296–8
Fermentation, in respiration 317
Fertilisation 248–9, 250–1
Fibre 325
Fibringen 307
Filtration and reabsorption in
kidneys 331
First-order consumers 38
Fish 102–3
Estuarine 337–8
Excretion in 126–7
Flagellum 435
Flannery, Tim 239–41
Fleming, Alexander 33
Flemming, Walther 65
Fluid mosaic model 80–1
Chains 38–9
And chemical compounds 85
And the transmission of disease
Webs 38–40, 56–7
Fossil fuels 43
Fossils 361–5
Australian 172, 265–7
Evidence and continental drift 214
Formation 164
Records 163–8
Similarities to present-day organisms
Sites 222
Fovea 584
Frameshift mutation 551
Franklin,Rosalind 393, 413
Freshwater environment 329
Frogs 99, 103–5, 251
Fucoxanthin 26
Fungi kingdom 195
Fusion of cells 248
Gametes 248, 250, 519–20, 520
Gametocytes 443
Gas exchange
In animals 101–7
Defined 101
In fish 102–3
In frogs 103–5
In humans 105–7
In insects 103, 104
In plants 108–11
And roots 110–11
In stems 109–10
Availability of 22
Diffusion of 22
Gel electrophoresis 533, 541
Cascades 562
Cloning 403–4, 532, 557–60
Expression 508, 561–5, 564
Homologues 562–3
Mutations 549–50
Therapy 546–8
Genes 248, 386
Defined 506
And embryonic development 561–5
And evolution 562–3
Jumping 553
Linkage 567–8
Their evolution 563–4
Genetic code 503–4
Genetic diversity 255–6
Genetic mapping 537–42
Genetics 378
Change 548–54
Nature of species 555–7
Genital herpes 432–3
Genotype 383
Genus 194
Germ cell gene therapy 547
Giardiasis 435, 436
Glaciers, distribution 215
Glandular fever 433
Globins 564
Glomerulus 330
Glottis 599
Its role in photosynthesis 92–3
Transport and phloem 123–4
Glycerol 86
Glycolipids 80
Glycoproteins 80, 83, 461, 473
Golgi bodies 75, 77
Gondwana 218–19
Grana 75, 93
Grassland, arid 228
Greenhouse effect 43
Growth, of cells 129
Guard cells 123
Haemagglutinin 449
Haemoglobin (HA) 312–15
Haemoglobin saturation 564313–14
Haemophilia 389
Haemorrhage 485
Haldane, J.B.S
Halophiles 187
Haploid cells 249, 519–20, 550
Health, and the influence of genes 422–3
Heart 114
Heart attack 485
Conduction 14
Loss and gain in animals 300–1
Heavy metals 44–6
Hepatitis 433
Herbivores 29, 39, 96–8
Heredity 378 (See also Inheritance)
Herpes simplex 432, 433
Herpes viricella-zoster 432, 433
Heterocysts 180
Heterotrophs 85, 171
Heterozygous 382
Hierarchy of classification 185–98
Histamine 438, 458
Hole in the heart 485
Homeostasis 291–5, 297–8, 324–7
Homologous structures 364–5
Homologue genes 562–3
Homology 406
Homozygous 382
Honey possum 99–100
Hooke, Robert 64, 69–70
Hormone replacement therapy for
aldosterone 336
Aldosterone 333, 336
Antidiuretic (ADH) 333–5
Regulation of water and salt in the
blood 333–6
Host 33, 424
House dust mite 437, 438
Hoyle, Fred 157
Human Genome Project 503, 537–46,
Digestive system 97–8
Gas exchange 105–7
Impacts on ecosystem 42–6, 48–52
Quarantine 446
Wants and sustainable ecosytems 46
Hybridisation 402–3
Hybrids 382
Hydatid disease 437
Hydrophilic 80
Hydrophobic 80
Hyperopia 588
Hypertension 484–5
Hypertonic solutions 83
Hypothalamus 298, 334
Hypothermia 22
Hypothesis, defined 66
Hypotonic solutions 83
Imago 133
Immune system
Antigens 455
Antimicrobial proteins 458–9
Cell death 459
Defence adaptations 454–9
Inflammation response 457–8
Macrophages 457
And organ transplants 473–5
Phagocytosis 456–7
Relationship to symptoms 456
And the role of leucocytes 455–6
The specific immune response 459–67
And transplants 473–5
Immunisation 468, 469, 471, 472
Immunity 471
Immunoglobulins 460, 463
Immunological memory 465
Immunological tolerance 465, 466
Incus 601
Independent assortment 524
Infarction 485
Infection prevention
Advances in immunisation 469
How vaccines work 471
