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Animal Skeleton and External Anatomy

Animal Science
Mr. Chad Warnick
Skeleton: Overview
 The skeletal system consists of the bones and
joints along with the cartilage and ligaments
that occur at the joints.
 Bones: Hard Tissue, mostly calcium,
provides support and makes Red Blood Cells
 Ligaments: Strong, white bands of tissue
that connect two bones together at a joint
Skeleton: Overview
 Cartilage: Hard tissue that prevents bones
from grinding against each other.
 Joints: Location of where two or more bones
 Tendon: Connects muscle to bone.
1. Functions of the Skeleton
 The skeleton supports the body.
 The skeleton protects soft body parts.
 The skeleton produces blood cells.
 The skeleton stores minerals and fats.
 The skeleton (along with the muscles) permits
flexible body movements.
2. Classification of bones
 Bones are classified according to their shape.
 Long (Longer then they are wide)
 Short (Cube shapes, about equal lengths and
 Flat (Platelike and have a broad suface)
 Irregular (Varied shapes with many
 Round (Circular shape)
2. Classification of bones
Long Bones- Longer then they are
Longest bones providing support for
the body giving it the rigidity
(hardness) necessary to stand and
EX: Canon
Bone, Pelvic,
Long bones can act as levers
2. Classification of bones
Short Bones- (Cube shapted;
lengths and widths are about equal.
Found in the joints and serve as
hinges. They help cushion shock
and protect long bones.
Hoofs & Feet
2. Classification of bones
Flat Bones (Platelike and have
broad surfaces)
EX: Skull
2. Classification of bones
Irregular Bones- (Varied shapes
with many places for connections
with other bones)
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone
 Periosteum
 Outer
 Cushions the hard
portion of the bone
 Repair of broken
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone
 Compact Bone
 Beneath
 Layer of hard mineral matter
 Calcium
 Gives bones strength
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone
 Spongy Bone
 Inside
hard outer layer
 Fills ends of bones
 Lines hollow portions
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone
 Red marrow
 Inside
cavities of spongy
 Formation of red blood cells
3. Anatomy of a Long Bone
 Yellow marrow
 Located
inside hollow
 Fat storage cells
 Energy storage
4. Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
 The skeleton is divided into the axial skeleton and the
appendicular skeleton
Important Terms Related to the
Skeletons can be divided into two
sections, which include
a. Axial Skeleton.
b. Appendicular skeleton
4. Axial and Skeleton
 The axial skeleton lies in the midline of the body and
contains the bones of the skull, the vertebral column,
and the thoracic cage. (Colored Orange)
Vertebrae are divided into five regions
Cervical Vertebrae-The section in the neck from the
skull to the first rib.
Thoracic-extends along the rib cage. Each of these
has a rib attached to each side.
Lumbar-The area of the spinal column from the
last rib to the pelvis. Also referred to as the loin.
Sacral-Extends through the pelvic area.
Coccygeal- The vertebrae that continue from
the pelvis to the end of the tail.
4. Appendicular Skeleton
 Contains the bones of the fore and rear limbs.
5. Joints
Bones are joined together at joints. In
most instances bones can articulate
at the joints.
Classified by the way they move.
5. Joints
 Joints serve
as hinges
for the
5. Joints
 There are 4 types of joints we will discuss:
 Hinge
 Ball and Socket
 Hip
 Gliding
 Vertebrae
 Fixed ( Cartliaginous)
 Skull
5. Joints - Hinge
5. Joints - Ball & Socket
5. Joints - Gliding
5. Joints - Fixed
Formation of Bones
 Bone is comprised of:
 26% minerals (mostly calcium phosphate and calcium
 50% is water
 4% is fat
 20% is protein
 Bone requires adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
in the ration.
Choose a species
Horse Skeleton
Chicken Skeleton
Horse Skeleton
Unlabeled Horse Skeleton
The skeletal system provides support for the
The skeletal system provides support for the
Skeleton of a Cow
Skeleton of a Cow
1. Cannon
2. Knee joint
3. Radius
4. Sternum
5. Elbow joint
6. Ulna
7. Humerus
8. Shoulder joint
9. Shoulder blade
10. Eye socket
11. Horn cones
12. Cervical vertebrae
13. Dorsal vertebrae
Skeleton of a Cow
14. Lumber vertebrae
15. Sacrum
16. Hip Bone
17. Caudal vertebrae
18. Hip Joint
19. Femur
20. Knee joint
21. Tibia
22. Hock joint
23. Ribs
24. Pasterns
25. Coronary
Skeleton of a Horse
Skeleton of a Horse
1. Thoracic vertebrae
2. Lumbar vertebrae
3. Sacrum
4. Shaft of Ilium
5. Coccygeal vertebrae
6. Hip joint
7. Femur
8. Patella
9. Tibia
10. Fibula
11. Tarsus
12. Metatarsus
13. Stifle
14. Pubis
15. False ribs
16. True ribs
Skeleton of a Horse
17. Proximal sesamoid bones
18. Ulna
19. Coffin joint
20. Pastern joint
21. Fetlock joint
22. Metacarpus
23. Carpus
24. Radius
25. Elbow joint
26. Sternum
27. Humerus
28. Shoulder joint
29. Scapula
30. Mandible
31. Facial bones
32. Cranial bones
33. Cervical vertebrae
Skeleton of a Fowl
Skeleton of a Fowl
1. Incisive
2. Nasal
3. Occipital
4. Ulula
5. Ulna
6. Radius
7. Scapula
8. Fused Ribs
9. Ilium
10. Pygostyle
11. Ischium
12. Pubis
Skeleton of a Fowl
13. Femur
14. Fibula
15. Tibia
16. Metatarsus
17. Sternum
18. Patella
19. Coracoid
20. Clavicle
21. Cervical vertebrae
22. Mandible
23. Humerus
Horse Skeleton
Chicken Skeleton
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