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acido 3α, 7α-diidrossicolanico

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1
2
CoA-SH
ADP
ATP + Pi
sintesi del
colesterolo
acetil-CoA
citrato
liasi
citrato
ossalacetato
citosol
trasp. citrato
mitocondrio
citrato
sintasi
citrato
ossalacetato
CoA-SH
acetil-CoA
aminoacidi
glucoso
piruvato
piruvato
acidi grassi
acetato
acetaldeide
etanolo
3
citosol:
4
citrato
trasp. citrato
citrato
5
ret. endopl.:
6
perossisomi:
7
perossisomi:
8
isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase
tail
head
9
10
perossisomi:
11
ret. endopl.:
12
ret. endopl.:
13
ret. endopl.:
zymosterol
19 steps
7-dehydrocolesterol
desmosterol
cholesterol
14
mevalonato
Bilancio:
18 acetil-CoA
18 ATP
16 NADPH
isopentenil-PP
isopentenil-PP
farnesil-PP
dimetilallil-PP
unità isoprenoidi attivate
geranil-PP
monoterpene
farnesil-PP
sesquiterpene
squalene
triterpene
lanosterolo
dieta:
300-500
mg/die
sintesi:
800 mg/die
colesterolo
15
O
C
S-CoA
+
HO
acil-CoA
colesterolo
acil-CoA colesterolo
aciltransferasi
(ACAT)
HS-CoA
+
colesterolo
O
C
O
estere del colesterolo
16
O
O
C
H2 C
O
C
C
H
O
H 2C
O
P
O
O CH2
CH2
CH3
N CH3
+
HO
CH3
O
colesterolo
fosfatidilcolina (lecitina)
lecitina colesterolo
aciltransferasi
(LCAT)
O
H2 C
HO
C
H 2C
O
C
H
O
O
P
O
lisolecitina
O CH2
CH2
CH3
N CH3
CH3
+
O
C
O
estere del colesterolo
17
AMP
AMPK
PP1
PKA
allosteric inhibition
covalent inhibition
increased proteolysis
decreased expression
decreased expression
18
S1P, S2P = proteases
SRE = sterol
regulatory element
SREBPs = sterol regulatory element-binding proteins
SCAP = SREBP cleavage-activating protein
INSIG = insulin induced gene
19
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
HMGCoA synthase
HMGCoA reductase
farnesylPP synthase
squalene synthase
fatty acids synthase
acetylCoA carboxylase
stearoylCoA desaturase
glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase
LDL-R
lipoproteinlipase
20
21
statine:
22
23
400 mg are converted into bile acids, 50 mg into steroid hormones and the remaining
part is eliminated as cholesterol through the intestine
colestanolo (colestan-3-olo):
HO
H
coprostanolo (coprostan-3-olo):
HO
24
H
Acidi biliari primari:
O
C
OH
OH
acido colico (acido 3, 7, 12-triidrossicolanico):
OH
H
OH
O
C
OH
acido chenodesossicolico o antropodesossicolico
(acido 3, 7-diidrossicolanico):
OH
H
OH
25
Acidi biliari secondari:
O
OH
C
OH
acido desossicolico
(acido 3, 12-diidrossicolanico):
OH
H
O
C
OH
acido litocolico (acido 3-idrossicolanico):
OH
H
26
CH 2 OH
C
O
OH
HO
O
cortisolo
CH 3
C
CH 2 OH
H
O
O
C
C
O
HO
HO
O
colesterolo
O
progesterone
aldosterone
OH
OH
HO
O
testosterone
27
estradiolo
acidi biliari
ormoni steroidei
vitamina D
colesterolo
dolicoli
fitolo (clorofilla)
gomma, olii essenziali
isopentenil-PP
ubichinone
isoprenilazione di proteine
vitamina K
vitamina E
carotenoidi
vitamina A
28
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