Immunisation and vaccination 468
Types of immunity 471, 472
Types of vaccines 468–70
And the work of Edward Jenner 468
Infectious disease 424
In animals and plants 430–9
History 427–9
The role of Louis Pasteur 427–8
The role of Robert Koch 428–9
Influenza 433, 449–51, 470
Prevention 451
Ingestion 85
Inheritance 386
In humans 389
Influence of the environment on 390
Variations from Mendelian ratios 390
Inner ear 602
Insects 103–4, 128, 327
Insulation, in animals 303
Interferons 458
Interleukin-2 461
Interneurons 607
Introns 510
Invertebrates 115
Availability 22–3
Mineral 88
Iris 583, 584
Isolation in evolution 232, 372–3
Isotonic solutions 83
Isotopes 161, 162
Jansenn, Hans and Zacharias 64
Jenner, Edward 468–9, 488
Jerne, Niels 464–5
Kangaroos 33, 99, 194, 254–5
Keys, classification 195, 196–7
Kidney and urinary system in
mammals 127, 329–30
Kingdom systems 194–5, 196
Koch, Robert 428–9
Lacteals 309
Larynx 599
Laurasia 218–19
Law of independent assortment 379
Law of segregation 379
Leaf spot 439
And gas exchange 108–9
Internal structure 108–9
Starch production 144–5
Leeuwenhoek, Anton van 64, 69–70, 159
Legionnaires’ disease 432, 434
Lens of the eye 584
Lenticals 110
Leucoplasts 75
Absorbance spectrum in water 25–6
Availability 23
Detection by animals 581
Effect on starch production in
leaves 144–5
Perception and interpretation 606–14
Refraction in the eye 586–591
In water 23, 25–6
Light microscopes 67–8
Lightning Ridge 222
Lignotubers 233
Limiting factors 19
Linnaeus, Carolus 193
Lipid bilayer 80
Lipids 87, 309–10
Lobe-fin fish 364
Loop of Henle 330
Lumen 309–10
Lymphatic system 118, 119, 455, 460
Lymphocytes 456, 459, 460–1, 462–4
Lysis 459
Lysosome 75, 453
Lysozyme 453, 458
M-RNA 503
Macrophages 456, 457
Macroscopic parasites 424, 438–9
Magnetism, residual 216
Malaria 435, 436, 440–4
Malleus 601
Malnutrition 480
Malpighian tubules 128
Mammals 297–8
Circulatory system 113–15, 116
Digestive system 97
Excretion in 127
Teeth 97
Mangroves 111, 232, 338
Margulis, Lynn 173
Marine environment 329
Marsupials 253–5220–1
Mast cells 458
Matter cycling in ecosystems 28–31,
Mayr, Ernst 183
Measles 433, 470
Megafauna 239–44
Meiosis 248, 386, 407–10, 519, 520
Membrane structure 79–82
In cells 79–83
And the movement of substances 81–2
Membranes 74–5, 77–8
Biological 79–83
Modelling 137–8
Semi-permeable 81
Memory cells 462, 465
Mendel, Gregor 372, 378–81, 385, 390,
523, 525
Meningitis 470
Mercury poisoning 46
Meristems 133
Merozoites 442
Mesophytes 341
Messenger RNA 503
Metabolism 71, 91, 126, 176
Aerobic 178–82
Anaerobic 176–8
Malfunctioning 424
Rates 304
Methanogens 187, 188
MHC I and MHC II molecules 461
Microflora 438, 453
Microorganisms and disease 424
Microscopes 64–70
Electron 69–70
Hooke’s microscope 65
Leeuwenhoek’s microscope 65
Light 67–8
Resolving power 67
Scanning electron 69
Transmission 69
Microspheres 171
Mid-ocean ridges 160, 216
Middle ear 601
Migratory fish 338
Miller, Stanley 157
Mineral ions 88
Minerals 87
Mitochondria 75, 77
Mitosis 129, 131–4, 147, 395
Carbohydrate 82–3, 87
Cell surface 473
MHC I and MHC II molecules 461
Movement across membranes 81–2
Organic 85–7
Monera kingdom 197
Monocytes 456
Monohybrid crosses 382–384
Monomers 85–7
Monosaccharides 86
Monotremes 221, 235–8, 237–8
Morgan, Thomas Hunt 388
Morphology 193, 201
Moths 439
Motile 250
Motor neurons 607
Mucus 453
Multicellular organisms 64, 71–3, 173–4
Multiple alleles 513–15
Mumps 470
Murgon 222
Muscular dystrophy 551
Mutagens 396, 414
Mutations 182, 548–9, 548–52, 551, 568
Mutualism 33
Myocardial infarction 485
Myocardium 485
Myoglobins 564
Myopia 588
Naracoorte Cave 222
