By submitting this extended abstract to IMC44 I confirm that (i) I and any other coauthor(s) are responsible for its content and its originality; (ii) any possible coauthors agreed to its submission to IMC44. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR SINE-GORDON EQUATION WITH LOCAL RBF-BASED FINITE DIFFERENCE COLLOCATION METHOD YAQUB AZARI AND GHOLAMREZA GARMANJANI AND HAMED RABIEI1 1 School of Mathematics, Iran University of Science and Technology Narmak, Tehran 16844-13114, Iran [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] Abstract. This paper presents the local radial basis function based on finite difference (LRBF-FD) for the sine-Gordon equation. Some advantages of the proposed method are that this method is mesh free unlike finite difference (FD) and finite element (FE) methods, and its coefficient matrix is sparse and well-conditioned as compared with the global RBF collocation method (GRBF). Numerical results show that the LRBF-FD method has good accuracy as compared with GRBF. 1. Introduction We consider the generalized one-dimensional sine-Gordon equation в€‚ 2u в€‚u в€‚ 2u + ОІ = в€’ f (x, t, u), a < x < b, t в‰Ґ 0, в€‚t2 в€‚t в€‚x2 with the initial conditions (1.1) u(x, 0) = h(x), ut (x, 0) = g(x), a в‰¤ x в‰¤ b, 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 65M22. Key words and phrases. Sine-Gordon Equation, Local RBF-based finite difference (LRBF-FD), Global RBF collocation. 1 2 AZARI AND GARMANJANI AND RABIEI and with boundary conditions u(a, t) = p(t), u(b, t) = q(t), t в‰Ґ 0. (1.2) In this paper, we develop the local RBF based finite difference (LRBFFD) for the solution of Eq. (??) and the results are compared with the solutions obtained by global RBF collocation (GRBF). In the local RBF method, the function derivatives are approximated at each node in terms of the function value on a set of points in local stencils. This makes flexibility in choosing these stencils [?]. 1.1. RBF interpolation. RBFs are widely used for scattered data interpolation. Given (xj , uj ) j = 1, ..., N with xj в€€ Rd , uj в€€ R, the standard interpolation problem is to find an interpolant as N О»j П†( x в€’ xj ), uЛњ(x) = (1.3) j=1 where П† is a radial basis function and . denotes the Euclidean distance between points x, xj , and О»j , 1 в‰¤ j в‰¤ N are unknown RBF coefficients. The following conditions are imposed on the approximation uЛњ(x), uЛњ(xj ) = u(xj ), j = 1, . . . , N, leading to a system of equations which can be written in matrix form as AО» = u, where A = (П†( xi в€’ xj )), i, j = 1, . . . , N, T T . u = u(x1 ) . . . u(xN ) , О» = О»1 . . . О»N The existence and uniqueness of solution of the above system are guaranteed when П† is a positive definite function. 1.2. The Local RBF method based on finite difference(LRBFFD). Let L is differential operator. The finite difference method approximates derivatives of a function u(x) at point x = xi by n Lu(xi ) в€ј = w(i,j) u(xj ) (1.4) j=1 where w(i,j) are called the finite difference(FD) weights at node points xi . The unknown coefficients w(i,j) are obtained by using polynomial interpolation or Taylor series[?]. In the RBF-FD approach the weights of the FD formulas are obtained by using the RBF interpolation technique. To derive these weights the interpolant (??) is n considered in a Lagrangian form as s(x) = j=1 П€j (x)u(xj ), where П€j (xk ) = Оґjk , k = 1, ..., N . Using this method, we determine the approximated derivative for each LRBF-FD METHOD FOR SINE-GORDON EQUATION 3 interior node in a local support region. Support region for interior node is defined as support region (xi ) = {xj | 0 в‰¤ xj в€’ xi в‰¤ R} i = 2, ..., N в€’ 1. To derive LRBF-FD formula, for example at