Unit 2: Reformation & Religious Wars Protestant Reformation Martin Luther Roman Catholic Church French Wars of Religion England Thirty Years’ War Protestant Reformation Martin Luther Roman Catholic Church French Wars of Religion England Thirty Years’ War 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 Protestant Reformation Where was the Protestant Reformation strongest? Protestant Reformation Answer: Germany, Switzerland, and Netherlands Protestant Reformation Why did other religions condemn the Anabaptists? Protestant Reformation Answer: Because of their belief in the separation of church and state and adult baptism Protestant Reformation Council of Trent? Protestant Reformation Answer: A meeting of the Council of Christiandom in order to fix the religious differences from conflict in the Protestant revolts Protestant Reformation What did Calvinism emphasize? Protestant Reformation Answer: “Predestination” and banning the display of the Church’s wealth Protestant Reformation What did the Protestant Reformation encourage in changes of the status of women? What was not ‘encouraged’? Protestant Reformation Answer: More compassionate marriage, better education for women, more sensitivity by husbands, and more grounds for divorce for women. Nunneries to escape wife beating. Martin Luther What was Luther’s response to the Peasant Revolts? Martin Luther Answer: He denounced the call for social revolution and embraced the German noble classes Martin Luther What are the basic principles to Lutheranism? Martin Luther Answer: Salvation by faith alone, authority of the Bible, and the ministry of all believers Martin Luther What was the Marburg Colloquy and what did Luther and Zwingli disagree with? Martin Luther Answer: A meeting between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli to discuss their disputes. Their main disagreement was on the presence of Christ in the Eucharist Martin Luther What is the 95 Thesis? Martin Luther Answer: Luther’s book, which held Luther’s ideology and teachings (this broke him away from the RCC) Martin Luther What is the Diet of Worms and what occurred from it? Martin Luther Answer: The imperial meeting where Luther was charged with heresy. In it, Luther’s teachings (95 Thesis) was banned along with him being excommunicated. Roman Catholic Church What was not a response to the Protestant Reformation by the RCC? Roman Catholic Church Answer: The abolition of the Index of Prohibited Books Roman Catholic Church What is the Benefice System? Roman Catholic Church Answer: A system where permanent ecclesiastical positions could be sold to the highest bidder Roman Catholic Church Explains that the bread and wine consumed in communion is the body and blood of Christ Roman Catholic Church Answer: Transubstantiation Roman Catholic Church Johann Tetzel? Roman Catholic Church Answer: A German-Catholic priest who began to sell indulgences, the ‘guarantee’ of a deceased soul ascending to Heaven, even after death Roman Catholic Church What is the Catholic Counter-Reformation? Roman Catholic Church Answer: The RCC’s fight against the Protestant Reformation by reforming the Catholic Church internally French Wars Of Religion True or False: A significant percentage of the French aristocracy aligned itself with the Huguenots (regarding French Calvinist). French Wars Of Religion Answer: True French Wars Of Religion Explain the presence of the Huguenots in France. French Wars Of Religion Answer: The Huguenots formed in France after Besancon Hugues’ political revolt against the House of Savoy. The Huguenots remained under surveillance as Lutheran doctrine spread throughout France (were also seen as a threat after the capture of Francis I by Charles V). French Wars Of Religion This event was caused by Catherine de Medici and exemplified the hatred between the French Protestants and Catholics French Wars Of Religion Answer: St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre French Wars Of Religion What group was instrumental in ending the Wars of Religion? French Wars Of Religion Answer: The Politiques French Wars of Religion What did the Edict of Nantes state and what treaty supported it? French Wars Of Religion Answer: It stated that the Huguenots had the freedom of worship, the right of assembly, admission to public office and universities, and had permission to establish and defend towns. The Treaty of Vervins supported it. England What was the Act of Supremacy of 1534? England Answer: It gave Henry VIII and Elizabeth I the title “The Supreme Governor of this realm” (although Elizabeth, being a politique, never accepted this title) England What happened on May 30, 1587? England Answer: The Spanish Armada attempted to invade England, but failed with Elizabeth’s army destroyed the Armada. In result, Spain suffered great economic loss and was no longer a great European power. England Why did Elizabeth want to prevent the Spanish from invading the Netherlands? England Answer: She feared that the Spanish could use the Netherlands as a staging area for an invasion of England England SKIP England SKIP England In religious affairs, Elizabeth I followed a policy that… England Answer: was a middle course between English Protestants and Catholics Thirty Years’ War By the 16th century, what was the status of the HRE (Germany)? Thirty Years’ War Answer: It was fragmented into 360 provinces, most of which were independent and ecclesiastical principalities. The German princes also wanted to make changes such as opposing the efforts to consolidate the region. Thirty Years’ War Explain the relationship of the German Catholics and Protestants in terms of religious division. Thirty Years’ War Answer: Lutherans in 16th century Germany were able to gain political control over few Catholic areas. In response, Catholics demanded that those who converted from Catholicism to Lutheranism would be stripped of their positions in government. Thirty Years’ War What did Maximilian of Bavaria do in order to cause the war? Thirty Years’ War Answer: In 1609, he created the Catholic League to counter the Protestant Alliance formed by Frederick IV (led by Johann von Tilly) Thirty Years’ War What are the main motives for participation in the war (Christian IV, Richelieu, and Gustavus Adolphus II)? Thirty Years’ War Answer: Christian IV: To extend Danish influence over the costal towns of the North Sea. Richelieu: To protect French interests by keeping the Hapsburg army tied down in Germany. Gustavus Adolphus II: To defend the Protestants & their beliefs and to destroy the threats of the Hapsburgs Thirty Years’ War What were the outcomes of the 30 Years’ War? Thirty Years’ War Answer: The establishment of the Treaty of Augsburg and Westphalia, the loss of one-third of Germany’s population, France becoming the European superpower, and the German princes having more power.
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