Natural ecosystems 42
Natural selection 232, 369–76, 411–12
Near point of vision 587
Nectar feeders 99–100
Nephrons 127, 330
Nerve fibres 608
Nerve impulses 608–11
Nervous system and feedback 296–8
Neurons 606–7
Neutralisation of antigens 464
Neutrophils 456, 457
Niche 7
Nicholson, Garth 81
Cycle 31, 190
Fixation 179
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria 189, 191
Nitrogenases 179–80
Non-infectious disease
Aboriginal nutritional disease 481
Cardiovascular disease 482–6
Down syndrome 480
Environmental diseases 481–2
Heavy metal poisoning 481–2
Inherited conditions 480
Kwashiorkor 481
Nutritional factors 480–1
Nucleic acids 86–7
Nucleolus 74
Nucleosomes 520
Nucleotides 393
Nucleus, cell 74
Animal 96–100
In living organisms 84–8
Plant 92–5
Nutritional diseases 424
Occlusion 484
Oil immersion 70
Olfactory sense 578
Omasum 99
Omnivores 39, 96
Ontogeny 364–5
Oparin, A.I. 157, 176
Operculum 102
Organ of Corti 602
Organ transplants
Cross species 559
And the immune system 473–5
Organelles 74–5, 135–7
Organic molecules 85–7
Function in living systems 87
Scientific theories about their
evolution 155–8
Organisation, levels of 64–5
Classification of 192–8
Distribution and abundance 13–16,
18–20, 25–7
Distribution of present day 215
Energy uses 28
Growth and repair 129
Interrelationships among 32–5
Multicellular 64, 71–3
And nutrition 84–8
On rock platforms 338
Unicellular 64, 71–3
Origins of life 155–62, 176–84
Osmoregulation 325
Osmosis 23, 81–2, 138–40, 329
Osmotic balance 325
Osmotic pressure 82, 83
Ossicles 601
Outer ear 601
Oxic environment 178–82
Oxygen 22, 176–82, 307
Transport in blood 313
Oxyhaemoglobin 313–14
Palaeontology 164, 166, 361
Palisade mesophyll cells 93, 108–9
Pangaea 218–19
Panting 303
Parasites 33, 438–9
Parthenogenesis 247–8, 256
Passive transport 82
Pasteur, Louis 70, 156, 157, 159, 427–8
Pathogens 33, 452–4
Penicillin 33
Perflourocarbons 315
Perforin 463
Peristalsis 128, 453
Pesticides 44, 487
Phagocytes 75, 456, 457
Phenotype 383, 410–11
Pheromones 578
Phloem 121–3
Phospholipid bilayer 80, 82
Photoreceptor cells 578, 593–4
Photorefractive keratotomy 588
Photosynthesis 28–9, 75, 85, 92–3
Phycoerythrin 26
Phyllodes 343
Phylogeny 201
Pigments 26
Pinna 601
Pituitary gland 297
Placentals 221–2
Plankton 71
Plants (See also Roots; Stems;
Abundance and distribution 52–5
Adaptation 8, 232–3
Australian 229–33
Cells 83, 94, 108
Defences against disease 439
Effects of isolation 232
Evolution of 229–33
And fire 231
Gas exchange 108–11
Mitosis 133–4
Movement of materials through 319–
Nutrition 92–5
Pathways of water movement 146–7
Photosynthesis 28–9, 75, 85, 92–3
Quarantine 446
Respiration 94
Structure 94
Transpiration 123, 145–7, 320–1
Transport system 120–4
Water evaporation 108, 305
Water transportation 122–3
Plasma 307, 311
Cells 462
Transport in 307–9
Plasmodesmata 78
Plasmodium 441–3
Plasmolysis 83
Plastids 75
Plate tectonics 160, 216–17
Platypus 235–8
Pneumatophores 111, 338
Pneumonia 434
Polar substances 82–3
Poliomyelitis 470
Pollen 252
Pollination 258–60
Pollution 43–6
Air 44
Water 44–6
Polygenetic inheritance 516–18
Polymerase chain reaction 533
Polymers 85–7
Polynucleotides 393, 503
Polypeptides 411, 507
Polyploidy 550
Polysaccharides 86
Polysome 506
Posterior cavity 584
Potato blight 439
Potato spindle-tuber disease 439
Precipitation of antigens 464
Predation 33, 45
Pressure-flow mechanism in
plants 322–3
Pressure variations 23–4
Prevention and control of disease 487–8
Prey 45
Primary auditory cortex 612
Primary visual cortex 612
Principle of superposition 160
Prions 430–1
Probability in genetics 383
