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時制の概念 過去 現在 未来 基本形 進行形 完了形 名詞節と

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増田塾 直前特別講義
○時制の概念
過去
現在
未来
基本形
進行形
完了形
○名詞節と副詞節
名詞節
I don’t know it will be fine tomorrow.
副詞節
I will visit Lake Biwa if it is fine tomorrow.
○例題
(1)
(2)
I think he (
) his father.
a. resembles
b. is resembling
c. resembles to
d. resembles with
Normally he lives in London, but at present he (
a. will live
(3)
Water (
b. lives
They (
c. is living
d. lived
) at a temperature of 100 degrees centigrade.
a. boils
(4)
) in Boston.
b. is boiling
c. was boiling
d. use to boil
c. left
d. are leaving
) for London tomorrow.
a. will leaving
b. are leave
増田塾 直前特別講義
(5)
(6)
One of the boys (
a. drowned
b. was drowned
c. was drowning
d. had drowned
Mahatma Gandhi, the apostle of nonviolence, (
a. has been born
(7)
b. is born
The teacher told us that honesty (
a. be
(8)
(10)
(12)
(14)
d. were
) back.
c. coming
a. know
b. will have known
c. have known
d. have been knowing
My father (
) for forty years.
b. has been dead
If David climbs Mt. Fuji tomorrow, he (
c. was killed
b. has climbed
c. will have climbed
d. had climbed
Her brother (
d. is dying
) it three times.
a. climbs
) his car stolen yesterday.
b. had
c. has been
I’ve never heard you are in this town. How long (
d. has had
)
a. were you here?
b. had you been here?
c. are you here?
d. have you been here?
I(
d. will come
) each other since we were children.
a. was
(13)
c. to be
b. to come
a. died
(11)
d. was born
) the best policy.
I don’t know when Mrs. Thompson (
We (
) in 1869.
c. had been born
b. is
a. come
(9)
), but I dived in and saved him.
) in Kyoto for three years when I was a child.
a. live
b. have been
c. have lived
d. lived
増田塾 直前特別講義
(15)
It is impossible to tell when they (
a. will visit
(16)
I would like to buy that book, but I (
a. do not have
(17)
b. are visited
b. did not have
) us again.
c. will have visited
) enough money.
c. had not have
Do you have time to discuss your work now, or are you (
a. about
b. at
d. had visited
d. was not had
) to leave?
c. for
d. off
(18)
My (a)elder brother (b)is belonging (c)to (d)his company’s basketball team.
(19)
Mr. and Mrs. Harris (a)are (b)an American couple who (c)has settled in Japan (d)more than twenty
years ago.
(20)
They appointed Mr. Lee (a)to the post of manager (b)last May, and he (c)is in charge (d)ever since.
増田塾
自習用演習課題
直前特別授業
時制
問.次の英文の空所に入れるのに最も適当な語句を、次の1)~4)の中から1つずつ選びなさい。
01)
One of the boys(
1) drowns
02)
Simon(
1) made
04)
06)
2) had made
2) has died
08)
3) is dead
4) has been dead
3) will have left
4) will leave
3) were known
4) were knowing
) since last week.
2) rained
3) has been raining
2) took
3) was taking
2) have finished
Let’s go hiking if it(
4) will rain
Do you think he (
1) resembles
)a shower.
4) has taken
)reading it.
3) had finished
4) are finishing
) fine tomorrow.
2) will be
3) has been
“Shall we start the party without her?” -
1) will arrive
12)
2) have known
Please return the book when you (
1) is
11)
4) was making
Tetsuya didn’t hear the doorbell when his visitors arrived, because he (
1) will finish
10)
3) has made
) each other since 1976.
I am tired of rain. It(
1) has been taking
09)
4) has joined
).
2) will be leaving
John and Mary(
1) is raining
3) would join
)for three years.
1) have been knowing
07)
4) drowned
) 12 films, and I think his latest is the best.
Please lock the door when you(
1) leave
3) was drowning
) us.
2) will join
My mother (
1) died
05)
2) has drowned
I never expected that she(
1) joins
03)
),but I dived in and saved him.
2) may arrive
4) was
“No, let’s start when she(
).”
3) arrived
4) arrives
3) resembles to
4) resembles with
)his father?
2) is resembling
増田塾
13)
He (
)home just now. Didn’t you know that?
1) has come
14)
2) had come
I have no idea when he(
1) comes
15)
3) came
3) coming
Please remain seated until the aircraft(
2) will come
How long (
4) been coming
) next time.
2) has come
1) has come
16)
直前特別授業
4) will come
) to a complete stop.
3) will have come
4) came
)here by the end of next year?
1) will you work
2) are you working
3) you will have worked
4) will you have been working
17)
Father usually (
1) is going
18)
I(
1) read
20)
21)
It (
2) was starting
2) was reading
3) has been reading
4) had been reading
)she last went back to her own country.