the node x1 , we approximate the differential operator using the Lagrangian from of the RBF interpolant i.e., n Lu(x1 ) в‰€ Ls(x1 ) = LП€j (x1 )u(xj ), (1.5) j=1 where n is the number of the nodes in support region of x1 . From (??) and (??) we get w(1,i) = LП€i (x1 ). The number of points in support regions can be variable and this property makes the method flexible. Once the LRBF-FD method is applied to discretize the spatial derivatives in the governing Equation (??) and approximating RBF weights for L в‰Ў в€‚xв€‚ 2 we obtain at any interior node xi , i = 2, ..., N в€’ 1, n un+1 в€’ 2uni + unв€’1 un+1 в€’ unв€’1 i i i i +ОІ = Оё( w(i,j) un+1 (xj )) 2 (dt) 2(dt) j=1 (1.6) n w(i,j) un (xj )) в€’ f (xi , tn , uni ), +(1 в€’ Оё)( j=1 where n is the number of nodes in support region. Equation (??) is written for each interior node. Substitruting the function value u1 , uN from the boundary conditions (??) leads to a system of equations which can be written in matrix form as Au = B, where u is the vector of the unknown function values at whole of the interior nodes at t = tn+1 and B is the vector of the right hand of the Equation(??) along with the boundary terms.Note that matrix A is sparse and well-conditioned and can hence be effectively inverted. 2. Main results We present some numerical results to illustrate the applicability and justify the accuracy and efficiency of our presented method. Some RBFs contain the parameter c that is shape parameter which plays an important role in the application of RBF methods. There is experimental evidence that shows the accuracy of RBF methods significantly depend on the amount of this shape parameter, but choosing of the optimal shape parameter for any equation is open problem yet [?]. In 4 AZARI AND GARMANJANI AND RABIEI Table 1. The errors of resulting solution of LRBF-FD and GRBF methods with N = 40, dt = 0.001 ,and Оё = 12 t 1 2 3 4 5 R = 1h 1.77e-3 1.39e-3 8.09e-4 3.74e-4 1.28e-4 LRBF в€’ F D R = 3h 8.05e-5 6.98e-5 4.74e-5 2.86e-5 1.60e-5 GRBF R = 5h 6.48e-6 4.37e-6 2.92e-6 1.76e-6 9.85e-7 8.17e-4 4.12e-4 2.55e-4 1.92e-4 1.34e-4 order to analyze the error of the method, we consider Lв€ћ error as Lв€ћ = u(x, t) в€’ uN (x, t) в€ћ = max |u(xi , t) в€’ uN (xi , t)|, 1в‰¤iв‰¤N where uN is numerical solution. Example 2.1. We consider Equation (??) with a = 0, b = 1, ОІ = 1 and f (x, t, u) = 2 sin u+ПЂ 2 exp(в€’t) cos(ПЂx)в€’2 sin(exp(в€’t)(1в€’cos(ПЂx))), u(x, 0) = 1 в€’ cos(ПЂx) 0 в‰¤ x в‰¤ 1 with the initial conditions ut (x, 0) = в€’1 + cos(ПЂx) 0 в‰¤ x в‰¤ 1 The exact solution is derived in [?] as u(x, t) = exp(в€’t)(1 в€’ cos(ПЂx)). The computed solutions are compared with the exact solution at equidistant points.The Lв€ћ errors are tabulated in Table (??). It can be seen that numerical results obtained from LRBF-FD method is in good agreement with exact solution in contrast to the GRBF method. References 1. M. Cui, Fourth-Order Compact Scheme for the One-Dimensional Sine-Gordon Equation, Numer. Methods Partial Differential Equations. 25 (2009), no. 3, 685вЂ“ 711. 2. B. Fornberg, Calculation of weights in finite difference formulas, SIAM Reviews, 40(1998)685-691. 3. j. Rashidinia, Y. Azari, G. Garmanjani, Numerical solution of the nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind by radial basis functions, The 43re Iranian Mathematics Conferencs, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. (2012). 4. C. Shu, H. Ding, K.S. Yeo, Local radial basis function-based differential quadrature method and its application to solve two-dimensional incompressible NavierStokes equations, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 192(2003)941954.

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