Procaryotes 78, 171–3, 176–7, 184–91
Producers 38
Prostoglandins 458
Proteasomes 510
Protein synthesis 505–10, 512
Proteins 87
Embedded 82
Functional 395
Structural 395
Proteoid roots 232
Protists 173–4
Protoplasm 74
Protozoa 71, 435–6
Proximal tubule 330
Pulmonary circulation 114, 117
Pulse oximeter 318
Pupil 584
Pure bred 382
Pyrogens 458
Quadrats 15, 53–5
Quarantine in Australia 445–8
Radial keratotomy 588
Radioactive isotopes 161, 162
Radioactive tracers 124
Radiometric dating 160, 161, 162
Rainforests 226
Effect of European settlement 231
Randomised control trials 476
Receptor molecules 79
Receptors 579
Recessive 383
Recycling matter in ecosystems 30, 42–3,
Red kangaroo 194, 254–5
Redi, Francesco 70, 156, 159
Refraction and the eye 586–591
Religion, and the origins of life 183
Renal dialysis 31–2
Renal system 127
Replication 176
In animals 131
Repressors (protein) 562
Asexual 247–8, 263
In Australian animals 253–7
In Australian plants 258–63
Marsupial 253–5
The role of fire 263
Sexual 248–9
Technologies for 401–5
Types of 248
Reproductive cells 380
Reptiles 115, 116
Residual magnetism 216
Resolving power of microscopes 67, 70
Resource partitioning 360
Resources and organisms 19–20
Respiration 22 (See also Gas exchange)
Cellular 28
And photosynthesis 28–9, 93
Plant 94
Respiratory surfaces 453
Respiratory systems 324–5
Endonucleases 532
Enzymes 532–3
Reticulum 99
Retina 584
Retranslocation 123
Rh factor 514
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) 74, 87, 171, 394,
Ribosomal RNA 508
Ribosomes 75, 77, 503
Riversleigh 222
RNA (See Ribonucleic acid (RNA))
RNA polymerase 506
Rock formations and continental
drift 215
Root epidermis 111
And gas exchange 110–11
Surface area 123
Rough endoplasmic reticulum 75
Rubella 433, 470
Rumen 99
Ruminants 99
Rust disease 439
SA node (sino atrial node) 485
Salk, Jonas 469
Salts in plasma 309
Saprophytes 436
Scabies 437
Scanning electron microscope 69
Schistosomiasis 437
Schleiden, Matthias 64
Schwann, Theodor 64–5, 70
Science and cultural beliefs 183–4
Sclera 583
Sclerophyll forests 226–7, 230
Scrub 228
Seafloor ecosystems 31
Seafloor spreading 160
Second-order consumers 38
Sedimentary rock 361
Dispersal 260–1
Germination 261
Selective breeding 555
Selective permeable barriers 79
Self-regulating non-living systems 293–4
Semi-arid ecosystems 227
Semi-permeable membranes 81, 82
Senses 578–9
Sensory neurons 607
Serum, blood 307
Sex cells 519
Sex linkage 388–91
Sexual reproduction 173, 248–9, 387
Shrubland 228
Sickle-cell anaemia 551
Singer, Jonathon 81
Single-lens 596
Single-stranded polynucleotide 503
Skin 453
Smallpox 468, 488
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 75
Snails 252
Soil 18
Erosion 43
Somatic cells 248, 552
Somatic gene therapy 547
Sonic shadow 604
And communication 598–600
Detection by animals 616–17, 620–21
Perception and interpretation 606–14
Production by animals 618–20
Waves 599
Southern blotting 533
Spallanzani, Lazzaro 70, 156, 159
Defined 195
Interrelationships between
different 33–5
Transgenic 404–5
Specific immune response 459–67
Active cells 462
B-lymphocytes 459, 463–4
Clonal selection theory 464–6
Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes 462–3
Its activation and suppression 461–2
Lymphatic system 460
Lymphocytes 459, 460–1, 462–4
Memory cells 462
MHC I and MHC II molecules 461
T-lymphocytes 459, 460, 462–3
Sphygmomanometer 484
Spiders 7
Spiracles 103, 104
Spleen 460
Spongy mesophyll cells 93, 108–9
Spontaneous generation 156
Spore 250
Sporozoa 435
Sporozoite 441
Stapes 601
Stems and gas exchange 109–10
Stimulus-response model 578–9
Stomates 93, 108–9, 123