4) is over ten years since
She’ll write to me as soon as she (
Lisa (
2) will have got
)back to her own country.
3) gets
2) will be
3) will have
4) will have been
)on the problem for five hours, when she finally solved it.
3) has worked
- “Yes, I wonder when he (
2) returned
3) returns
She usually listens to the radio, but at the present moment she (
1) watches
4) got
)in Tokyo for three years by next April.
“Is Bill still using your car?”
1) has returned
25)
4) had started
)for an hour when he came in.
1) had been working 2) has been working
24)
3) has started
3) is more than ten years before
Jane (
4) had gone
)already.
2) is less than ten years as
1) is
23)
3) goes
1) has been over ten years after
1) will get
22)
2) was going
When Tom got to school, the lesson (
1) starts
19)
)to his office by bus.
2) is watching
3) has watched
4) is working
)it.
4) will return
)television.
4) had been watching
増田塾
自習用演習課題
時制
解答解説
解答
01)3
02)3
03)3
04)4
05)1
06)2
07)3
08)3
09)2
10)1
11)4
12)1
13)3
14)4
15)1
16)4
17)3
18)4
19)4
20)4
21)3
22)4
23)1
24)4
25)2
時制
直前特別授業
解説
01) 進行形の原義は「~している途中」。ここで使われているdrownは「溺死する」という自動詞。進
行形にすると、「溺死している途中」つまり「溺死しかける」という意味になる。
02) 時制の一致。主節のVが過去形なのでthat節内の時制もそれに合わせて過去形にする。
03) 現在完了の完了用法。後ろの「最新のものが最高だと思う」という文意を考えると、サイモンはこ
れまでに12本の映画を作ったのだということがわかる。
04) 直訳すると、「母は3年間死んだ状態である」という意味。つまり「3年前に死んだ」。deadは「死
んでいる」という意味の形容詞。My mother died three years ago. / Three years have passed since my
mother died. / It has been three years since my mother died. / It is three years since my mother died.
も同内容を表す表現として覚えておく。
05) 時・条件を表す副詞節中では、未来のことも現在形または現在完了形を用いて表現する。
06) 文末にあるsince 1976という表現から、完了形の継続用法であることを見抜く。状態動詞の継続は
have + Vp.p.で表現する。
07) since last weekという表現から、完了形の継続用法であることを見抜く。動作動詞の継続はhave +
been + Vingで表現する。
08) 進行形の原義は「~している途中」。「訪問者が訪れたとき、テツヤはシャワーを浴びている途中
だった」とすると文意が通る。
09) 時・条件を表す副詞節中では、未来のことも現在形または現在完了形を用いて表現する。
10) 時・条件を表す副詞節中では、未来のことも現在形または現在完了形を用いて表現する。
11) 時・条件を表す副詞節中では、未来のことも現在形または現在完了形を用いて表現する。
12) resembleは進行形不可。数秒毎に止めたり再開したりできるような動作は進行形可、それができな
い動詞は進行形不可。
13) just now「ついさっき」は、過去の一点を表す副詞。動詞は過去形を用いる。
14) when以下が、ideaの中身を表す同格の名詞句。名詞節中では、未来のことは未来形を用いる。
増田塾
直前特別授業
15) 時・条件を表す副詞節中では、未来のことも現在形または現在完了形を用いて表現する。
16) 文頭のHow longを見て、完了形の継続用法であることを見抜く。動作動詞の継続はhave + been +
Vingで表現する。未来完了であれば、その前にwillをつける。
17) usuallyという副詞があることから、本問は、習慣を表す文であることを見抜く。習慣や習性、不変
の真理といった、半永久的に続くものは現在形を用いる。
18) 授業が始まっているという状態が、トムが学校につく前に始まり、その状態が、トムが学校につい
た時まで続いていることから、過去完了を用いて表現する。
19) for an hourを見て、完了形の継続用法であることを見抜く。動作動詞の継続はhave + been + Ving
で表現する。過去完了であれば、had + been + Vingとする。
20) 04)の解説参照。
21) 時・条件を表す副詞節中では、未来のことも現在形または現在完了形を用いて表現する。
22) for three yearsを見て、完了形の継続用法であることを見抜く。動作動詞の継続はhave + been +
Vingで表現する。問題文にby next Aprilとあり未来の話をしていると判断できる。未来完了であれば、
その前にwillをつける。
23) for five hoursを見て、完了形の継続用法であることを見抜く。動作動詞の継続はhave + been + Ving
で表現する。問題文にwhen she finally solved itとあり、過去よりも前(大過去)の話だと判断でき
る。過去完了であれば、had + been + Vingとする。
24) when以下が、wonderの目的語になる名詞句。名詞節中では、未来のことは未来形を用いる。
25) at present「今は、目下」を見て、「~している途中」という進行形を選ぶことを見抜く。
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