Their role in transpiration 147
Stratigraphic correlation 160–1
Stroma 95
Stromatolites 167–8
Structural malfunctioning 424
Subduction zones 217
Sugar 86
Sugar sink 321
Superkingdom system (See Domain
Surface area to volume ratio 71, 89–91
And cell activity 91
Its effect on diffusion 140–1
And plant structure 94
And rate of reaction 145
Survival of the fittest 370
Sustainability 46
Sutton, Walter 385–6
Sweat glands 303
Symbiosis 173
Synapse 607, 610–11
Systemic circulation 114–15
Systolic pressure 485
T cells 456, 458, 460
T-lymphocytes 459, 460, 462–3
Taeniasis 437
Tarsipes rostratus 99–100
Taxonomy 193
And cell theory development 69–70
Changes and the origin of life 159–62
Reproduction 401–5
Transgenic 405
And digestion 97
Structure and type 96
Change, animal response 299–304
Change, plant response 305–6
Core 300
And enzyme activity 287
Range for life 300
Variations 22, 224–8
Termites, use of procaryotes 187–8
Terrestrial environments, abiotic
factors 21–4
Tetanus 470
Tetraploid 550
Thermoacidophiles 187
Thrombosis 484
Thylakoids 93
Thymine 503
Thymus 460
Tinea 436–7
Tissue culture 557–59
Tobacco mosaic virus 439
Torpor 302
Touch 578
Toxins 434
Tracheae 103, 104, 599
Transcriptor factors 562
Transect 14–15, 52–3
Species 404–5
Technology and diversity 405
Transition fossils 362, 364
Translocation 123, 321–2
Transmission microscope 69
Transpiration 123, 320–1
Evaporation (transpiration)-tensioncohesion 321
Factors affecting its rate 145–6
Pull 320
The role of stomates 147
Transplants, organ 473–5, 559
Active 81, 331
In animals 113–15
Passive 81
In plants 120–4
Transposons 553
Trilobites 167
Triplet code 393
Trisomy 549
Trophic 38
Turgor pressure 83
Tympanic membrane 601
Undernutrition 480
Unicellular organisms 64, 71–3, 173–4
Upper cuticle 93
Uracil 503
Urban ecosystems 43
Urea 126–7
Urey, Harold 157
Urey-Miller experiment 157, 161
Uric acid 126
Urinary system 127
Urine 127
Urine concentration 334
Urine excretion in mammals and
fish 328–32
Urogenital surfaces 453
Vaccines 468, 471
Vacuoles 75
In evolution 232
In reproduction 387–90
Varicose veins 116
Vascular bundles 123
Vectors of disease 425
Vegetation distribution 52–3
Veins 309–10
Animal 118
Plant 109, 123
Vertebrates 113–15, 116, 118–19
Virchow, Rudolph 65, 157
Virion 449
Viroids 439
Viruses 431–2
Viscosity 21
Changes 594–5
Colour 616
Colour blindness 594–5
And communication 615–17
Day and night 596
Depth perception 597
The process 592–8
Visual acuity in humans 615–16
Visual association area 612
Vitamins 87
Types and functions 88
Vitreous humour 584
Volume (See Surface area to volume
And the transmission of disease 425
Transportation in plants 122–3
Watson, James 393, 413
Weevils 439
Wegener, Alfred 160, 213
White clover 513
Whittaker, R.H. 195
Whooping cough 470
Wilkins, Maurice 393, 413
Wilson, J. Tuzo 160
Woese, Carl 195
Woodland ecosystems 227
Xerophytes 341
Xylem 121–3, 134, 320–1
Yeasts 71
Zygotes 249
Wallace, Alfred 366, 369–70
Walls, of blood vessels 309–10
Waste 43, 91, 126
Waste products
Importance for their removal 325–6
Of insects and terrestrial
mammals 327
Of terrestrial and aquatic
organisms 326–7
Urine excretion in mammals and
fish 328–32
Water (See also Aquatic, environments;
Marine environments)
Absorbance spectrum 25–6
Availability of 22
Cycle 31
Drinking 426
Importance in living things 325
Loss in plants 108–9, 340–3
And organic molecules 87–8
Pollution 44–6
Potential in transpiration 320
Pressure variations 23–4
Required by living things 87
Role in living systems 87–8
Solvent of plasma 309
Biology in Context: The Spectrum of Life
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